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The Info List - Prince Philip, Duke Of Edinburgh


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United Kingdom
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Duke
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Duke
of Cambridge HRH The Duchess of Cambridge

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HRH The Duke
Duke
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Duke
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Duke
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v t e

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
(born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,[1] 10 June 1921)[fn 1] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families. He was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, his second cousin once removed, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War
Second World War
he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by King George VI
King George VI
to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents. He married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Greenwich, Earl of Merioneth and Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became monarch in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, and was formally made a British prince
British prince
in 1957. Philip has four children with Elizabeth: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward. He has eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of Philip and Elizabeth not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, which has also been used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Prince Andrew, Princess Anne
Princess Anne
and Prince Edward. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving. He is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest-ever male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, after having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Youth

2.1 Education 2.2 Naval and wartime service

3 Marriage 4 Consort of the Queen

4.1 Royal house 4.2 Duties and milestones 4.3 21st century

5 Personality and image 6 Titles, styles, honours and arms

6.1 Honours and honorary military appointments 6.2 Arms

7 Issue 8 Ancestry 9 Portrayals in film and literature 10 Bibliography 11 Notes 12 Citations 13 References 14 External links

Early life

Mon Repos, the birthplace of Philip

Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu
Corfu
on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
and Princess Alice of Battenberg.[2] Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora, Cecilie, and Sophie. He was baptised into the Greek Orthodox Church. His godparents were Queen Olga of Greece
Queen Olga of Greece
(his paternal grandmother) and the Mayor of Corfu.[3] Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, who, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten during the First World War. After visiting London for the memorial, Philip and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).[4] The war went badly for Greece, and the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others. The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, and five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, and Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life.[5] The British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud
Saint-Cloud
in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark.[6] Because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount".[7] Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, and his family spoke English, French, and German.[7] Youth Education

Philip studied at Gordonstoun
Gordonstoun
School, Scotland.

Philip was first educated at The Elms,[8] an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite".[9] In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace
Kensington Palace
and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire.[10] In the next three years, his four sisters married German noblemen and moved to Germany, his mother was placed in an asylum after being diagnosed with schizophrenia,[11] and his father moved to a small flat in Monte Carlo.[12] Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood.[13] In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Berthold, Margrave of Baden.[14] With the rise of Nazism
Nazism
in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland. After two terms at Salem, Philip moved to Gordonstoun.[15] In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke
Duke
of Hesse, her two young sons and her mother-in-law were killed in an air crash at Ostend; Philip, then sixteen years old, attended the funeral in Darmstadt.[16] The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of bone marrow cancer.[17] Naval and wartime service After leaving Gordonstoun
Gordonstoun
in 1939, Philip joined the Royal Navy, graduating the next year from the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, as the best cadet in his course.[18] During the Second World War, he continued to serve in the British forces, while two of his brothers-in-law, Prince Christoph of Hesse
Prince Christoph of Hesse
and Berthold, Margrave of Baden, fought on the opposing German side.[19] Philip was appointed as a midshipman in January 1940. He spent four months on the battleship HMS Ramillies, protecting convoys of the Australian Expeditionary Force in the Indian Ocean, followed by shorter postings on HMS Kent, on HMS Shropshire and in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).[12] After the invasion of Greece by Italy in October 1940, he was transferred from the Indian Ocean to the battleship HMS Valiant in the Mediterranean Fleet.[20]

Philip served aboard HMS Valiant in the Battle of the Mediterranean.

On 1 February 1941,[21] he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant after a series of courses at Portsmouth, in which he gained the top grade in four out of five sections of the qualifying examination.[22] Among other engagements, he was involved in the Battle of Crete, and was mentioned in dispatches for his service during the Battle of Cape Matapan,[8] in which he controlled the battleship's searchlights. He was also awarded the Greek War Cross
Greek War Cross
of Valour.[18] Duties of lesser glory included stoking the boilers of the troop transport ship RMS Empress of Russia.[23] In June 1942, he was appointed to the V and W-class destroyer and flotilla leader HMS Wallace, which was involved in convoy escort tasks on the east coast of Britain, as well as the Allied invasion of Sicily.[24] Promotion to lieutenant followed on 16 July 1942.[25] In October of the same year, he became first lieutenant of HMS Wallace, at 21 years old one of the youngest first lieutenants in the Royal Navy. During the invasion of Sicily, in July 1943, as second in command of HMS Wallace, he saved his ship from a night bomber attack. He devised a plan to launch a raft with smoke floats that successfully distracted the bombers, allowing the ship to slip away unnoticed.[24] In 1944, he moved on to the new destroyer, HMS Whelp, where he saw service with the British Pacific Fleet
British Pacific Fleet
in the 27th Destroyer Flotilla.[26][27] He was present in Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
when the instrument of Japanese surrender was signed. In January 1946, Philip returned to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on the Whelp, and was posted as an instructor at HMS Royal Arthur, the Petty Officers' School in Corsham, Wiltshire.[28] Marriage

