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The Principality
Principality
of Orange (French: la Principauté d'Orange) was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, and surrounded by the independent papal state of Comtat Venaissin. It was constituted in 1163, when Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I elevated the Burgundian County of Orange (consisting of the city of Orange and the land surrounding it) to a sovereign principality within the Empire. The principality became part of the scattered holdings of the house of Orange-Nassau from the time that William I "the Silent" inherited the title of Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
from his cousin in 1544, until it was finally ceded to France
France
in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht. Although permanently lost by the Nassaus then, this fief gave its name to the extant Royal House of the Netherlands. The area of the principality was approximately 12 miles (19 km) long by 9 miles (14 km) wide, or 108 square miles (280 km2).[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Later uses

2 References 3 See also

History[edit] The Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the 8th century, and the fief passed into the family of the lords of Baux. The Baux counts of Orange became fully independent with the breakup of the Kingdom of Arles
Kingdom of Arles
after 1033. In 1163 Orange was raised to a principality, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1365, Orange university was founded by Charles IV when he was in Arles
Arles
for his coronation as king of Arles.

Orange within papal Comtat Venaissin
Comtat Venaissin
as of 1547

In 1431 the Count of Provence
Provence
waived taxation duties for Orange’s rulers ( Mary of Baux-Orange and Jean de Châlons of Burgundy) in exchange for liquid assets to be used for a ransom. The town and principality of Orange was a part of administration and province of Dauphiné. In 1544, William I "the Silent", count of Nassau, with large properties in the Netherlands, inherited the title Prince of Orange. William, 11 years old at the time, was the cousin of René of Châlon who died without an heir when he was shot at St. Dizier in 1544 during the Franco-Imperial wars. René, it turned out, willed his entire fortune to this very young relative. Among those titles and estates was the Principality
Principality
of Orange. René’s mother, Claudia, had held the title prior to it being passed to young William since Philibert de Châlon was her brother. When William inherited the Principality, it was incorporated into the holdings of what became the House of Orange. This pitched it into the Protestant
Protestant
side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568 the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
began with William as Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of Holland leading the bid for independence of the Netherlands from Spain. William the Silent
William the Silent
was assassinated in Delft in 1584. It was his son, Maurice of Nassau ( Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
after his elder brother died in 1618), with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, who solidified the independence of the Dutch republic. As an independent enclave within France, Orange became an attractive destination for Protestants and a Huguenot
Huguenot
stronghold. William III of Orange, who ruled England as William III of England, was the last Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
to rule the principality. The principality was captured by the forces of Louis XIV under François Adhémar de Monteil Comte de Grignan, in 1672 during the Franco-Dutch War, and again in August 1682, but William did not concede his claim to rule. In 1702, William III died childless and the right to the principality became a matter of dispute between Frederick I of Prussia
Frederick I of Prussia
and John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz, who both claimed the title 'Prince of Orange'. In 1702 also, Louis XIV of France
France
enfeoffed François Louis, Prince of Conti, a relative of the Châlon dynasty, with the Principality
Principality
of Orange, so that there were three claimants to the title. Finally in 1713 in the Treaty of Utrecht, Frederick I of Prussia
Frederick I of Prussia
ceded the Principality
Principality
to France
France
(without surrendering the princely title) in which cession the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as suzerain concurred, though John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz, the other claimant to the principality, did not concur. Only in 1732, with the Treaty of Partage, did John William'is successor William IV renounce all his claims to the territory, but again (like Frederick I) he did not renounce his claim to the title. In the same treaty an agreement was made between both claimants, stipulating that both houses be allowed to use the title. In 1713, after Orange was officially ceded to France, it became a part of the Province of the Dauphiné. Following the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme
Drôme
in 1790, then Bouches-du-Rhône, then finally Vaucluse. In 1814 after the defeat of Napoleon, the United Provinces was not revived but replaced into the Kingdom of the United Netherlands, under a King of the House of Orange-Nassau. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna took care of a French sensitivity by stipulating that the Kingdom of the Netherlands would be ruled by the House of Oranje-Nassau
House of Oranje-Nassau
– "Oranje", not "Orange" as had been the custom until then. The English language, however, continues to use the term Orange-Nassau.[2] Nowadays, both Georg Friedrich of Prussia and Dutch crown princess Amalia carry the title "Prince(ss) of Orange", Amalia in the official form of Prinses van Oranje. Later uses[edit]

People dressed in orange in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
during Queen's Day in 2007

Due to its connection with the Dutch royal family, Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Orange River and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
in South Africa, and Orange County in the U.S. state of New York. The orange portion of the flag of Ireland, invented in 1848, represents Irish Protestants, who were grateful for their rescue by William III of England
William III of England
in 1689–1691. The flag of New York City and the flag of Albany, New York (which was originally known as Fort Orange) also each have an orange stripe to reflect the Dutch origins of those cities. The color orange is still the national color of the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Dutch flag originally had an orange stripe instead of a red, and today an orange pennant is still flown above the flag on Koningsdag. Dutch national sports teams usually compete in orange, and a wide variety of orange-colored items are displayed by Dutch people on occasions of national pride or festivity. The flag of South Africa
South Africa
from 1928 to 1994 had an orange upper stripe and was very similar to the old Dutch flag also called Prince's Flag, because it was inspired in the history of the Afrikaners, who are chiefly of Dutch descent. The town of Orange, Connecticut, is named after the principality. References[edit]

^ George Ripley And Charles A. Dana (1873). The New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete. article on Principality
Principality
of Orange: D. Appleton And Company.  ^ Couvée, D.H.; G. Pikkemaat (1963). 1813-15, ons koninkrijk geboren. Alphen aan den Rijn: N. Samsom nv. pp. 119–139. 

See also[edit]

Prince of Orange Orange (word)

Coordinates: 44°08′N 4°49′E / 44.14°N 4.81°

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