Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine KG PC FRS (17 December 1619 – 29 November
1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman,
colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century. He first
came to prominence as a
Cavalier cavalry commander during the English
Rupert was a younger son of the German prince Frederick V, Elector
Palatine and his wife Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of James VI of
Scotland and I of England. Thus Rupert was the nephew of King Charles
I of England, who made him
Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Cumberland and Earl of Holderness,
and the first cousin of King Charles II of England. His sister
Electress Sophia was the mother of George I of Great Britain.
Prince Rupert had a varied career. He was a soldier from a young age,
fighting against Spain in the Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War
(1568–1648), and against the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor in Germany during
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). Aged 23, he was appointed
commander of the Royalist cavalry during the English Civil War,
becoming the archetypal
Cavalier of the war and ultimately the senior
Royalist general. He surrendered after the fall of
Bristol and was
banished from England. He served under
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France against
Spain, and then as a Royalist privateer in the Caribbean. Following
the Restoration, Rupert returned to England, becoming a senior English
naval commander during the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch wars, engaging
in scientific invention, art, and serving as the first governor of the
Hudson's Bay Company. Rupert died in England in 1682, aged 62.
Rupert is considered to have been a quick-thinking and energetic
cavalry general, but ultimately undermined by his youthful impatience
in dealing with his peers during the Civil War. In the Interregnum,
Rupert continued the conflict against
Parliament by sea from the
Mediterranean to the Caribbean, showing considerable persistence in
the face of adversity. As the head of the
Royal Navy in his later
years, he showed greater maturity and made impressive and long-lasting
contributions to the Royal Navy's doctrine and development. As a
colonial governor, Rupert shaped the political geography of modern
Rupert's Land was named in his honour. He also played a role
in the early African slave trade. Rupert's varied and numerous
scientific and administrative interests combined with his considerable
artistic skills made him one of the more colourful individuals of the
Coat of arms of Rupert, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, as a Knight of
1 Early life and exile
2 Teenage years
3 Career during the First English Civil War
3.1 Early phases, 1642–43
3.2 Later stages, 1644–46
4 Career during the Second English War and Interregnum
4.1 Service in the French army
4.2 Service in the Royalist navy
4.3 Service in Germany
4.4 Interest in art
5 Career following the Restoration
5.1 Restoration statesman
5.2 Career in the Restoration navy
6 Later life
6.1 Colonial administration
6.2 Science and the Royal Society
6.3 Peg Hughes
7 Death and legacy
9 In fiction
9.1 Film and television
10 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Early life and exile
Rupert (right) with his brother, Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
(left), in a 1637 portrait by Anthony van Dyck
Rupert was born in
Prague in 1619, at the start of the Thirty Years'
War, to Frederick V, Elector Palatine, and Elizabeth Stuart, and was
declared a prince by the principality of Lusatia. He was given his
name in honour of King Rupert of Germany, a famous Wittelsbach
ancestor. Rupert's father was a leading member of the Holy Roman
Empire and the head of the
Protestant Union, with a martial family
tradition stretching back several centuries. Rupert's family was at
the heart of a network of
Protestant rulers across the north of
Europe, as Frederick had close ties through his mother to the ruling
House of Orange-Nassau
House of Orange-Nassau in the United Provinces, and Elizabeth was the
James I of England
James I of England and Anne of Denmark. The family lived
an extremely wealthy lifestyle in Heidelberg, enjoying the palace
gardens—the Hortus Palatinus, designed by
Inigo Jones and Salomon de
Caus—and a lavish castle with one of the best libraries in
Frederick had allied himself with rebellious
nobility in 1619, expecting support from the
Protestant Union in his
revolt against the Catholic Ferdinand II, the newly elected Holy Roman
Emperor. This support was not forthcoming, resulting in a crushing
defeat at the hands of his Catholic enemies at the Battle of White
Mountain in 1620. Rupert's parents were mockingly termed the "Winter
King and Queen" as a consequence of their reigns in Bohemia having
lasted only a single season. Rupert was almost left behind in the
court's rush to escape Ferdinand's advance on Prague, until Kryštof z
Donína (Christopher Dhona), a court member, tossed the prince into a
carriage at the last moment.
Rupert accompanied his parents to The Hague, where he spent his early
years at the Hof te Wassenaer, the Wassenaer Court. Rupert's mother
paid her children little attention even by the standards of the day,
apparently preferring her pet monkeys and dogs. Instead, Frederick
employed Monsieur and Madame de Plessen to act as governors to his
children, with instructions to inculcate a positive attitude towards
the Czechs/Bohemians and the English, and to bring them up as strict
Calvinists. The result was a strict school routine including logic,
mathematics, writing, drawing, singing and playing instruments. As
a child, Rupert was at times badly behaved, "fiery, mischievous, and
passionate" and earned himself the nickname Robert le Diable, or
"Rupert The Devil". Nonetheless, Rupert proved to be an able
student. By the age of three he could speak some English, Czech and
French, and mastered German while still young, but had little interest
in Latin and Greek. He excelled in art, being taught by Gerard van
Honthorst, and found the maths and sciences easy. By the time he
was 18 he stood about 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) tall.
Rupert's family continued their attempts to regain the Palatinate
during their time in The Hague. Money was short, with the family
relying upon a relatively small pension from The Hague, the proceeds
from family investments in Dutch raids on Spanish shipping, and
revenue from pawned family jewellery. Frederick set about
convincing an alliance of nations—including England, France and
Sweden—to support his attempts to regain the Palatinate and
Bohemia. By the early 1630s Frederick had built a close
relationship with the Swedish King Gustavus, the dominant Protestant
leader in Germany. In 1632, however, the two men disagreed over
Gustavus' insistence that Frederick provide equal rights to his
Lutheran and Calvinist subjects after regaining his lands; Frederick
refused and started to return to The Hague. He died of a fever along
the way and was buried in an unmarked grave. Rupert had lost his
father at the age of 13, and Gustavus' death at the battle of Lützen
in the same month deprived the family of a critical Protestant
ally. With Frederick gone, King Charles proposed that the family
move to England; Rupert's mother declined, but asked that Charles
extend his protection to her remaining children instead.
Rupert as a young man visiting the court of his uncle, King Charles I
of England, by Anthony van Dyck
Rupert spent the beginning of his teenage years in England between the
The Hague and his uncle King Charles I, before being
captured and imprisoned in
Linz during the middle stages of the Thirty
Years' War. Rupert had become a soldier early; at the age of 14 he
attended the Dutch pas d'armes with the
Protestant Frederick Henry,
Prince of Orange. Later that year he fought alongside him and the
Duke of Brunswick
Duke of Brunswick at the Anglo-German siege of Rheinberg, and by 1635
he was acting as a military lifeguard to Prince Frederick. Rupert
went on to fight against imperial Spain in the successful campaign
around Breda in 1637 during the
Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War in the
Netherlands. By the end of this period, Rupert had acquired a
reputation for fearlessness in battle, high spirits and considerable
In between these campaigns Rupert had visited his uncle's court in
England. The Palatinate cause was a popular
Protestant issue in
England, and in 1637 a general public subscription helped fund an
expedition under Charles Louis to try and regain the electorate as
part of a joint French campaign. Rupert was placed in command of a
Palatinate cavalry regiment, and his later friend Lord Craven, an
admirer of Rupert's mother, assisted in raising funds and accompanied
the army on the campaign. The campaign ended badly at the Battle of
Vlotho (17 October 1638) during the invasion of Westphalia; Rupert
escaped death, but was captured by the forces of the Imperial General
Melchior von Hatzfeldt
Melchior von Hatzfeldt towards the end of the battle.