Philip's monogram

Further information: Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh In 1939, King George VI
King George VI
and Queen Elizabeth toured the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During the visit, the Queen and Earl Mountbatten asked Philip to escort the King's two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, who were Philip's third cousins through Queen Victoria, and second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark.[29] Elizabeth fell in love with Philip and they began to exchange letters when she was thirteen.[30] Eventually, in the summer of 1946, Philip asked the King for his daughter's hand in marriage. The King granted his request, provided that any formal engagement be delayed until Elizabeth's twenty-first birthday the following April.[31] By March 1947, Philip had abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles, had adopted the surname Mountbatten from his mother's family, and had become a naturalised British subject.[fn 2] The engagement was announced to the public on 10 July 1947.[32] Though Philip appeared "always to have regarded himself as an Anglican",[33] and he had attended Anglican services with his classmates and relations in England and throughout his Royal Navy
Royal Navy
days, he had been baptised in the Greek Orthodox Church. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, wanted to "regularise" Philip's position by officially receiving him into the Church of England,[34] which he did in October 1947.[35] The day preceding his wedding, King George VI
King George VI
bestowed the style of Royal Highness
Royal Highness
on Philip and, on the morning of the wedding, 20 November 1947, he was made the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich
Baron Greenwich
of Greenwich in the County of London.[36] Consequently, being already a Knight of the Garter, between 19 and 20 November 1947 he bore the unusual style His Royal Highness Sir Philip Mountbatten and is so described in the Letters Patent of 20 November 1947.[36] Philip and Elizabeth were married in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey, recorded and broadcast by BBC
BBC
radio to 200 million people around the world.[37] However, in post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for any of the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's German relations to be invited to the wedding, including Philip's three surviving sisters, all of whom had married German princes, some with Nazi connections. After their marriage, the Duke
Duke
and Duchess of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
took up residence at Clarence House. Their first two children were born: Prince Charles
Prince Charles
in 1948 and Princess Anne
Princess Anne
in 1950. Their marriage is now the longest of any British sovereign.[38][39] Philip returned to the navy after his honeymoon, at first in a desk job at the Admiralty, and later on a staff course at the Naval Staff College, Greenwich.[18] From 1949, he was stationed in Malta
Malta
(residing at Villa Guardamangia) after being posted as the first lieutenant of the destroyer HMS Chequers, the lead ship of the 1st Destroyer Flotilla in the Mediterranean Fleet.[40] On 16 July 1950, he was promoted to lieutenant commander and given command of the frigate HMS Magpie.[41][42] On 30 June 1952, Philip was promoted to commander,[43] though his active naval career had ended in July 1951.[44][45] With the King in ill health, Princess Elizabeth and the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
were both appointed to the Privy Council on 4 November 1951, after a coast-to-coast tour of Canada. At the end of January 1952, Philip and his wife set out on a tour of the Commonwealth. On 6 February 1952, when they were in Kenya, Elizabeth's father died and she became queen. It was Philip who broke the news of her father's death to Elizabeth at Sagana Lodge, and the royal party immediately returned to the United Kingdom.[46] In 1952, Philip became a freemason, joining the United Grand Lodge of England.[47] Consort of the Queen

Coronation portrait of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
with the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh, June 1953

Royal house The accession of Elizabeth to the throne brought up the question of the name of the royal house. The Duke's uncle, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, advocated the name House of Mountbatten, as Elizabeth would typically have taken Philip's last name on marriage; however, when Queen Mary, Elizabeth's grandmother, heard of this suggestion, she informed the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who himself later advised the Queen to issue a royal proclamation declaring that the royal house was to remain known as the House of Windsor. Churchill's strong personal antipathy to Lord Mountbatten, whom he considered a dangerous and subversive rival who had lost India, may have contributed to this. Prince Philip privately complained, "I am nothing but a bloody amoeba. I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."[48] On 8 February 1960, several years after the death of Queen Mary and the resignation of Churchill, the Queen issued an Order in Council declaring that Mountbatten-Windsor
Mountbatten-Windsor
would be the surname of her and her husband's male-line descendants who are not styled as Royal Highness or titled as Prince or Princess.[49] While it seems the Queen had "absolutely set her heart" on such a change and had it in mind for some time, it occurred only eleven days before the birth of Prince Andrew (19 February), and only after three months of protracted correspondence between constitutional expert Edward Iwi (who averred that, without such a change, the royal child would be born with "the Badge of Bastardy") and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
who had attempted to rebuff Iwi.[50] After her accession to the throne, the Queen also announced that the Duke
Duke
was to have "place, pre-eminence and precedence" next to her "on all occasions and in all meetings, except where otherwise provided by Act of Parliament". This meant the Duke
Duke
took precedence over his son, the Prince of Wales, except, officially, in the British parliament. In fact, however, he attends Parliament only when escorting the Queen for the annual State Opening of Parliament, where he walks and sits beside her.[51] Contrary to rumours over the years, the Queen and Duke
Duke
are said by insiders to have had a strong relationship throughout their marriage, despite the challenges of Elizabeth's reign.[52][53] The Queen referred to Prince Philip in a speech on the occasion of her Diamond Jubilee in 2012 as her "constant strength and guide".[53] Duties and milestones As consort to the Queen, Philip supported his wife in her new duties as sovereign, accompanying her to ceremonies such as the State Opening of Parliament in various countries, state dinners, and tours abroad. As Chairman of the Coronation Commission, he was the first member of the royal family to fly in a helicopter, visiting the troops that were to take part in the ceremony.[54] Philip was not crowned in the service, but knelt before Elizabeth, with her hands enclosing his, and swore to be her "liege man of life and limb".[55]

The Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
visits Brisbane, Australia, in 1954

In the early 1950s, his sister-in-law, Princess Margaret, considered marrying a divorced older man, Peter Townsend. The press accused Philip of being hostile to the match, to which he replied "I haven't done anything." Philip had not interfered, preferring to stay out of other people's love lives.[56] Eventually, Margaret and Townsend parted. For six months, over 1953–54, Philip and Elizabeth toured the Commonwealth; again their children were left in the United Kingdom.[57] In 1956, the Duke, with Kurt Hahn, founded the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's Award in order to give young people "a sense of responsibility to themselves and their communities". In the same year, he also established the Commonwealth Study Conferences. From 1956 to 1957, Philip travelled around the world aboard the newly commissioned HMY Britannia, during which he opened the 1956 Summer Olympics
1956 Summer Olympics
in Melbourne and visited the Antarctic, becoming the first royal to cross the Antarctic Circle.[58] The Queen and the children remained in the UK. On the return leg of the journey, Philip's private secretary, Mike Parker, was sued for divorce by his wife. As with Townsend, the press still portrayed divorce as a scandal and eventually Parker resigned. He later said that the Duke
Duke
was very supportive and "the Queen was wonderful throughout. She regarded divorce as a sadness, not a hanging offence."[59] In a public show of support, the Queen created Parker a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.[60] Further press reports claimed that the Queen and the Duke
Duke
were drifting apart, which enraged the Duke
Duke
and dismayed the Queen, who issued a strongly worded denial.[61] On 22 February 1957, she granted her husband the style and title of a Prince of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
by Letters Patent, and it was gazetted that he was to be known as "His Royal Highness
Royal Highness
The Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh".[62] Philip was appointed to the Queen's Privy Council for Canada
Canada
on 14 October 1957, taking his Oath of Allegiance before the Queen in person at her Canadian residence, Rideau Hall.[63] Remarks he made two years later to the Canadian Medical Association
Canadian Medical Association
on the subject of youth and sport were taken as a suggestion that Canadian children were out of shape. This was at first considered "tactless", but Philip was later admired for his encouragement of physical fitness.[64] In Canada
Canada
in 1969, Philip spoke about his views on republicanism:

It is a complete misconception to imagine that the monarchy exists in the interests of the monarch. It doesn't. It exists in the interests of the people. If at any time any nation decides that the system is unacceptable, then it is up to them to change it.[65]

