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Princess Mary of Great Britain
Princess Mary of Great Britain
(5 March 1723 – 14 January 1772) was the second-youngest daughter of King George II of Great Britain
George II of Great Britain
and his wife Caroline of Ansbach, and Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel
Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel
as the wife of Landgrave Frederick II.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Marriage 3 Titles, styles, honours and arms

3.1 Titles and styles 3.2 Arms

4 Issue 5 Ancestors 6 References 7 Sources

Early life[edit]

Princess Mary

Princess Mary was born at Leicester House, Westminster, London.[2] Her father was the Prince of Wales, later King George II. Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.[2] Her father succeeded, as George II, on 11 June 1727, and she became HRH The Princess Mary. Upon her death in 1737, her mother, queen Caroline, entrusted Mary to her elder sister Caroline, urging her to "do what she could to support the meek and mild disposition of Princess Mary".[3] Marriage[edit] A marriage was negotiated with Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel, the only son and heir of William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.[4] For the marriage, Parliament voted Mary £40,000.[4] They married by proxy at the Chapel Royal of St. James's Palace
St. James's Palace
in London
London
on 8 May, then in person on 28 June 1740 at Kassel.[2] They had four sons, three of whom survived to adulthood.[4] The marriage was unhappy, and Frederick was said to be "brutal" and "a boor". Frederick reportedly subjected Mary to spousal abuse.[5] In late 1746, Mary made an extended trip to Britain to escape his maltreatment. The couple separated in 1754 on Frederick's conversion to Roman Catholicism. She was supported by her father-in-law, who provided her with a residence in Hanau, as she did not wish to return to Great Britain, but to stay on the continent to raise her children.[6] In 1756, Mary moved to Denmark, to take care of the children of her sister, Louise of Great Britain, who had died in 1751. She took her children with her, and they were raised at the royal court and her sons were married to Danish princesses. Her husband succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse- Kassel
Kassel
in 1760, and so Mary was technically Landgravine consort for the last twelve years of her life, despite her estrangement from her husband. Mary died on 14 or 16 January 1772, aged 48 at Hanau, Germany.[2] Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit] Titles and styles[edit]

5 March 1723 – 11 June 1727: Her Royal Highness Princess Mary [7] 11 June 1727 – 8 May 1740: Her Royal Highness The Princess Mary 8 May 1740 – 25 March 1751: Her Royal Highness Princess Frederick of Hesse-Kassel 25 March 1751 - 1 February 1760: Her Royal Highness The Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Kassel 1 February 1760 – 14 January 1772: Her Royal Highness The Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel

Arms[edit] On 30 August 1727, as a child of the sovereign, Mary was granted use of the arms of the realm, differenced by a label argent of three points, each bearing a canton gules.[8]

Issue[edit]

Name Birth Death Notes

Prince William of Hesse-Kassel 1741 1742 died in infancy

William I, Elector of Hesse 1743 1821 married, 1763, Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark and Norway; had issue

Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel 1744 1836 married, 1766, Louise of Denmark; had issue

Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel 1747 1837 married, 1786, Caroline of Nassau-Usingen; had issue

Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Princess Mary of Great Britain

16. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

8. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover

17. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt

4. George I of Great Britain

18. Frederick V, Elector Palatine

9. Sophia, Princess Palatine of the Rhine

19. Elizabeth of Scotland

2. George II of Great Britain

20. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(= 16)

10. George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

21. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt (= 17)

5. Duchess Sophia Dorothea of Celle

22. Alexander II d'Olbreuse

11. Eleonore d'Esmier d'Olbreuse

23. Jacquette Poussard de Vendre

1. Princess Mary of Great Britain

24. Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach

12. Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach

25. Countess Sophie of Solms-Laubach

6. John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach

26. Joachim Ernest, Count of Oettingen

13. Princess Sophia Margaret of Oettingen-Oettingen

27. Countess Anna Sibylle of Solms-Sonnenwald

3. Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach

28. William, Duke of Saxe-Weimar

14. John George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach

29. Princess Eleonore Dorothea of Anhalt-Dessau

7. Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach

30. Ernest of Sayn-Wittgenstein

15. Princess Johanetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein

31. Countess Luise Juliane of Erbach

References[edit]

^ The Peerage – Landgrave William VIII ^ a b c d Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families, The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5.  ^ Michael A. Beatty: The English Royal Family of America, from Jamestown to the American Revolution ^ a b c Williamson, David (2004). "Mary, Princess (1723–1772)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18253. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ James Panton:Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy ^ James Panton:Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy ^ The London
London
Gazette[permanent dead link] refers to her as "Princess Mary" ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family

Sources[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Princess Mary of Great Britain.

 Rigg, James McMullen (1893). "Mary (1723-1772)". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co.  Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families, The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5.  Williamson, David (2004). "Mary, Princess (1723–1772)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18253. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 

Princess Mary of Great Britain House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 5 March 1723 Died: 14 January 1772

German royalty

Vacant Title last held by Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden Landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel 1 February 1760 – 14 January 1772 Vacant Title next held by Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt

v t e

British princesses

The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used.

1st generation

Queen Sophia Dorothea in Prussia

2nd generation

Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal
and Princess of Orange Princess Amelia Princess Caroline Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel Queen Louise of Denmark and Norway

3rd generation

Duchess Augusta of Brunswick Princess Elizabeth Princess Louisa Queen Caroline Matilda of Denmark and Norway

4th generation

Queen Charlotte of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Caroline of Gloucester

5th generation

Princess Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Queen Victoria Grand Duchess Augusta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck

6th generation

German Empress Victoria Grand Duchess Alice of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover

7th generation

Louise, Princess Royal
Louise, Princess Royal
and Duchess of Fife Princess Victoria Queen Maud of Norway Queen Marie of Romania Grand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna of Russia Princess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden Princess Patricia, Lady Patricia Ramsay Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone Princess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Grand Duchess Alexandra of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover

8th generation

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Queen Frederica of Greece

9th generation

Queen Elizabeth II Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy

10th generation

Anne, Princess Royal

11th generation

Princess Beatrice of York Princess Eugenie of York Lady Louise Windsor1

12th generation

Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

1 Status debatable

.