After a failed attempt to bribe his way free of his guards, Rupert
was imprisoned in Linz. Lord Craven, also taken in the battle,
attempted to persuade his captors to allow him to remain with Rupert,
but was refused. Rupert's imprisonment was surrounded by religious
overtones. His mother was deeply concerned that he might be converted
Calvinism to Catholicism; his captors, encouraged by Emperor
Ferdinand III, deployed
Jesuit priests in an attempt to convert
him. The Emperor went further, proffering the option of freedom, a
position as an Imperial general and a small principality if Rupert
would convert. Rupert refused.
Rupert's imprisonment became more relaxed on the advice of the
Archduke Leopold, Ferdinand's younger brother, who met and grew to
like Rupert. Rupert practised etching, played tennis, practised
shooting, read military textbooks and was taken on accompanied hunting
trips. He also entered into a romantic affair with Susan
Kuffstein, the daughter of Count von Kuffstein, his gaoler. He
received a present of a rare white poodle that Rupert called Boy, or
sometimes Pudel, and which remained with him into the English Civil
War. Despite attempts by a Franco-Swedish army to seize
Linz and free
Rupert, his release was ultimately negotiated through Leopold and the
Empress Maria Anna; in exchange for a commitment never again to take
up arms against the Emperor, Rupert would be released. Rupert formally
kissed the Emperor's hand at the end of 1641, turned down a final
offer of an Imperial command and left Germany for England.[citation
Career during the First English Civil War
Rupert is probably best remembered today for his role as a Royalist
commander during the English Civil War. He had considerable
success during the initial years of the war, his drive, determination
and experience of European techniques bringing him early
victories. As the war progressed, Rupert's youth and lack of
maturity in managing his relationships with other Royalist commanders
ultimately resulted in his removal from his post and ultimate
retirement from the war. Throughout the conflict, however, Rupert
also enjoyed a powerful symbolic position: he was an iconic Royalist
Cavalier and as such was frequently the subject of both
Parliamentarian and Royalist propaganda, an image which has
endured over the years.
Early phases, 1642–43
Charles I holding a council of war at
Edgecote on the day before the
Battle of Edgehill; Rupert, who would command the King's cavalry
during the battle, is seated at the table
Rupert arrived in England following his period of imprisonment and
final release from captivity in Germany. In August 1642, Rupert, along
with his brother
Prince Maurice and a number of professional soldiers,
ran the gauntlet across the sea from the United Provinces, and after
one initial failure, evaded the pro-Parliamentary navy and landed
in Newcastle. Riding across country, he found the King with a tiny
Leicester Abbey, and was promptly appointed General of Horse,
a coveted appointment at the time in European warfare. Rupert set
about recruiting and training: with great effort he had put together a
partially trained mounted force of 3,000 cavalry by the end of
September. Rupert's reputation continued to rise and, leading a
sudden, courageous charge, he routed a Parliamentarian force at Powick
Bridge, the first military engagement of the war. Although a small
engagement, this had a propaganda value far exceeding the importance
of the battle itself, and Rupert became an heroic figure for many
young men in the Royalist camp.
Rupert joined the King in the advance on London, playing a key role in
Battle of Edgehill
Battle of Edgehill in October. Once again, Rupert was at
his best with swift battlefield movements; the night before, he had
undertaken a forced march and seized the summit of Edgehill, giving
the Royalists a superior position. When he quarrelled with his
fellow infantry commander, Lindsey, however, some of the weaknesses of
Rupert's character began to display themselves. Rupert vigorously
interjected—probably correctly, but certainly tactlessly—that
Lindsey should deploy his men in the modern Swedish fashion that
Rupert was used to in Europe, which would have maximised their
available firepower. The result was an argument in front of the
troops and Lindsey's resignation and replacement by Sir Jacob Astley.
In the subsequent battle Rupert's men made a dramatic cavalry charge,
but despite his best efforts a subsequent scattering and loss of
discipline turned a potential victory into a stalemate.
After Edgehill, Rupert asked Charles for a swift cavalry attack on
London before the Earl of Essex's army could return. The King's senior
counsellors, however, urged him to advance slowly on the capital with
the whole army. By the time they arrived, the city had organised
defences against them. Some argue that, in delaying, the Royalists
had perhaps lost their best chance of winning the war, although others
have argued that Rupert's proposed attack would have had trouble
penetrating a hostile London. Instead, early in 1643, Rupert began to
clear the South-West, taking
Cirencester in February before moving
further against Bristol, a key port. Rupert took
Bristol in July
with his brother Maurice using Cornish forces and was appointed
Governor of the city. By mid-1643 Rupert had become so well known
that he was an issue in any potential peace accommodation—Parliament
was seeking to see him punished as part of any negotiated solution,
and the presence of Rupert at the court, close to the King during the
negotiations, was perceived as a bellicose statement in itself.
Later stages, 1644–46
George Digby, by Sir Anthony Van Dyck; although a less successful
soldier, Digby was an increasingly powerful political rival to Rupert
within the Royalist court during the second half of the English Civil
During the second half of the war, political opposition within the
Royalist senior leadership against Rupert continued to grow. Rupert's
personality during the war had made him both friends and enemies. He
enjoyed a "frank and generous disposition", showed a "quickness of...
intellect", was prepared to face grave dangers, and could be thorough
and patient when necessary. However, he lacked the social gifts of
a courtier, and his humour could turn into a "sardonic wit and a
contemptuous manner": with a hasty temper, he was too quick to say who
he respected, and who he disliked. The result was that, while
Rupert could inspire great loyalty in some, especially his men, he
also made many enemies at the Royal court. When he took Bristol,
he also slighted the Marquess of Hertford, the lethargic but
politically significant Royalist leader of the South-West. Most
critically, Rupert fell out with George Digby, a favourite of both the
King and the Queen. Digby was a classic courtier and Rupert fell to
arguing with him repeatedly in meetings. The result was that
towards the end of the war Rupert's position at court was increasingly
undermined by his enemies.
Rupert continued to impress militarily. By 1644, now the Duke of
Cumberland and Earl of Holderness, he led the relief of Newark and
York and its castle. Having marched north, taking Bolton and Liverpool
along the way in two bloody assaults, Rupert then intervened in
Yorkshire in two highly effective manoeuvres, in the first outwitting
the enemy forces at Newark with speed; in the second, striking across
country and approaching
York from the north. Rupert then commanded
much of the royalist army at its defeat at Marston Moor, with much of
the blame falling on the poor working relationship between Rupert and
the Marquess of Newcastle, and orders from the King that wrongly
conveyed a desperate need for a speedy success in the north.
In November 1644 Rupert was appointed General of the entire Royalist
army, which increased already marked tensions between him and a number
of the King's councillors. By May 1645, and now desperately short of
supplies, Rupert captured Leicester, but suffered a severe
reversal at the
Battle of Naseby
Battle of Naseby a month later. Although Rupert
had counselled the King against accepting battle at Naseby, the
opinions of Digby had won the day in council: nonetheless, Rupert's
defeat damaged him, rather than Digby, politically. After Naseby,
Rupert regarded the Royalist cause as lost, and urged Charles to
conclude a peace with Parliament. Charles, still supported by an
optimistic Digby, believed he could win the war. By late summer Rupert
had become trapped in
Bristol by Parliamentary forces; faced with an
impossible military situation on the ground, Rupert surrendered
Bristol in September 1645, and Charles dismissed him from his service
Rupert responded by making his way across Parliamentary held territory
to the King at Newark with
Prince Maurice and around a hundred men,
fighting their way through smaller enemy units and evading larger
ones. King Charles attempted to order Rupert to desist, fearing an
armed coup, but Rupert arrived at the royal court anyway. After a
difficult meeting, Rupert convinced the King to hold a court-martial
over his conduct at Bristol, which exonerated him and Maurice.