Philip at the opening of the World Championship Coach-and-fours in 1982

Philip is patron of some 800 organisations, particularly focused on the environment, industry, sport, and education. He was President of the National Playing Fields Association
National Playing Fields Association
(now known as Fields in Trust) for 64 years, from 1947 until his grandson Prince William
Prince William
took over the role in 2013.[66] He served as UK President of the World Wildlife Fund from 1961 to 1982, International President from 1981, and President Emeritus from 1996.[58] In 1952, he became patron of The Industrial Society (since renamed The Work Foundation).[8] He was President of the International Equestrian Federation
International Equestrian Federation
from 1964 to 1986,[67] and has served as Chancellor of the Universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Salford, and Wales.[68] In 2017, the British Heart Foundation thanked Prince Philip for being its patron for 55 years, during which time, in addition to organising fundraisers, he "supported the creation of nine BHF-funded centres of excellence".[69] At the beginning of 1981, Philip wrote to his eldest son, Charles, counselling him to make up his mind to either propose to Lady Diana Spencer or break off their courtship.[70] Charles felt pressured by his father to make a decision and did so, proposing to Diana in February.[71] They married six months later.

Photograph by Allan Warren, 1992

By 1992, the marriage of the Prince and Princess of Wales had broken down. The Queen and Philip hosted a meeting between Charles and Diana, trying to effect a reconciliation, but without success.[72] Philip wrote to Diana, expressing his disappointment at both Charles's and her extra-marital affairs, and asking her to examine both his and her behaviour from the other's point of view.[73] She found the letters hard to take, but nevertheless she appreciated that he was acting with good intent.[74] Charles and Diana separated and later divorced. A year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. At the time, the Duke
Duke
was on holiday at Balmoral with the extended royal family. In their grief, Diana's two sons, Princes William and Harry, wanted to attend church and so their grandparents took them that morning.[75] For five days, the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the ensuing press interest by keeping them at Balmoral, where they could grieve in private.[75] The royal family's seclusion caused public dismay,[75] but the public mood changed after a live broadcast made by the Queen on 5 September.[76] Uncertain as to whether they should walk behind her coffin during the funeral procession, Diana's sons hesitated.[76] Philip told William, "If you don't walk, I think you'll regret it later. If I walk, will you walk with me?"[76] On the day of the funeral, Philip, William, Harry, Charles and Diana's brother, Earl Spencer, walked through London behind her bier. Over the next few years, Mohamed Fayed, whose son Dodi Fayed
Dodi Fayed
was also killed in the crash, claimed that Prince Philip had ordered the death of Diana and that the accident was staged. The inquest into the Princess of Wales's death concluded in 2008 that there was no evidence of a conspiracy.[77] Prince Philip receives a Parliamentary annuity (of £359,000 since 1990[fn 3]) that serves to meet official expenses in carrying out public duties. The annuity is unaffected by the reform of royal finances under the Sovereign Grant Act 2011.[78][79] Any part of the allowance that is not used to meet official expenditure is liable for tax. In practice, the entire allowance is used to fund his official duties.[80] 21st century

The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, June 2012

During his wife's Golden Jubilee in 2002, the Duke
Duke
was commended by the Speaker of the British House of Commons for his role in supporting the Queen during her reign. The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's time as royal consort exceeds that of any other consort in British history;[81] however, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
(his mother-in-law), who died aged 101, has had the longest lifespan to date. In April 2008, Philip was admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital
King Edward VII's Hospital
for "assessment and treatment" for a chest infection, though he walked into the hospital unaided and recovered quickly,[82] and was discharged three days later to recuperate at Windsor Castle.[83] In August, the Evening Standard
Evening Standard
reported that he was suffering from prostate cancer. Buckingham Palace, which usually refuses to comment on rumours of ill health, claimed that the report was an invasion of privacy and issued a statement denying the story.[84] The newspaper retracted the report and admitted it was untrue.[85][86] In June 2011, in an interview marking his 90th birthday he said that he would now slow down and reduce his duties, stating that he had "done [his] bit".[87] His wife, the Queen, gave him the title Lord High Admiral for his 90th birthday.[88] While staying at the royal residence at Sandringham, Norfolk, on 23 December 2011, the Duke suffered chest pains and was taken to the cardio-thoracic unit at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, where he underwent successful coronary angioplasty and stenting.[89] He was discharged on 27 December.[90] On 4 June 2012, during the celebrations in honour of his wife's Diamond Jubilee, Philip was taken from Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
to the King Edward VII
Edward VII
Hospital, London, suffering from a bladder infection.[91][92] He was released from hospital on 9 June.[93] After a recurrence of infection in August 2012, while staying at Balmoral Castle, he was admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
for five nights as a precautionary measure.[94] In June 2013, Philip was admitted to the London Clinic
London Clinic
for an exploratory operation on his abdomen, spending 11 days in hospital.[95] On 21 May 2014, the Prince appeared in public with a bandage on his right hand after a "minor procedure" was performed in Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
the preceding day.[96] In June 2017, he was taken from Windsor to London and admitted to King Edward VII Hospital after being diagnosed with an infection.[97] He spent two nights in the hospital and was unable to attend the State Opening of Parliament and Royal Ascot.[98][99] Prince Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, meeting Royal Marines in his final solo public engagement. Since 1952 he had completed 22,219 solo engagements. Prime Minister Theresa May
Theresa May
thanked him, via Twitter, for "a remarkable lifetime of service".[100][101] On 20 November 2017, Prince Philip celebrated his 70th wedding anniversary with the Queen, which made her the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary.[102] On 3 April 2018, Prince Philip was admitted to the King Edward VII Hospital for planned surgery on his hip.[103] The operation, which took place the next day, was said to have been successful.[104] Personality and image

Her Majesty the Queen at Breakfast painted by her husband in 1957. Biographer Robert Lacey
Robert Lacey
described the painting as "a tender portrayal, impressionistic in style, with brushstrokes that are charmingly soft and fuzzy".[105]

