PRINCE SHōTOKU (聖徳太子, Shōtoku Taishi, February 7, 574 – April 8, 622 ), also known as PRINCE UMAYADO (厩戸皇子, Umayado no ōji) or PRINCE KAMITSUMIYA (上宮皇子, Kamitsumiya no ōji), was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko . He was the son of Emperor Yōmei and his consort, Princess Anahobe no Hashihito, who was also Yōmei's younger half-sister. His parents were relatives of the ruling Soga clan and he was involved in the defeat of the rival Mononobe clan . The primary source of the life and accomplishments of Prince Shōtoku comes from the Nihon Shoki .
Over successive generations, a devotional cult arose around the
* 1 Cultural and political role * 2 Legacy * 3 Titles and name * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links
CULTURAL AND POLITICAL ROLE
Shotoku Taishi by Kogan Zenji
According to tradition, Shōtoku was appointed as regent (Sesshō) in 593 by Empress Suiko (554–628), his aunt. Shōtoku, inspired by the Buddha's teachings, succeeded in establishing a centralized government during his reign. In 603, he established the Twelve Level Cap and Rank System at the court. He is credited with promulgating a Seventeen-article constitution .
The Prince was an ardent Buddhist and is traditionally attributed the
authorship of the
Sangyō Gisho or "Annotated Commentaries on the
Three Sutras" (the
Lotus Sutra , the
A legend claims that when
Bodhidharma came to Japan, he met with
Alas! For The wayfarer lying And hungered for rice On the hill of Kataoka (The sunshiny) Art thou become Parentless? Hast thou no lord Flourishing as a bamboo? Alas! For The wayfarer lying And hungered for rice!
The second day, the Prince sent a messenger to the starving man, but he was already dead. Hereupon, Shōtoku was greatly grieved and ordered his burial. Shōtoku later thought the man was no ordinary man for sure, and sending another messenger, discovered the earth had not been disturbed. On opening the tomb there was no body inside, and the Prince's purple garment lay folded on the coffin. The Prince then sent another messenger to claim the garment, and he continued to wear it just as before. Struck by awe, the people praised the Prince "How true it is that a sage knoweth a sage." This legend is linked with the temple of Daruma-dera in Ōji, Nara , where a stone stupa was found underground, which is exceedingly rare.
In his correspondence with Emperor Yang of Sui , the Prince's letter contains the earliest written instance in which the Japanese archipelago is named Nihon . The Sui Emperor dispatched a message in 605 that said, "the sovereign of Sui respectfully inquires about the sovereign of Wa ." Shōtoku responded by sponsoring a mission led by Ono no Imoko in 607: "From the sovereign of the land of the rising sun (nihon/hi izuru) to the sovereign of the land of the setting sun."
A number of institutes are named after him, such as Shotoku Gakuen University and its associated junior college (both in Gifu ). The first syllable of his name (聖), can be read shō in Go-on and can also be read sei in Kan-on . The later reading is found in Seitoku University and its associated junior college (both in Matsudo, Chiba ) as well as Tokyo's defunct Seitoku Junior College of Nutrition (and indirectly its replacement Seiei College ).
TITLES AND NAME
Shōtoku is known by several titles, although his real name is Prince Umayado (厩戸皇子, Umayado no ōji, literally ‘the prince of the stable door’) since he was born in front of a stable. He is also known as Toyotomimi (豊聡耳) or Kamitsumiyaō (上宮王). In the Kojiki , his name appears as Kamitsumiya no Umayado no Toyotomimi no Mikoto (上宮之厩戸豊聡耳命). In the Nihon Shoki , in addition to Umayado no ōji, he is referred to as Toyomimito Shōtoku (豊耳聡聖徳), Toyotomimi no Nori no Ōkami (豊聡耳法大王), and simply Nori no Ushi no Ōkami (法主王).
The name by which he is best known today, Prince Shōtoku, first appeared in Kaifūsō , written more than 100 years after his death in 751.
Wood statue of
10,000 yen banknote featuring the
Statue of Shōtoku as a child, c. 1200-1350 AD *
The Tenjukoku Shūchō Mandala , created to commemorate Shōtoku's death (622 AD)
* ^ Binyon, Laurence (2006). Painting in the Far East: An Introduction to the History of Pictorial Art in Asia, Especially China and Japan. Elibron.com. p. 85. ISBN 0-543-94830-7 . The author of this portrait is unknown; it is generally held to be the work of Korean artist, but is quite probably the work of native hand. * ^ A History of Japan, R.H.P. Mason and J.G. Caiger, Charles E.Tuttle Company, Inc., Tokyo 1977, 0221-000349-4615 * ^ http://www.khyentsefoundation.org/patronkingsVIII.html * ^ A B Como, Michael I. (2006). Shōtoku: ethnicity, ritual, and violence in the Japanese Buddhist tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-518861-6 . * ^ Buswell, Robert Jr ; Lopez, Donald S. Jr. , eds. (2013). Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 811–812. ISBN 9780691157863 . * ^ John Whitney Hall (1988). "The Asuka Enlightenment". The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University. p. 175. Retrieved 2007-04-03. * ^ Shōichi Watanabe (Professor Emeritus at Sophia University ) (2014), 教育提言：私が伝えた