After a final argument over the fate of his friend Richard Willis, the
governor of Newark, who had let Rupert into the royal court to begin
with, Rupert resigned and left the service of King Charles, along with
most of his best cavalry officers. Earlier interpretations of this
event focused on Rupert's concern for his honour in the face of his
initial dismissal by the King; later works have highlighted the
practical importance of the courts martial to Rupert's future
employability as a mercenary in Europe, given that Rupert knew that
the war by this point was effectively lost. Rupert and Maurice
spent the winter of 1645 in Woodstock, examining options for
employment under the Venetian Republic, before returning to Oxford and
the King in 1646. Rupert and the King were reconciled, the Prince
remaining to defend Oxford when the King left for the north. After the
ensuing siege and surrender of Oxford in 1646,
both Rupert and his brother from England.
Rupert was a common figure of Parliamentarian propaganda, depicted
here, with his dog Boy, pillaging the town of Birmingham
Rupert's contemporaries believed him to have been involved in some of
the bloodier events of the war, although later histories have largely
exonerated him. Rupert had grown up surrounded by the
relatively savage customs of the
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War in Europe.
Shortly after his arrival in England he caused consternation by
following similar practices; one of his early acts was to demand two
thousand pounds from the people of
Leicester for the King as the price
of not sacking Leicester. Although in keeping with European
practices, this was not yet considered appropriate behaviour in
England and Rupert was reprimanded by the King.
Rupert's reputation never truly recovered, and in subsequent sieges
and attacks he was frequently accused of acting without restraint.
Birmingham, a key arms producing town, was taken in April 1643,
and Rupert faced allegations—probably untrue—of wilfully burning
the town to the ground (see the battle of Camp Hill). Shortly
afterwards Rupert attempted to take the town of Lichfield, whose
garrison had executed Royalist prisoners, angrily promising to kill
all the soldiers inside. Only the urgent call for assistance from
the King prevented him from doing so, forcing him to agree to more
lenient terms in exchange for a prompt surrender. Towards the end
of the war, practices were changing for the worse across all sides; a
Leicester was retaken by the Prince in May 1645, and no
attempt was made to limit the subsequent killing and plunder.
Rupert was accordingly a prominent figure in Parliamentary propaganda.
He faced numerous accusations of witchcraft, either personally or by
proxy through his pet dog. Boy, sometimes called Pudel; a large white
hunting poodle, accompanied Rupert everywhere from 1642 up until the
dog's death at
Marston Moor and was widely suspected of being a
witch's familiar. There were numerous accounts of Boy's abilities;
some suggested that he was the Devil in disguise, come to help Rupert.
Pro-Royalist publications ultimately produced parodies of these,
including one which listed Rupert's dog as being a "Lapland Lady"
transformed into a white dog; Boy was able, apparently, to find hidden
treasure, possessed invulnerability to attack, could catch bullets
fired at Rupert in his mouth, and could prophesy as well as the 16th
century soothsayer, Mother Shipton. Similar stories from the
period relate to Rupert's pet monkey. Like his dog, the monkey was
featured in newsprint of the day and was also reputed to have shape
shifting powers, being able to disguise itself behind enemy lines.
Career during the Second English War and Interregnum
An exhausted Rupert at the start of the Interregnum, after William
After the end of the First
English Civil War
English Civil War Rupert was employed by
the young King
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France to fight the Spanish during the
final years of the Thirty Years' War. Rupert's military employment
was complicated by his promises to the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor that had led
to his release from captivity in 1642, and his ongoing commitment to
the English Royalist faction in exile. He also became a Knight of
the Garter in 1642. Throughout the period Rupert was inconvenienced by
his lack of secure income, and his ongoing feuds with other leading
members of the Royalist circle.
Service in the French army
Rupert first travelled to the Royal court in exile at St Germain but
found it still dominated by the Queen and her favourite, Rupert's
enemy Digby. Instead, Rupert moved on, accepting a well paid
Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria to serve Louis XIV as a mareschal de
camp, subject to Rupert being free to leave French service to fight
for King Charles, should he be called upon to do so. In 1647
Rupert fought under Marshal de Gassion against the Spanish. After a
three-week siege, Rupert took the powerful fortress of La Bassée
through quiet negotiations with the enemy commander—an impressive
accomplishment, and one that won him favour in French court
circles. Gassion and Rupert were ambushed shortly afterwards by a
Spanish party; during the resulting fight, Rupert was shot in the head
and seriously injured. Afterwards, Gassion noted: "Monsieur, I am most
annoyed that you are wounded." "And me also," Rupert is recorded as
replying. Gassion was himself killed shortly afterwards, and
Rupert returned to St Germain to recuperate.
Service in the Royalist navy
In 1648, the relatively brief Second
English Civil War
English Civil War broke out, and
Rupert informed the French King that he would be returning to King
Charles' service. The Parliamentary navy mutinied in favour of the
King and sailed for Holland, providing the Royalists with a major
fleet for the first time since the start of the civil conflict; Rupert
joined the fleet under the command of the Duke of York, who assumed
the rank of Lord High Admiral. Rupert argued that the fleet should
be used to rescue the King, then being held prisoner on the Isle of
Wight, while others advised sailing in support of the fighting in the
north. The fleet itself rapidly lost discipline, with many vessels'
crews focussing on seizing local ships and cargoes. This
underlined a major problem for the Royalists—the cost of maintaining
the new fleet was well beyond their means. Discipline continued to
deteriorate, and Rupert had to intervene personally several times,
including defusing one group of mutinous sailors by suddenly dangling
the ringleader over the side of his vessel and threatening to drop him
into the sea. Most of the fleet finally switched sides once more,
returning to England in late 1648.
Then, following a degree of reconciliation with Charles, Rupert
obtained command of the Royalist fleet himself. The intention was to
restore Royalist finances by using the remaining vessels of the fleet
to conduct a campaign of organised piracy against English shipping
across the region. One of the obstacles that this plan faced was
the growing strength of the Parliamentary fleet and the presence of
Robert Blake, one of the finest admirals of the period, as Rupert's
opponent during the campaign.
Rupert's maritime campaign in the Atlantic Ocean and
Caribbean Seas, 1650–1653.
Rupert's naval campaign formed two phases. The first involved the
Royalist fleet sailing from
Kinsale in Ireland to
Lisbon in Portugal.
He took three large ships, HMS Constant Reformation, the
Convertine and the Swallow, accompanied by four smaller vessels.
Rupert sailed to
Lisbon taking several prizes on route, where he
received a warm welcome from King John IV, the ruler of recently
independent Portugal, who was a supporter of Charles II. Blake
arrived shortly afterwards with a Parliamentary fleet, and an armed
stand-off ensued. Tensions rose, skirmishes began to break out and
King John became increasingly keen for his Royalist guests to leave.
In October 1650, Rupert's fleet, now comprising six vessels, broke out
and headed into the Mediterranean. Still pursued by Blake, the
Royalist fleet manoeuvred up the Spanish coast, steadily losing
vessels to their pursuers.