Philip played polo until 1971, when he started to compete in carriage driving, a sport which he helped expand; the early rule book was drafted under his supervision.[106] He was a keen yachtsman, striking up a friendship in 1949 with Uffa Fox
Uffa Fox
in Cowes. He and the Queen regularly attended Cowes
Cowes
Week in HMY Britannia. His first airborne flying lesson took place in 1952; by his 70th birthday he had accrued 5,150 pilot hours.[107] He was presented with Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
wings in 1953.[108] In April 2014, it was reported that an old British Pathe newsreel film had been discovered of Philip's 1962 two-month flying tour of South America. Filmed sitting alongside Philip at the aircraft's controls was his co-pilot Captain Peter Middleton, the grandfather of the Duke's granddaughter-in-law, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.[109][110] He has painted with oils, and collected artworks, including contemporary cartoons, which hang at Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Sandringham House, and Balmoral Castle. Hugh Casson described Philip's own artwork as "exactly what you'd expect ... totally direct, no hanging about. Strong colours, vigorous brushstrokes."[111] His down-to-earth manner was attested to by a White House butler who recalled that, on a visit in 1979, Philip had engaged him and a fellow butler in a conversation, and poured them drinks.[112] As well as a reputation for bluntness and plain speaking,[113] Philip is noted for occasionally making observations and jokes that have been construed as either funny, or as gaffes: awkward, politically incorrect or even offensive, but sometimes perceived as stereotypical of someone of his age and background.[114][115][116][117][118] In an address to the General Dental Council in 1960, he jokingly coined a new word for his blunders: "Dontopedalogy is the science of opening your mouth and putting your foot in it, a science which I have practised for a good many years."[119] Later in life he suggested his comments may have contributed to the perception that he is "a cantankerous old sod".[120] The historian David Starkey
David Starkey
has described him as a kind of "HRH Victor Meldrew".[121] For example, in May 1999 British newspapers accused Philip of insulting deaf children at a pop concert in Wales by saying, "No wonder you are deaf listening to this row."[122] Later Philip wrote, "The story is largely invention. It so happens that my mother was quite seriously deaf and I have been Patron of the Royal National Institute for the Deaf for ages, so it's hardly likely that I would do any such thing."[123] When he and the Queen met Stephen Menary, an army cadet blinded by an IRA bomb, and the Queen enquired how much sight he retained, Philip quipped: "Not a lot, judging by the tie he's wearing." Menary later said: "I think he just tries to put people at ease by trying to make a joke. I certainly didn't take any offence."[124] During a state visit to the People's Republic of China in 1986, in a private conversation with British students from Xi'an's North West University, Philip joked, "If you stay here much longer, you'll go slit-eyed."[125] The British press reported on the remark as indicative of racial intolerance, but the Chinese authorities were reportedly unconcerned. Chinese students studying in the UK, an official explained, were often told in jest not to stay away too long, lest they go "round-eyed".[126] His comment had no effect on Sino-British relations, but it shaped his own reputation.[127] Titles, styles, honours and arms Main article: List of titles and honours of Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh

The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh, Colonel-in-Chief
Colonel-in-Chief
of the Royal Canadian Regiment, presenting the 3rd Battalion with their Regimental Colours in April 2013

Philip has held a number of titles throughout his life. Originally holding the title and style of a prince of Greece and Denmark, Philip abandoned these royal titles prior to his marriage, and was thereafter created a British duke, among other noble titles. It was not, however, until the Queen formally issued letters patent in 1957 that Philip was again titled as a prince.[62] When addressing the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh, as with any male member of the royal family except the monarch, the rules of etiquette are to address him the first time as Your Royal Highness, and thereafter as Sir.[128] Honours and honorary military appointments

Ni-Vanuatu
Ni-Vanuatu
with pictures of Philip

The Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
was appointed by King George VI
King George VI
to the Order of the Garter on 19 November 1947, the eve of his wedding. Since then, Philip has received 17 different appointments and decorations in the Commonwealth, and 48 from foreign states. The inhabitants of some villages on the island of Tanna, Vanuatu worship Prince Philip as a god; the islanders possess portraits of the Duke
Duke
and hold feasts on his birthday.[129] Upon his wife's accession to the throne in 1952, the Duke
Duke
was appointed Admiral of the Sea Cadet Corps, Colonel-in-Chief
Colonel-in-Chief
of the British Army
British Army
Cadet Force, and Air Commodore-in-Chief of the Air Training Corps.[130] The following year, he was appointed to the equivalent positions in Canada, and made Admiral of the Fleet, Captain General Royal Marines, Field Marshal, and Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the United Kingdom.[131] Subsequent military appointments were made in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia.[132] In 1975, he was appointed Colonel
Colonel
of the Grenadier Guards, a position he handed over to his son Andrew in 2017.[133] On 16 December 2015, his role as Honorary Air Commodore-in-Chief was handed over to the Duchess of Cambridge. To celebrate his 90th birthday, the Queen appointed him Lord High Admiral of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(the highest title in the organisation)[134] and Canada
Canada
appointed him to the highest ranks available in all three branches of the Canadian Armed Forces.[135] On their 70th wedding anniversary, 20 November 2017, the Queen appointed him Knight Grand Cross (GCVO) of the Royal Victorian Order, making him the first British national since his late uncle, the first Earl Mountbatten of Burma, to be entitled to wear the breast stars of four orders of chivalry in the United Kingdom.[136] Arms

Coat of arms of Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh

This box:

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Notes Following his marriage to Princess Elizabeth until 1949, Prince Philip's arms featured a differenced version of the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, derived from his ancestor Princess Alice.[137] Unlike the arms used by other members of the royal family, the Duke's arms no longer features the royal arms of the United Kingdom, as he was granted new arms by King George VI
King George VI
in 1949. However, they do feature elements representing Greece and Denmark, from which he is descended in the male line; the Mountbatten family
Mountbatten family
arms, from which he is descended in the female line; and the City of Edinburgh. Adopted 19 November 1947 Crest Issuant from a ducal coronet Or, a plume of five ostrich feathers alternately Sable and Argent; Torse Mantling Or and ermine Helm Upon a coronet of a son of the sovereign Proper, the royal helm Or[138] Escutcheon From 1949: Quarterly: First Or, semée of hearts Gules, three lions passant in pale Azure (For Denmark), Second Azure, a cross Argent (For Greece), Third Argent, two pallets Sable (For Battenberg or Mountbatten), Fourth Argent, upon a rock Proper a castle triple towered Sable, masoned Argent, windows, port, turret-caps and vanes Gules (For Edinburgh), the whole surrounded by the Garter.[138] Supporters Dexter, a representation of Hercules girt about the loins with a lion skin, crowned with a chaplet of oak leaves, holding in the dexter hand a club Proper (from the Danish and Greek royal coat of arms); sinister, a lion queue fourchée ducally crowned Or and gorged with a naval coronet Azure; Motto GOD IS MY HELP Orders The Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
ribbon HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE (Shamed be he who thinks evil of it) Banner A banner of the Duke's arms is used as his personal standard.[139] Symbolism The arms of Denmark and Greece, represent the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's familial lineage. The arms of the City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
represent Philip's dukedom. The naval crown collar alludes to the Duke's naval career. Previous versions

From 1947 to 1949: "Arms of Greece surmounted by an inescutcheon of the arms of Denmark; and over all in the first quarter the arms of Princess Alice, daughter of Queen Victoria, viz, the Royal Arms differenced with a label of three points argent, the middle point charged with a rose gules and each of the others with an ermine spot. The shield is encircled by the Garter and ensigned with a princely coronet of crosses pattée and fleurs-de-lis, above which is placed a barred helm affronte, and thereon the crest; out of a ducal coronet or, a plume of five ostrich feathers alternately sable and argent. The supporters are, dexter, the figure of Hercules proper, and sinister, a lion queue fourche ducally crowned or, gorged with a naval coronet azure."[137]

Issue

Name Birth Marriage Their children Their grandchildren

Date Spouse

Charles, Prince of Wales 14 November 1948 29 July 1981 Divorced 28 August 1996 Lady Diana Spencer Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge Prince George of Cambridge Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

Prince Henry of Wales None

9 April 2005 Camilla Parker Bowles None

Anne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 14 November 1973 Divorced 28 April 1992 Mark Phillips Peter Phillips Savannah Phillips Isla Phillips

Zara Tindall Mia Tindall

12 December 1992 Timothy Laurence None

Prince Andrew, Duke
Duke
of York 19 February 1960 23 July 1986 Divorced 30 May 1996 Sarah Ferguson Princess Beatrice of York None

Princess Eugenie of York None

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 10 March 1964 19 June 1999 Sophie Rhys-Jones Lady Louise Windsor None

James, Viscount Severn None

Ancestry In 1993, scientists were able to confirm the identity of the remains of several members of Empress Alexandra of Russia's family, more than seventy years after their massacre in 1918, by comparing their mitochondrial DNA to living matrilineal relatives, including Prince Philip, her maternal grandnephew. Philip, Alexandra and her children are all descended from Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the daughter of Queen Victoria, through a purely female line.[140]

Ancestors of Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh

8. King Christian IX of Denmark

4. King George I of Greece

9. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel

2. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark

10. Grand Duke
Duke
Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia

5. Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia

11. Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg

1. Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh

12. Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine

6. Prince Louis of Battenberg

13. Julia, Princess of Battenberg

3. Princess Alice of Battenberg

14. Louis IV, Grand Duke
Duke
of Hesse

7. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine

15. Princess Alice of the United Kingdom[141]

Portrayals in film and literature Philip has been portrayed by several actors including Stewart Granger (The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana, 1982), Christopher Lee (Charles & Diana: A Royal Love Story, 1982), David Threlfall (The Queen's Sister, 2005), James Cromwell
James Cromwell
(The Queen, 2006), In The Crown (2016 onwards), he has been portrayed by Matt Smith and Finn Elliot and he will be played by Tobias Menzies
Tobias Menzies
in future episodes.[142] Prince Philip appears as a fictional character in Nevil Shute's novel In the Wet
In the Wet
(1952), Paul Gallico's novel Mrs. 'Arris Goes to Moscow, Tom Clancy's novel Patriot Games, and Sue Townsend's novel The Queen and I.[143] A fictionalised Philip (in his capacity as a World War II naval officer) is also a minor character in John Birmingham's Axis of Time series of alternate history novels. Bibliography

Selected Speeches – 1948–55 (1957, revised paperback edition published by Nabu Press in 2011) ISBN 978-1245671330 Selected Speeches – 1956–59 (1960) Birds from Britannia (1962) (published in the United States as Seabirds from Southern Waters) ISBN 978-1163699294 Wildlife Crisis with James Fisher (1970) ISBN 978-0402125112 The Environmental Revolution: Speeches on Conservation, 1962–1977 (1978) ISBN 978-0846414537 Competition Carriage Driving (1982) (published in France 1984, second edition 1984, revised edition 1994) ISBN 978-0851315942 A Question of Balance (1982) ISBN 978-0859550871 Men, Machines and Sacred Cows (1984) ISBN 978-0241111741 A Windsor Correspondence with Michael Mann (1984) ISBN 978-0859551083 Down to Earth: Collected Writings and Speeches on Man and the Natural World 1961–87 (1988) (paperback edition 1989, Japanese edition 1992) ISBN 978-0828907118 Survival or Extinction: A Christian Attitude to the Environment with Michael Mann (1989) ISBN 978-0859551588 Driving and Judging Dressage (1996) ISBN 978-0851316666 30 Years On, and Off, the Box Seat (2004) ISBN 978-0851318981

Forewords to:

Royal Australian Navy 1911–1961 Jubilee Souvenir issued by authority of the Department of the Navy, Canberra (1961) The Concise British Flora in Colour by William Keble Martin, Ebury Press/ Michael Joseph (1965) Kurt Hahn
Kurt Hahn
by Hermann Röhrs and Hilary Tunstall-Behrens (1970) The Art of Driving by Max Pape (1982) ISBN 9780851313399 National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
Guide to Maritime Britain by Keith Wheatley, (2000) The Royal Yacht Britannia: The Official History by Richard Johnstone-Bryden, Conway Maritime Press (2003) ISBN 978-0851779379 1953: The Crowning Year of Sport by Jonathan Rice, (2003) British Flags and Emblems by Graham Bartram, Tuckwell Press (2004) ISBN 978-1862322974 Chariots of War by Robert Hobson, Ulric Publication (2004) ISBN 978-0954199715 RMS Queen Mary 2 Manual: An Insight into the Design, Construction and Operation of the World's Largest Ocean Liner by Stephen Payne, Haynes Publishing (2014) The Triumph of a Great Tradition: The Story of Cunard's 175 Years by Eric Flounders and Michael Gallagher, Lily Publications (2014)

Notes

^ He was born on 10 June 1921 according to the Gregorian calendar. Until 1 March 1923, Greece used the Julian calendar, in which the date is 28 May 1921 ^ In 1957, it was established by a ruling in Attorney-General v. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover [1957] 1 All ER 49, that all descendants of Sophia of Hanover, including Philip, were already naturalised British subjects under the terms of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705. ^ The amount was set by the Civil List (Increase of Financial Provision) Order 1990. It was initially set at £40,000 in the Civil List Act 1952, raised to £65,000 by the Civil List Act 1972, and raised to £165,000 by the Civil List (Increase of Financial Provision) Order 1984.