The second phase of the campaign then began. Rupert crossed back into
the Atlantic and, during 1651, cut west to the Azores, capturing
vessels as he went. He intended to continue on to the West Indies,
where there would be many rich targets. Instead he encountered a
late summer storm, leading to the sinking of the Constant Reformation
with the loss of 333 lives—almost including Rupert's brother, Prince
Maurice, who only just escaped—and a great deal of captured
treasure. Turning back to regroup, repair and re-equip in early
1652, Rupert's reduced force moored at Cape Blanc, an island near what
is now Mauritania. Rupert took the opportunity to explore and
acquired a Moorish servant boy, who remained in his service for many
years. Rupert also explored 150 miles up the Gambia River, taking
two Spanish vessels as prizes and contracting malaria in the
Rupert then finally made a successful crossing into the Caribbean,
landing first at Saint Lucia, before continuing up the chain of the
Antilles to the Virgin Islands. There the fleet was hit by a terrible
hurricane, which scattered the ships and sank the Defiance, this time
Prince Maurice on board. It was a while before Maurice's
death became certain, which came as a terrible blow to Rupert. He was
forced to return to Europe, arriving in France in March 1653 with a
fleet of five ships. It became clear, as the profits and losses of
the piracy campaign were calculated, that the venture had not been as
profitable as hoped. This complicated tensions in the Royalist court,
and Charles II and Rupert eventually split the spoils, after which
Rupert, tired and a little bitter, returned to France to recuperate
from the long campaign.
In 1654, Rupert appears to have been involved in a plot to assassinate
Oliver Cromwell, an event that would then have been followed by a
coup, the landing of a small army in Sussex, and the restoration of
Charles II. Charles himself is understood to have rejected the
assassination proposal, but three conspirators—who implicated Rupert
in the plan—were arrested and confessed in London. Rupert's
presence at the royal court continued to be problematic; as in 1643,
he was regarded by Edward Hyde (later Earl of Clarendon) and others as
a bellicose figure and an obstacle to peace negotiations; in 1655
Rupert left for Germany.
Service in Germany
Rupert's largest and most famous mezzotint work, The Great
Executioner, considered by critic Antony Griffiths to be "one of the
After his quarrel with the Royalist court in exile, Rupert travelled
Heidelberg to visit his brother Charles Louis, now partially
restored as Elector Palatine, where the two had an ambivalent
reunion. Charles Louis and Rupert had not been friendly as
children and had almost ended up on opposite sides during the Civil
War. To make matters worse, Charles Louis had been deprived of half
the old Palatinate under the Peace of Westphalia, leaving him badly
short of money, although he still remained responsible under the
Imperial laws of apanage for providing for his younger brother and had
offered the sum of £375 per annum, which Rupert had accepted.
Rupert travelled on to Vienna, where he attempted to claim the
£15,000 compensation allocated to him under the Peace of Westphalia
from the Emperor. Emperor Ferdinand III warmly welcomed him, but was
unable to pay such a sum immediately—instead, he would have to pay
in installments, to the disadvantage of Rupert.
Over the next twelve months, Rupert was asked by the
Duke of Modena
Duke of Modena in
northern Italy to raise an army against the Papal States—having done
so, and with the army stationed in the Palatinate, the enterprise
collapsed, with the Duke requesting that Rupert invade Spanish held
Milan instead. Rupert moved on, having placed his brother Charles
Louis in some diplomatic difficulties with Spain. Rupert
travelled onwards, continuing to attempt to convince Ferdinand to back
Charles II's efforts to regain his throne.
In 1656 relations between Rupert and Charles Louis deteriorated badly.
Rupert had fallen in love with Louise von Degenfeld, one of his
sister-in-law's maids of honour. One of Rupert's notes proffering
his affections accidentally fell into the possession of Charles Louis'
wife Charlotte, who believed it was written to her. Charlotte was keen
to engage in an affair with Rupert and became unhappy when she was
declined and the mistake explained. Unfortunately, von Degenfeld was
uninterested in Rupert, but was engaged in an affair with Charles
Louis—this was discovered in due course, leading to the annulment of
the marriage. Rupert, for his part, was unhappy that Charles
Louis could not endow him with a suitable estate, and the two parted
on bad terms in 1657, Rupert refusing to ever return to the Palatinate
again and taking up employment under Ferdinand III in Hungary.
Interest in art
During this period Rupert became closely involved in the development
of mezzotint, a "negative", or intaglio printmaking process which
eventually superseded the older woodcut process. Rupert appears to
have told a range of associates that he had conceived of the mezzotint
process through having watched a soldier scrape the rust from the
barrel of his musket during a military campaign.
John Evelyn credited
Rupert as the inventor of the technique in 1662, and Rupert's story
was further popularised by
Horace Walpole during the 18th
century. Considerable academic debate surrounds the issue, but
the modern consensus is that mezzotint was instead invented in 1642 by
Ludwig von Siegen, a German Lieutenant-Colonel who was also an amateur
artist. Siegen may or may not have met Rupert: Siegen had worked as
chamberlain, and probably part-tutor, to Rupert's young cousin William
VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, with whom Rupert discussed the
technique in letters from 1654. Rupert did, however, become a noted
artist in mezzotint in his own right. He produced a few stylish prints
in the technique, mostly interpretations of existing paintings, and
introduced the form to England after the Restoration, though it was
Wallerant Vaillant, Rupert's artistic assistant or tutor, who first
popularised the process and exploited it commercially. Rupert's most
famous and largest art work, The Great Executioner, produced in 1658,
is still regarded by critics such as Arthur Hind and Antony Griffiths
as full of "brilliance and energy", "superb" and "one of the
greatest mezzotints" ever produced; other important works by
Rupert include the Head of Titian and The Standard Bearer.
Career following the Restoration
Frances Bard, Rupert's mistress, by Peter Lely.
Following the Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II in 1660,
Rupert returned to England, where Charles had already largely
completed the process of balancing the different factions across the
country in a new administration. Since most of the better
government posts were already taken, Rupert's employment was limited,
although Charles rewarded him with the second highest pension he had
granted, £4,000 a year. Rupert's close family ties to King
Charles were critical to his warm reception; following the deaths of
the Duke of Gloucester and Princess Mary, Rupert was the King's
closest adult relation in England after his brother, the Duke of York,
and so a key member of the new regime. Rupert, as the Duke of
Cumberland, resumed his seat in the House of Lords. For the first
time in his life, Rupert's financial position was relatively secure,
and he had matured. Near-contemporaries described how "his temper was
less explosive than formerly and his judgement sounder". Rupert
continued to serve as an admiral in the
Royal Navy throughout the
period, ultimately rising to the rank of "General at Sea and
Rupert was appointed to the King's Privy Council in 1662, taking roles
on the Foreign Affairs Committee, the
Admiralty Committee and the
Tangier Committee. Accounts vary of Rupert's role in all these
committees of government. Samuel Pepys, no friend of Rupert's, sat on
the Tangier Committee with him and later declared that all Rupert did
was to laugh and swear occasionally: other records, such as those of
the Foreign Affairs Committee, show him taking a full and active role
In 1668, the King appointed Rupert to be the Constable of Windsor
Castle. Rupert was already one of the Knights of the Garter, who
had their headquarters at the castle, and was a close companion of the
King, who would wish to be suitably entertained at the castle.
Rupert immediately began to reorder the castle's defences, sorting out
the garrison's accommodation, repairing the Devil's Tower,
reconstructing the real tennis court and improving the castle's
hunting estate. Rupert acquired his own apartments in the castle,
which were recorded as being "very singular" with some decorated with
an "extraordinary" number of "pikes, muskets, pistols, bandoliers,
holsters, drums, back, breast, and head pieces", and his inner
chambers "hung with tapisserie, curious and effeminate pictures".