Citations

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Princess Anne
of Bourbon, who later married King Michael of Romania. ^ Heald, pp. 35–39 ^ Brandreth, p. 66; Vickers, p. 205 ^ a b Eade, Philip (2011). Prince Philip: The Turbulent Early Life of the Man Who Married Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Kindle ed.). Henry Holt. ISBN 9781429961684.  ^ Brandreth, p. 67 ^ Prince Philip quoted in Brandreth, p. 72 ^ Brandreth, p. 72; Heald, p. 42 ^ Brandreth, p. 69; Vickers, p. 273 ^ Brandreth, pp. 77, 136 ^ a b c Naval career, Official website of the British Monarchy, archived from the original on 29 May 2010, retrieved 7 May 2010  ^ Vickers, pp. 293–295 ^ Heald, p. 60 ^ "No. 35455". The London Gazette. 13 February 1942. p. 715.  ^ Brandreth, p. 154; Heald, p. 66 ^ Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) officers 1939–1945 – M, Unithistories.com, retrieved 12 October 2008  ^ a b Smith, David (28 December 2003), "Prince Philip's war heroics come to light after 60 years", The Guardian, London, retrieved 12 October 2008  ^ "No. 35664". The London Gazette. 11 August 1942. p. 3510.  ^ Brandreth, pp. 155–163; Heald, pp. 66–67 ^ HMS Whelp, destroyer, Naval-history.net, retrieved 12 October 2008  ^ Brandreth, p. 176 ^ Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia
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Duke
of Edinburgh, reaches 60 years as a member of the Craft". Freemasonry Today. 5 September 2013.  ^ Brandreth, pp. 253–254 ^ "Supplement to The London Gazette
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succeeds the Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
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Duke
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'did not order Diana death'". BBC
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Buckingham Palace
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BBC
News, 10 June 2011, retrieved 11 June 2011  ^ "New title for Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
as he turns 90". BBC
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News. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.  ^ Peter Hunt (24 December 2011), Prince Philip has heart procedure at Papworth Hospital, BBC
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News, 27 December 2011, retrieved 27 December 2011  ^ " Duke of Edinburgh
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Diamond Jubilee
concert". BBC News. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ "Britain's Prince Philip released from hospital in time for his birthday". CNN. 9 June 2012.  ^ "Prince Philip leaves Aberdeen hospital after five nights". BBC News. 20 August 2012.  ^ "Prince Philip leaves hospital, will recuperate at Windsor Castle". CNN. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.  ^ " Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
has 'minor procedure' on hand". BBC
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News. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.  ^ Furness, Hannah (21 June 2017). "Prince Philip admitted to hospital with infection and misses State Opening of Parliament". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Davies, Caroline (21 June 2017). "Prince Philip to spend second night in hospital". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ Mackintosh, Eliza (22 June 2017). "UK's Prince Philip discharged from hospital after treatment for infection". CNN. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ "Prince Philip carries out final royal engagement before retirement". Sky News. 2 August 2017.  ^ "Prince Philip carries out final official engagement". BBC
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News. 2 August 2017.  ^ "Queen and Prince Philip portraits released to mark 70th anniversary". The Guardian. 20 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ " Duke of Edinburgh
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admitted to hospital for hip surgery". BBC
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News. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.  ^ " Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
recovering after hip replacement operation". BBC News. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ Lacey, p. 368 ^ Heald, pp. 212–214 ^ Heald, pp. 148–149 ^ Monarchy, British. "The Royal Air Force". Official website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.  ^ Sparkes, Matthew (22 April 2014). "Royal couples' grandparents' jet-age meeting". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 May 2014.  ^ Tominey, Camilla (14 February 2016). "Truth behind Prince George's love of aviation". Daily Express. UK. Retrieved 19 February 2015. It (the photograph) shows the Duchess of Cambridge's grandfather, Captain Peter Middleton, with Prince Philip in 1962...  ^ Heald, p. 253 ^ Goodwin, Christopher (18 January 2009). "I'm tickled to death. I never thought I'd see such a thing". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Prince Philip at 90 on a lifetime of speaking his mind". BBC
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News Radio Four, 10 June 2011 ^ Brandreth, p. 46 ^ Letter of 4 June 1999 quoted in Brandreth, p. 46 ^ Leach, By Ben. " Duke of Edinburgh
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News, retrieved 12 October 2008  ^ Heald, p. 111 ^ Heald, pp. 264–267 ^ Brandreth, pp. 407–408; Heald, pp. 264–267 ^ "The Duke
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References

Alexandra of Yugoslavia
Alexandra of Yugoslavia
(1959). Prince Philip: A Family Portrait. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Boothroyd, Basil (1971). Prince Philip: An Informal Biography. New York: McCall. ISBN 0-841-50116-5 Brandreth, Gyles (2004). Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage. London: Century. ISBN 0-7126-6103-4 Eade, Philip (2011). Prince Philip: The Turbulent Early Life of the Man Who Married Queen Elizabeth II. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-805-09544-6 Heald, Tim (1991). The Duke: A Portrait of Prince Philip. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-54607-7 Lacey, Robert (2002). Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-85940-0 Vickers, Hugo (2000). Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-13686-5

External links

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Duke
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on IMDb In the Words of Prince Philip – slideshow by Life Newspaper clippings about Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW).

Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Born: 10 June 1921

British royalty

Preceded by Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon as queen consort Consort of the British monarch 6 February 1952 – present Incumbent

Peerage of the United Kingdom

New creation Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh 1947–present Incumbent Heir: The Prince of Wales

Academic offices

Preceded by The Marquess of Linlithgow Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh 1953–2010 Succeeded by The Princess Royal

New institution Chancellor of the University of Salford 1967–1991 Succeeded by The Duchess of York

Preceded by The Lord Adrian Chancellor of the University of Cambridge 1976–2011 Succeeded by The Lord Sainsbury of Turville

Honorary titles

Preceded by Queen Mary Grand Master of the Order of the British Empire 24 March 1953 – present Incumbent

Preceded by King George VI Air Commodore-in-Chief of the Air Training Corps 1953–2015 Succeeded by The Duchess of Cambridge As Air Commandant

Military offices

Preceded by Queen Elizabeth II Lord High Admiral 10 June 2011 – present Incumbent

Lines of succession

Preceded by India Hicks Line of succession to the British throne (descended from Alice, daughter of Queen Victoria) Succeeded by The Margrave of Baden

Order of precedence

Preceded by The Sovereign Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom Followed by The Prince of Wales, Duke
Duke
of Rothesay

Links to related articles

v t e

Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh

Titles

Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh Earl of Merioneth Baron Greenwich more

Ancestry

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Battenberg Mountbatten Mountbatten-Windsor

Family

Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(wife) Charles, Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
(son) Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal
(daughter) Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
(son) Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
(son) Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
(father) Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (mother) Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (sister) Theodora, Margravine of Baden (sister) Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine (sister) Sophie, Princess George William of Hanover (sister)

Events & Roles

Wedding Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's Award Prince Philip Designers Prize Prince Philip Medal Lord High Admiral

Miscellaneous

Prince Philip Movement Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's Royal Regiment HMS Magpie

v t e

Order of Precedence in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Gentlemen)

Shared (royal family)

Elizabeth II Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh Charles, Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
(in Scotland: the Duke
Duke
of Rothesay) Prince Andrew, Duke
Duke
of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
(in Scotland: the Earl of Strathearn) Prince Henry of Wales James, Viscount Severn Peter Phillips David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon Prince Richard, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of Kent Prince Michael of Kent then...

England and Wales

Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury David Lidington, Lord Chancellor John Sentamu, Archbishop of York John Bercow, Commons Speaker Norman Fowler, Baron Fowler, Lord Speaker Ian Burnett, Baron Burnett of Maldon, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales Ambassadors and High Commissioners David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, Lord Great Chamberlain Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke
Duke
of Norfolk, Earl Marshal James Ramsay, 17th Earl of Dalhousie, Lord Steward William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel, Lord Chamberlain Samuel Vestey, 3rd Baron Vestey, Master of the Horse

Scotland

Lord Lieutenants Sheriffs Principal David Lidington, Lord High Chancellor Russell Barr, Moderator of the General Assembly John Bercow, Commons Speaker David Neuberger, President of the UK Supreme Court David Mundell, Scottish Secretary Merlin Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of Scotland Torquhil Campbell, 13th Duke
Duke
of Argyll, Master of the Household of Scotland

Northern Ireland

Richard Clarke, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland) Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh (Roman Catholic) Diarmuid Martin, Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic) Michael Jackson, Archbishop of Dublin (Church of Ireland) Ian McNie, Moderator of the Presbyterian Church Chris Grayling, Lord President of the Council (Commons Leader) John Bercow, Commons Speaker David Neuberger, President of the UK Supreme Court Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke
Duke
of Norfolk, Earl Marshal James Ramsay, 17th Earl of Dalhousie, Lord Steward David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, Lord Great Chamberlain

not including short-term appointments, visiting dignitaries and most peers

v t e

British consorts

George of Denmark (1707–1708) Caroline of Ansbach
Caroline of Ansbach
(1727–1737) Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1761–1818) Caroline of Brunswick
Caroline of Brunswick
(1820–1821) Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
(1830–1837) Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1840–1861) Alexandra of Denmark
Alexandra of Denmark
(1901–1910) Mary of Teck
Mary of Teck
(1910–1936) Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
(1936–1952) Philip of Greece and Denmark (1952–)

v t e

Current consorts of sovereigns

Africa

'Masenate Mohato Seeiso Lalla Salma

Asia

Saleha Michiko Rania Sabika Jetsun Pema

Europe

Philip Silvia Marie Sonja Maria Teresa Charlene Máxima Mathilde Letizia

North America

Philip

Oceania

Philip Nanasipauʻu

See also : List of current sovereign monarchs
List of current sovereign monarchs
- Category:Royal consorts - Category:Queens consort

v t e

British princes

The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family.

1st generation

King George II

2nd generation

Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Cumberland

3rd generation

King George III Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of York and Albany Prince William
Prince William
Henry, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke
Duke
of Cumberland and Strathearn Prince Frederick

4th generation

King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke
Duke
of York and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke
Duke
of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William
Prince William
Frederick, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester and Edinburgh

5th generation

Albert, Prince Consort1 King George V
George V
of Hanover Prince George, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge

6th generation

King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke
Duke
of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke
Duke
of Albany Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover

7th generation

Prince Albert Victor, Duke
Duke
of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince Alexander John of Wales Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles
Prince Charles
Edward, Duke
Duke
of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke
Duke
of Brunswick

8th generation

King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Prince George, Duke
Duke
of Kent Prince John Alastair, 2nd Duke
Duke
of Connaught and Strathearn Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover

9th generation

Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh2 Prince William
Prince William
of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of Kent Prince Michael of Kent

10th generation

Charles, Prince of Wales Prince Andrew, Duke
Duke
of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex

11th generation

Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge Prince Henry of Wales James, Viscount Severn3

12th generation

Prince George of Cambridge

1 Not a British prince
British prince
by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince
British prince
by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see his article.

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Greek princes

Generations are numbered by descent from George I.

1st generation

King Constantine I Prince George Prince Nicholas Prince Andrew Prince Cristopher

2nd generation

King George II King Alexander I King Paul I Prince Peter Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh Prince Michael

3rd generation

King Constantine II

4th generation

Crown Prince Pavlos Prince Nikolaos Prince Philippos

5th generation

Prince Constantine-Alexios Prince Achileas-Andreas Prince Odysseas-Kimon Prince Aristide-Stavros

See also House of Glücksburg

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Danish princes

The generations are numbered from the implementation of hereditary monarchy by Frederick III in 1660.

1st generation

King Christian V Prince Frederick Prince George, Duke
Duke
of Cumberland

2nd generation

King Frederick IV Prince Christian William Prince Christian Prince Charles Prince William Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Prince George Prince Charles

3rd generation

Prince Christian King Christian VI Prince Frederik Charles Prince George Prince Frederik Christian Prince Charles

4th generation

King Frederick V

5th generation

Prince Christian King Christian VII Hereditary Prince Frederick

6th generation

King Frederick VI King Christian VIII Hereditary Prince Ferdinand

7th generation

Prince Christian Prince Christian King Frederick VII King Christian IX^

8th generation

King Frederick VIII^ King George I of Greece^ Prince Valdemar

9th generation

King Christian X King Haakon VII of Norway Prince Harald Prince Gustav King Constantine I* Prince George* Prince Nicholas* Prince Andrew* Prince Christopher* Prince Aage Prince Axel Prince Erik Prince Viggo

10th generation

King Frederick IX Hereditary Prince Knud King Olav V of Norway Prince Gorm Prince Oluf King George II* King Alexander I* King Paul I* Prince Peter* Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh*∞ Prince Michael* Prince George Valdemar Prince Flemming Valdemar

11th generation

Prince Henrik^ Prince Ingolf Prince Christian King Constantine II*

12th generation

Crown Prince Frederik‡ Prince Joachim‡ Crown Prince Pavlos* Prince Nikolaos* Prince Philippos*