King Charles II and Rupert spent much time together over the years
hunting and playing tennis together at Windsor, and Rupert was
also a close companion of James, the Duke of York. Rupert was
considered by Pepys to be the fourth best tennis player in
Rupert became romantically engaged to Frances Bard (1646–1708), the
daughter of the English explorer and Civil War veteran Henry
Bard. Frances claimed to have secretly married Rupert in 1664,
although this was denied by him and no firm proof exists to support
the claim. Rupert acknowledged the son he had with Frances,
Dudley Bard (1666–86), often called "Dudley Rupert", who was
schooled at Eton College. In 1673, Rupert was urged by Charles Louis
to return home, marry and establish an heir to the Palatinate, as it
appeared likely that Charles Louis's own son would not survive
childhood. Rupert refused, and remained in England.
Career in the Restoration navy
The Four Days' Battle, 1–4 June 1666, by Abraham Storck, during
which Rupert's new aggressive fleet tactics were first applied
For much of the 17th century, England was embroiled in conflict with
commercial rival Holland through the Anglo-Dutch Wars. Rupert
became closely involved in these as a senior Admiral to King Charles
II, rising to command the
Royal Navy by the end of his career.
Although several famous admirals of the day had previously been army
commanders, including Blake and Monk, they had commanded relatively
small land forces and Rupert was still relatively unusual for the
period in having both practical experience of commanding large land
armies and having extensive naval experience from his campaigns in the
At the start of the
Second Anglo-Dutch War
Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–67), Rupert was
appointed as one of the three squadron commanders of the English
fleet, under the overall command of the Duke of York, taking
HMS Royal James as his flagship. As the commander of the
White Squadron, Rupert fought at the
Battle of Lowestoft
Battle of Lowestoft in 1665,
breaking through the enemy defences at a critical moment; Rupert's leg
was injured in the battle, an injury that caused him ongoing
pain. Recalled to accompany the King during the plague that was
sweeping London, Rupert continued to argue in favour of the fleet
seeking a set-piece engagement with the Dutch that would force the
Dutch back to the negotiating table. The following year, Rupert
was made joint commander of the fleet with Monk and given the
opportunity to put this plan into practice. In June 1666, they fought
the Dutch at the Four Days Battle, one of the longest naval battles in
history; the battle saw the new aggressive tactics of Rupert and Monk
applied, resulting in "a sight unique till then in sailing-ship
warfare, the English beating upwind and breaking the enemy's line from
leeward." However, the
Four Days Battle
Four Days Battle was considered a victory
for the Dutch, but the
St. James's Day Battle
St. James's Day Battle the following month
allowed Rupert and Monk to use the same tactics to inflict heavy
damage on the Dutch and the battle resulted in a significant English
victory. The Dutch however would see a favourable end to the war
with the decisive Raid on the Medway.
Rupert also played a prominent role in the Third Anglo-Dutch War
(1672–74). This time
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France was a key English ally
against Holland, and it was decided that the French would form a
squadron in a combined fleet. The English fleet had been much
expanded, and Rupert had three ships, HMS Royal Charles,
HMS Royal James and HMS Royal Oak, equipped with a
high-specification, annealed and lathe-produced gun of his own design,
the Rupertinoe. Unfortunately the cost of the weapon—three times
that of a normal gun—prevented its wider deployment in the
fleet. The French role in the conflict proved a problem when
Charles turned to the appointment of an admiral. Rupert's objection to
the French alliance was well known, and accordingly the King appointed
the Duke of
York to the role instead. Rupert was instead
instructed to take over the Duke's work at the Admiralty, which he did
with gusto. The Allied naval plans were stalled after the Duke's
inconclusive battle with the Dutch at Solebay.
The Battle of Texel, by Willem van de Velde the Younger, a Dutch
victory which marked the end of Rupert's career as a sea admiral
The English plan for 1673 centred on first achieving naval dominance,
followed by landing an army in Zeeland. The King appointed the Duke as
supreme commander, with Rupert as his deputy, combining the rank of
General and Vice Admiral of England. During the winter of 1672,
however, Charles—still (legitimately) childless—decided that the
risk to the Duke, his heir, was too great and made Rupert supreme
Allied commander in his place. Rupert began the 1673 campaign
against the Dutch knowing the logistical support for his fleet
remained uncertain, with many ships undermanned. The result was
Battle of Schooneveld
Battle of Schooneveld in June and the
Battle of Texel
Battle of Texel in August, a
controversial sequence of engagements in which, at a minimum, poor
communications between the French and English commanders assisted the
marginal Dutch victory. Many English commentators were harsher,
blaming the French for failing to fully engage in the battles and
Rupert—having cautioned against the alliance in the first
place—was popularly hailed as a hero. Rupert finally retired
from active seagoing command later that year.
Rupert had a characteristic style as an admiral; he relied upon
"energetic personal leadership backed by close contact with his
officers"; having decided how to proceed in a naval campaign,
however, it could be difficult for his staff to change his mind.
Recent work on Rupert's role as a commander has also highlighted the
progress the prince made in formulating the way that orders were given
to the British fleet. Fleet communications were limited during the
period, and the traditional orders from admirals before a battle were
accordingly quite rigid, limiting a captain's independence in the
battle. Rupert played a key part in the conferences held by the
York in 1665 to review tactics and operational methods from
the first Dutch war, and put these into practice before the St James
Day battle. These instructions and supplementary instructions to
ships' captains, which attempted to balance an adherence to standing
orders with the need to exploit emerging opportunities in a battle,
proved heavily influential over the next hundred years and shaped
the idea that an aggressive fighting spirit should be at the core of
British naval doctrine.
After 1673 Rupert remained a senior member of the
Royal Navy and
Charles' administration. Rupert allied himself with Lord Shaftesbury
on matters of foreign policy, but remained loyal to King Charles II on
other issues, and was passionate about protecting the Royal
Prerogative. As a consequence he opposed Parliament's plan in 1677 to
appoint him to Lord High Admiral—on the basis that only the King
should be allowed to propose such appointments—but noted that he was
willing to become Admiral if the King wished him to do so. The
King's solution was to establish a small, empowered Admiralty
Commission, of which Rupert became the first commissioner. As a
result, from 1673 to 1679 Rupert was able to focus on ensuring a
closer regulation of manning, gunning and the selection of officers.
He was also involved in setting priorities between the different
theatres of operations that the English Navy were now involved in
around the world. Rupert was also appointed to the supreme
position of "General at Sea and Land", effectively assuming the
wartime powers of the Lord High Admiral.
An older Rupert, painted in 1670 by Sir Peter Lely
After the end of his seagoing naval career Rupert continued to be
actively involved in both government and science, although he was
increasingly removed from current politics. To the younger
members of the court the prince appeared increasingly distant—almost
from a different era. The Count de Gramont described Rupert as
"brave and courageous even to rashness, but cross-grained and
incorrigibly obstinate... he was polite, even to excess, unseasonably;
but haughty, and even brutal, when he ought to have been gentle and
courteous... his manners were ungracious: he had a dry hard-favoured
visage, and a stern look, even when he wished to please; but, when he
was out of humour, he was the true picture of reproof". Rupert's
health during this period was also less robust; his head wound from
his employment in France required a painful trepanning treatment, his
leg wound continued to hurt and he still suffered from the malaria he
had caught while in the Gambia.
Rupert had demonstrated an interest in colonial issues for many years.
On arriving in England in 1660, he had encouraged the government to
continue his own exploration of the Gambia in an attempt to find gold,
leading to Robert Holmes's expedition the following year. Rupert
was an active shareholder in the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading
into Africa that was established as a result in 1662. The company
continued operations for the next eight years, with backers including
the King, the Duke of
York and the Royal Society, with operations
including engaging in the West Africa slave trade until it folded in
1670. The company's operations merged with those of the Gambia
Merchants' Company into the new Royal African Company, with a royal
charter to set up forts, factories, troops and to exercise martial law
in West Africa, in pursuit of trade in gold, silver and slaves; Rupert
was the third named member of the company's executive committee.
By then, however, Rupert's attention had turned to North America. The
French explorers Radisson and des Groseilliers had come to England
after conducting a joint exploration of the Hudson's Bay region in
1659; there their account attracted the attention of the King and
Rupert. Rupert put an initial investment of £270 of his own
money into a proposal for a fresh expedition and set about raising
more; despite setbacks, including the Great Fire of London, by 1667 he
had formed a private syndicate and leased the Eaglet from the King for
the expedition. The Eaglet failed, but her sister vessel, the
Nonsuch, made a successful expedition, returning in 1669 with furs
worth £1,400. In 1670, the King approved the charter for "The
Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's
Bay" that would form the Hudson's Bay Company, which was granted a
trading monopoly in the whole Hudson Bay watershed area, an immense
territory named Rupert's Land, with Rupert appointed the first
Governor. Rupert's first company secretary was Sir James Hayes
and Radisson named the Hayes River, in present-day Manitoba, in his
honour. The company continued to prosper, forming the basis for much
of the commercial activity of colonial Canada. Rupert's role in
colonial commerce was marked by his being asked to lay the cornerstone
of the new Royal Exchange in 1670, and being made one of its first
Science and the Royal Society
Rupert was a founding member of the Royal Society, which, as shown in
this 1667 engraving celebrating its creation, mirrored his wide
interests in science and technology.
After Rupert's retirement from active seafaring in around 1674, he was
able to spend more time engaged in scientific research and became
credited with many inventions and discoveries, although some
subsequently turned out to be the innovative introduction of European
inventions into England. Rupert converted some of the apartments at
Windsor Castle to a luxury laboratory, complete with forges,
instruments and raw materials, from where he conducted a range of
Rupert had already become the third founding member of the scientific
Royal Society, being referred to by contemporaries as a "philosophic
warrior", and guided the Society as a Councillor during its early
years. Very early on in the Society's history, Rupert
Prince Rupert's Drops
Prince Rupert's Drops to King Charles II and the Society,
glass teardrops which explode when the tail is cracked; although
credited with their invention at the time, later interpretations
suggest that he was instead responsible for the introduction of an
existing European discovery into England. He demonstrated a new
device for lifting water at the Royal Society, and received attention
for his process for "painting colours on marble, which, when polished,
became permanent". During this time, Rupert also formulated a
mathematical question concerning the paradox that a cube can pass
through a slightly smaller cube; Rupert questioned how large a cube
had to be in order to fit. The question of Prince Rupert's cube
was first solved by the Dutch mathematician Pieter Nieuwland.
Rupert was also known for his success in breaking cypher codes.
Many of Rupert's inventions were military. After designing the
Rupertinoe naval gun, Rupert erected a water-mill on Hackney Marshes
for a revolutionary method of boring guns, however his secret died
with him, and the enterprise failed. Rupert enjoyed other
military problems, and took to manufacturing gun locks; he
devised both a gun that fired multiple rounds at high speed, and
a "handgun with rotating barrels". He is credited with the
invention of a form of gunpowder, which when demonstrated to the Royal
Society in 1663 had a force of over ten times that of regular powder;
a better method for using gunpowder in mining; and a
torpedo. He also developed a form of grapeshot for use by
artillery. Rupert also focussed on naval inventions: he devised a
balancing mechanism to allow improved quadrant measurements at
sea, and produced a diving engine for retrieving objects on the
ocean floor. While recovering from his trepanning treatment
Rupert set about inventing new surgical equipment to improve future
Other parts of Rupert's scientific work lay in the field of
metallurgy. Rupert invented a new brass alloy, slightly darker in hue
than regular brass involving three parts of copper to one part of
zinc, combined with charcoal; this became known as "Prince's
metal" in his honour—sometimes also referred to as "Bristol
Brass". Rupert invented the alloy in order to improve naval
artillery, but it also became used as a replacement for gold in
decorations. Rupert was also credited with having devised an
exceptional method for tempering kirby fish hooks, and for
casting objects into an appearance of perspective. He also
invented an improved method for manufacturing shot of varying sizes in
1663, that was later retained by the scientist Robert Hooke, one of
Royal Society friends during the period.
Actress Margaret Hughes, Rupert's mistress in later life, by Sir Peter
Lely, c. 1670
Towards the end of his life Rupert fell in love with an attractive
Drury Lane actress named Peg Hughes. Rupert became involved with her
during the late 1660s, leaving his previous mistress, Frances Bard,
although Hughes appears to have held out from reciprocating his
attentions with the aim of negotiating a suitable settlement.
Hughes rapidly received advancement through his patronage; she became
a member of the King's Company by 1669, giving her status and immunity
from arrest for debt, and was painted four times by Sir Peter Lely,
the foremost court artist of the day.
Despite being encouraged to do so, Rupert did not marry Hughes,
but acknowledged their daughter, Ruperta (later Howe), born in
1673. Hughes lived an expensive lifestyle during the 1670s,
enjoying gambling and jewels; Rupert gave her at least £20,000 worth
of jewellery during their relationship, including several items from
the Palatinate royal collection. Margaret continued to act even
after Ruperta's birth, returning to the stage in 1676 with the
prestigious Duke's Company at the Dorset Garden Theatre, near the
Strand in London. The next year Rupert established Hughes with a
"grand building" worth £25,000 that he bought in
Hammersmith from Sir
Nicholas Crispe. Rupert seems rather to have enjoyed the family
lifestyle, commenting that his young daughter "already rules the whole
house and sometimes argues with her mother, which makes us all
Death and legacy
Rupert died at his house at Spring Gardens, Westminster, on 29
November 1682 after a bout of pleurisy, and was buried in the crypt of
Westminster Abbey on 6 December in a state funeral. Rupert left
most of his estate, worth some £12,000, equally to Hughes and
Ruperta. Hughes had an "uncomfortable widowhood" without
Rupert's support, allegedly not helped by her unproductive
gambling. Presents from Rupert such as his mother's earrings were
sold to the Duchess of Marlborough, while a pearl necklace given by
Elector Frederick to Electress Elizabeth was sold to fellow actress
Nell Gwynn. Hughes sold the house in
Hammersmith to two London
merchants: Timothy Lannoy and George Treadwell—it was then purchased
by the Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and became known as Brandenburg
(or Brandenburgh) House.
Ruperta later married Emanuel Scrope Howe, future MP and English
general, and had five children, Sophia, William, Emanuel, James
and Henrietta. Through William's daughter, Mary, Rupert is an ancestor
of the Bromley baronets.
Rupert's son, Dudley Bard, became a military officer, frequently known
as "Captain Rupert", and died fighting at the Siege of Budapest while
in his late teens.