13th generation

Prince Christian‡ Prince Vincent‡ Prince Nikolai‡ Prince Felix‡ Prince Henrik‡ Prince Constantine-Alexios* Prince Achileas-Andreas* Prince Odysseas-Kimon* Prince Aristide-Stavros*

Princes that lost their title following an unequal marriage are shown in italics ^Not a Danish prince by birth, but created a prince of Denmark *Also a prince of Greece ∞Also a prince of the United Kingdom ‡Also a Count of Monpezat

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Dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland*

Royal dukes

Edinburgh Cornwall & Rothesay Cambridge York Gloucester Kent

Others

Norfolk Somerset Hamilton & Brandon Buccleuch & Queensberry Richmond, Lennox & Gordon Grafton Beaufort St Albans Bedford Devonshire Argyll Marlborough Rutland Atholl Montrose Roxburghe Manchester Northumberland Leinster Wellington Sutherland Abercorn Westminster Fife

* Current title holders, listed by date of creation, from earliest to most recent

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Current members of the Order of the Garter

Ex officio

The Queen, Elizabeth II Charles, Prince of Wales

Knights and Ladies Companion

Peter, Lord Carrington Edwin, Lord Bramall John, Lord Sainsbury of Preston Candover John, Lord Ashburton Timothy Colman James Hamilton, Duke
Duke
of Abercorn Peter, Lord Inge Antony Acland Robin, Lord Butler of Brockwell John, Lord Morris of Aberavon John Major Richard, Lord Luce Thomas Dunne Nick, Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers Michael, Lord Boyce Jock, Lord Stirrup Eliza, Baroness Manningham-Buller Mervyn, Lord King of Lothbury Charles Kay-Shuttleworth, Lord Shuttleworth David Brewer 4 vacancies

Royal Knights and Ladies

Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of Kent Anne, Princess Royal Prince Richard, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Princess Alexandra Prince Andrew, Duke
Duke
of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge

Stranger Knights and Ladies

Jean, Grand Duke
Duke
of Luxembourg Margrethe II of Denmark Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden King Juan Carlos I of Spain Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands Emperor Akihito
Akihito
of Japan Harald V of Norway Felipe VI of Spain

Officers

Tim Dakin, Bishop of Winchester
Bishop of Winchester
(Prelate) James Hamilton, Duke
Duke
of Abercorn (Chancellor) David Conner, Dean of Windsor
Dean of Windsor
(Registrar) Thomas Woodcock (Garter Principal King of Arms) Patric Dickinson, Clarenceux King of Arms
Clarenceux King of Arms
(Secretary) Sarah Clarke (Black Rod)

v t e

Dukes of Edinburgh

Frederick (1726–1751) George (1751–1760) Dukes of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1764–1834) Alfred (1866–1900) Philip (1947–present)

v t e

The Football Association

Founder members

Barnes Blackheath Blackheath Proprietary School HM Civil Service Crusaders Crystal Palace Kensington School Leytonstone Forest No Names Club Perceval House Surbiton

Presidents

Arthur Pember E. C. Morley Francis Marindin Arthur Kinnaird Charles Clegg William Pickford The Earl of Athlone HRH The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh HRH The Duke
Duke
of Gloucester The Earl of Harewood HRH The Duke
Duke
of Kent HRH The Duke
Duke
of York HRH The Duke
Duke
of Cambridge

Chairmen

Charles Clegg A. G. Hines M. Frowde Amos Brook Hirst Arthur Drewry Graham Doggart Joe Mears Andrew Stephen Harold Warris Thompson Bert Millichip Keith Wiseman Geoff Thompson Lord Triesman David Bernstein Greg Dyke Greg Clarke

Secretaries

E. C. Morley R. W. Willis R. G. Graham Charles W. Alcock Frederick Wall Stanley Rous Denis Follows Ted Croker

Chief Executives

Graham Kelly David Davies Adam Crozier David Davies Mark Palios David Davies Brian Barwick Ian Watmore Martin Glenn

General Secretary

Alex Horne

v t e

Members of the Order of New Zealand

Current

Ordinary members

Miriam Dell Kiri Te Kanawa Miles Warren Jim Bolger Ken Douglas Mike Moore Thomas Williams Jonathan Hunt Lloyd Geering Kenneth Keith Don McKinnon Murray Halberg Helen Clark Bob Charles Albert Wendt Ron Carter Peter Gluckman Richie McCaw Joy Cowley

Additional members

Michael Duffy Catherine Tizard Brian Lochore C. K. Stead Prince Philip Margaret Bazley Peter Jackson Malvina Major

Honorary members

Shridath Ramphal

Deceased

Ordinary members

Arnold Nordmeyer C. E. Beeby Te Atairangikaahu Edmund Hillary Sonja Davies Jim Knox Frederick Turnovsky Richard Matthews Douglas Lilburn June Blundell Manuhuia Bennett Henry Lang Whina Cooper Jack Somerville Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan Margaret Mahy Thaddeus McCarthy Roy McKenzie James Fletcher Ivan Lichter Cliff Whiting Alan MacDiarmid David Lange Doreen Blumhardt Ralph Hotere

Additional members

Guy Powles Allen Curnow Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Janet Frame Arthur Lydiard Ann Ballin Robin Cooke, Baron Cooke of Thorndon Hugh Kawharu Paul Reeves Owen Woodhouse

Honorary members

Bill Pickering

v t e

Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 1951

Fellows

Carlyle Smith Beals John Boyd David Catcheside Arthur Herbert Cook Sydney John Folley Herbert Fröhlich Geoffrey Gee Hans Heilbronn Gerhard Herzberg Joseph Hutchinson Raymond Ing David Lack Thaddeus Mann Kurt Mendelssohn Albert Neuberger Leonard Bessemer Pfeil James Arthur Prescott Maurice Pryce William John Pugh John Ashworth Ratcliffe Thomas Alan Stephenson William Homan Thorpe Petrus Johann du Toit Alan Turing Alfred Ubbelohde

Statute 12

Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh

Foreign

Herbert McLean Evans Karl Lashley Carl Størmer Ralph Walter Graystone Wyckoff

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 105148586 LCCN: n80016941 ISNI: 0000 0001 0930 1502 GND: 118742140 SUDOC: 028299914 BNF: cb12016357w (data) MusicBrainz: 3fbae1b3-4982-4287-8f34-de4b7c8b60df NLA: 35420683 NKC: xx0031

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