In Canada, the city of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, the community
of Prince Rupert in the city of Edmonton,
Alberta and the Rupert River
Quebec are all named after the Prince. Rupert's Bay on St Helena
may also be named after him. In
Bristol there was also a street,
Rupert Street and formerly a public house, The Prince Rupert in Rupert
Street is also named to commemorate Prince Rupert.
Ancestors of Prince Rupert of the Rhine
16. Frederick III, Elector Palatine
8. Louis VI, Elector Palatine
17. Marie of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
4. Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
18. Philip I of Hesse
9. Elisabeth of Hesse
19. Christine of Saxony
2. Frederick V, Elector Palatine
20. William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg
10. William I, Prince of Orange 'the Silent'
21. Juliana of Stolberg-Werningerode
5. Louise Juliana of Nassau
22. Louis, Duke of Montpensier
11. Charlotte of Bourbon
23. Jacqueline de Longwy
1. Prince Rupert of the Rhine
24. Matthew Stuart, Earl of Lennox
12. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
25. Margaret Douglas
6. James I of England
26. James V of Scotland
13. Mary, Queen of Scots
27. Mary of Guise
3. Elizabeth Stuart
28. Christian III of Denmark
14. Frederick II of Denmark
29. Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
7. Anne of Denmark
30. Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
15. Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
31. Elizabeth of Denmark
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Prince Rupert is the protagonist of Poul Anderson's alternative
history/fantasy book A Midsummer Tempest, where the Prince, with the
help of various Shakespearean characters who are actual persons in
this timeline, eventually defeats Cromwell and wins the English Civil
Prince Rupert is the key character in the
King Crimson song Lizard
from their 1970 album of the same name. The 23-minute suite includes
several sections, one named Prince Rupert Awakes and another The
Battle of Glass Tears (an artistic reference to the battle of Naseby)
in turn including a sub-section called Prince Rupert's Lament.
Prince Rupert appears in The Oak Apple and The Black Pearl, volumes 4
and 5 of The Morland Dynasty, a series of historical novels by author
Cynthia Harrod-Eagles. He is assisted during the Civil War by the
staunchly Royalist fictional Morland family, and is father to the
illegitimate Annunciata Morland, with whom he has a complicated
Prince Rupert and his sister Elisabeth are minor characters in Eric
1632 series books Grantville Gazette IV and Grantville Gazette
Prince Rupert is the protagonist of Margaret Irwin's novel The
Stranger Prince and appears in her later novel The Bride. Both novels
deal with the Civil War period.
Prince Rupert is the subject of Samuel Edwards's biographical novel
The White Plume, published by William Morrow and Company Ltd. in 1961,
a semi-fictional account of his life from his late teens until his
marriage to Peg (Margaret Hughes).
Prince Rupert's Tower is the name given to a Georgian Lock-Up in the
Everton area of Liverpool. Rupert stayed in the area during the siege
Film and television
Rupert was portrayed by
Timothy Dalton in the 1970 film Cromwell.
Harry Lloyd played Rupert in the 2008 TV drama The Devil's Whore.
Rupert was portrayed by Will Bowden in the 2015 Dutch film Michiel de
Canadian locations named after Rupert
^ His full title was Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of
Bavaria, Duke of Cumberland,
Earl of Holderness
Earl of Holderness (German: Ruprecht
Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog von Bayern).
^ In 1869 control of the territory of the Hudson's Bay Company
reverted to the British and Canadian governments.
^ Spencer, p.1.
^ Spencer, p.2.
^ Spencer, p.5.
^ Spencer, p.6–7.
^ Spencer, p.11.
^ Spencer, pp.16–17.
^ Spencer, p.14.
^ Spencer, p.15.
^ a b c d e Spencer, p.20.
^ a b Spencer, p.23.
^ Dalton, notes (chapter 1, note 7).
^ Spencer, pp.19–21.
^ Spencer, p.25.
^ Spencer, p.25
^ Spencer, p.26.
^ Spencer, pp.28–9.
^ a b Spencer, p.30.
^ a b Spencer, p.35.
^ Spencer, p.37.
^ Spencer, pp.38–9.
^ a b Spencer, p.39.
^ a b Spencer, p.40.
^ a b Spencer, pp.40–1.
^ Kitson, p.67.
^ Spencer, p.43.
^ Spencer, p.41.
^ Spencer, p.xiii.
^ a b Spencer, p.55.
^ Kitson, p.17.
^ Purkiss, 2007, p.175.
^ Spencer, p.54.
^ Wedgwood, p.107.
^ Spencer, p.57.
^ Wedgwood, pp.115–6.
^ Wedgwood, p.127.
^ Wedgwood, p.128.
^ a b Wedgwood, p.129.
^ Wedgwood, p.165.
^ Wedgwood, p.170.
^ Wedgwood, p.219.
^ Wedgwood, p.172.
^ Wedgwood, pp.148–9.
^ Wedgwood, pp.148–149.
^ Wedgwood, p.149.
^ Wedgwood, pp.219–220.
^ Spencer, p.134.
^ Wedgwood, p.313; Spencer, p.118.
^ Wedgwood, p.313.
^ Wedgwood, p.315.
^ Spencer, p.117.
^ Spencer, p.148.
^ Wedgwood, p.422.
^ Wedgwood, p.422–3.
^ Spencer, p.160.
^ a b Wedgwood, p.471.
^ a b Wedgwood, p.472.
^ Wedgwood, p.473.
^ Spencer, p1.69.
^ Spencer, p.173.
^ Spencer, p.176–7.
^ a b Wedgwood, p.112.
^ Wedgwood, p.122.
^ Newman, p.31.
^ a b Spencer, p.86.
^ Spencer, p.88.
^ Wedgwood, p.421.
^ Purkiss, 2001, p.276.
^ Purkiss, 2007, p.377.
^ Newsprint circa 1643
^ Kitson, p.19.
^ Kitson, p.18.
^ Spencer, pp.189, 242–243, 254.
^ a b Spencer, p.180.
^ Spencer, p.186.
^ a b Spencer, p.187.
^ Spencer, p.192.
^ a b Spencer, p.193.
^ Spencer, p.197.
^ Spencer, p.198.
^ Kitson, p.54.
^ Spencer, p.120.
^ Kitson, p.50, 69.
^ Kitson, p.69.
^ Kitson, p.70.
^ Kitson, p.73.
^ Kitson, p.83.
^ Kitson, pp.86–7.
^ Kitson, p.93.
^ Spencer, p.225.
^ Spencer p.227.
^ Spencer, p.227.
^ Spencer, pp.228–9.
^ Spencer, p.230.
^ Spencer, p.236.
^ Spencer, p.242.
^ Spencer, p.244.
^ Spencer, p.255.
^ Spencer, p.256.
^ Kiston, p.118.
^ Kitson, pp.118–9.
^ Kitson, p.119.
^ a b Kitson, p.120.
^ Kiston, p.121.
^ Spencer, p.248.
^ Kitson, p.122.
^ Kitson, p.123.
^ Salaman, p.60.
^ Hind, p.263.
^ Griffiths, p.85.
^ Spencer, p.252.
^ Kitson, p.130.
^ Kitson, p.132.
^ a b Kitson, p.133.
^ a b c Kitson, p.139.
^ Andrew Marvell; Martin Dzelzainis; Annabel M. Patterson (2003). The
Prose Works of Andrew Marvell: 1676-1678. Yale University Press.
pp. 270 n.260. ISBN 978-0-300-09936-2.
^ Kitson, p.138.
^ Spencer, p.326.
^ Spencer, p.327.
^ Spencer, pp.327–9.
^ a b Spencer, p.331.
^ Spencer, p.329.
^ Spencer, p.330.
^ Spencer, p.310–1.
^ Spencer, p.311.
^ a b Kitson, p.296.
^ Kitson, p.152.
^ Kitson, pp.312–3.
^ Kitson, p.154.
^ Kitson, p.175.
^ Kitson, p.180.
^ Lewis, p.100.
^ Kitson, p.212.
^ De Viet, pp.44–45.
^ Kitson, p.247.
^ Spencer, p.351; Endsor, p.9.
^ a b Kitson, p.248.
^ Palmer, p.61.
^ Kitson, p.257.
^ Kitson, p.259.
^ Kitson, p.261.
^ Kitson, pp.288–9.
^ Kitson, p.289.
^ Warburton, pp. 505–6.
^ a b Kitson, p.179.
^ Kitson, p.155.
^ a b Kitson, p.316.
^ Kitson, p.319.
^ Kitson, p.302.
^ Kitson, p.274.
^ Kitson, p.297.
^ Kitson, p.348.
^ Spencer, p.362.
^ a b Spencer, p.313.
^ Spencer, pp.303–5.
^ a b Kitson, p.137.
^ Spencer, p. 340
^ Kitson, p.238.
^ Spencer, p.338.
^ Spencer, pp.339–340.
^ Spencer, p.341.
^ a b Spencer, p.342.
^ Spencer, p.344.
Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company – Exploring Westward – 18th Century".
Pathfinders and passageways: The exploration of Canada. Library and
Archives Canada. 7 December 2001. Archived from the original on 5
February 2007. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
^ Spencer, p.265.
^ Spencer, p.267.
^ Beckmann, Francis and Griffiths p.244.
^ Kitson, p.299.
^ a b Croft, Guy and Falconer, p.53.
^ Spencer, p.360.
^ Hone, pp.306–7; Granger, p.407.
^ a b c d e f Dircks, p.220.
^ a b c d Spencer, p.271.
^ Spencer, p.305.
^ a b Urbanowicz, p.28.
^ Coxe, p.93.
^ Brannt, Krupp and Wildberger p.109.
^ Spencer, p.171.
^ Granger, p.344.
^ a b Spencer, p.318.
^ Spencer, p.318; Highfill, Burnim and Langhans, p. 26.
^ a b c Spencer, p.319.
^ Spencer, p.320, 367.
^ Kitson, p.310.
^ a b c d Spencer, p.366.
^ Highfill, Burnim and Langhans, p.26.
^ Spencer, p.367.
^ Article on the Bristol's Lost Pubs website (WebCite archive)
^ The Siege of Liverpool
Beckman, Johann, William Francis and John Williams Griffiths. (1846) A
History of Inventions, Discoveries, and Origins, Volume 1. London:
Henry G. Bohn.
Brannt, William Theodore, Alfred Krupp and Andreas Wildberger. (2009)
The Metallic Alloys: A Practical Guide. BiblioBazaar, LLC.
Coxe, John Redman. (1814) The Emporium of Arts and Sciences, Volume 3.
Philadelphia: J. Delaplaine.
Croft, Hallard T, Richard K. Guy and K. J. Falconer. (1994) Unsolved
Problems in Geometry. New York: Springer.
Dalton, Anthony. (2010) River Rough, River Smooth: Adventures on
Manitoba's Historic Hayes River. Toronto: Dundurn.
Dircks, Henry. (1867) Inventors and Inventions.
Endsor, Richard. (2009) Restoration Warship: The Design, Construction
and Career of a Third Rate of Charles II's Navy. London: Anova Books.
Granger, James. (1821) A Biographical History of England: From Egbert
the Great to the Revolution. London: William Baynes.
Griffiths, Antony. (1996) Prints and Printmaking: An Introduction to
the History and Techniques. Berkely: University of California Press.
Highfill, Philip H., Kalman A. Burnim and Edward A. Langhans. (1982)
Volume 8 of A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Actresses, Musicians,
Dancers, Managers and Other Stage Personnel in London, 1660–1800.
Southern Illinois University Press.
Hind, Arthur M. (1963) A History of Engraving and Etching: From the
15th Century to the Year 1914. New York: Dover.
Hone, William. (1841) The Year Book of Daily Recreation and
Information: Concerning Remarkable Men and Manners, Times and Seasons,
Solemnities and Merry-makings, Antiquities and Novelties on the plan
of the Every-day Book and Table. Tegg.
Kitson, Frank. (1999) Prince Rupert: Admiral and General-at-Sea.
Lewis, Michael. (1957) The History of the British Navy. London:
Newman, P. R. (2006) Atlas of the English Civil War. London:
Palmer, Michael A. (2007) Command at Sea: Naval Command and Control
Since the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
Purkiss, Diane. (2001) Desire and Its Deformities: Fantasies of
Witchcraft in the English Civil War. in Levack, Brian P. (ed) New
Perspectives on Witchcraft, Magic, and Demonology:
Witchcraft in the
British Isles and New England. London: Routledge.
Purkiss, Diane. (2007) The English Civil War: A People's History.
Salaman, Malcolm. (2005) The Old Engravers of England in Their
Relation to Contemporary Life and Art, 1540–1800. Kessinger
Spencer, Charles. (2007) Prince Rupert: The Last Cavalier. London:
Phoenix. ISBN 978-0-297-84610-9
Urbanowicz, Gary. R. (2002) Badges of the Bravest: A Pictorial History
of Fire Departments in New
York City. Turner Publishing Company.
Warburton, Eliot. (1849) Memoirs of Prince Rupert, and the Cavaliers.
London: R. Bentley.
Wedgwood, C. V. (1970) The King's War: 1641–1647. London: Fontana.
Ashley, Maurice. (1976) Rupert of the Rhine. London: Hart Davis,
De Viet, Rens. (2010) Vlootinstructies en de eerste twee oorlogen met
Engeland in de zeventiende eeuw. MA Thesis. Rotterdam: Erasmus
University. (in Dutch)
Fergusson, Bernard. (1952) Rupert of the Rhine. London: Collins.
Irwin, Margaret. (1937) The Stranger Prince: The story of Rupert of
the Rhine. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Kitson, Frank. (1994) Prince Rupert: Portrait of a Soldier. London:
Constable. ISBN 0-09-473700-2.
Morrah, Patrick. (1976) Prince Rupert of the Rhine. London: Constable.
Petrie, Charles. (1974) King Charles, Prince Rupert, and the Civil
War: From Original Letters. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Thomson, George Malcolm. (1976) Warrior Prince: Prince Rupert of the
Rhine. London: Secker and Warburg.
Wilkinson, Clennell. (1935) Prince Rupert, the Cavalier. Philadelphia:
A Dialogue or, Rather a Parley betweene Prince Ruperts Dogge whose
name is Puddle, and Tobies Dog whose name is Pepper &c. (1643)
Media related to
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine at Wikimedia Commons
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton
Master of the Horse
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle
King Charles II
Lord High Admiral
Henry Capell, 1st Baron Capell
Henry Capell, 1st Baron Capell as First Lord
Title next held by
Charles II of England
John Mordaunt, 1st Viscount Mordaunt
Constable of Windsor Castle
Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk
Lord Lieutenant of Surrey
John Lovelace, 2nd Baron Lovelace
Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire
Dukes of Cumberland
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1644–1682)
George of Denmark (1683–1708)
Prince William (1726–1765)
Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (1766–1790)
Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (1799–1919)
ISNI: 0000 0001 0798 4063