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Second World War
Second World War

* Battle of Crete
Battle of Crete
* Battle of Cape Matapan * Allied invasion of Sicily * Operation Dragoon * Operation Robson * Operation Lentil * Battle of Okinawa

AWARDS Mentioned in dispatches Croix de Guerre with Palm Greek War Cross

Royal family of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the other Commonwealth realms

* HM THE QUEEN HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh

* HRH The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
HRH The Duchess of Cornwall

* HRH The Duke
Duke
of Cambridge HRH The Duchess of Cambridge

* HRH Prince George of Cambridge
Prince George of Cambridge
* HRH Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

* HRH Prince Henry of Wales

* HRH The Duke
Duke
of York

* HRH Princess Beatrice of York * HRH Princess Eugenie of York
Princess Eugenie of York

* HRH The Earl of Wessex HRH The Countess of Wessex * HRH The Princess Royal

-------------------------

* HRH The Duke
Duke
of Gloucester HRH The Duchess of Gloucester * HRH The Duke
Duke
of Kent HRH The Duchess of Kent * HRH Prince Michael of Kent
Prince Michael of Kent
HRH Princess Michael of Kent * HRH Princess Alexandra

* v * t * e

PRINCE PHILIP, DUKE OF EDINBURGH (Philip Mountbatten; born PRINCE PHILIP OF GREECE AND DENMARK, 10 June 1921) is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the other Commonwealth realms .

A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg , Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families . He was born in Greece
Greece
, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France
France
, Germany
Germany
, and the United Kingdom , he joined the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth (his third cousin through Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and second cousin once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark ), whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War
Second World War
he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets.

After the war, Philip was granted permission by King George VI
George VI
to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject , adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents. He married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Greenwich , Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became monarch in 1952, having reached the rank of commander , and was formally made a British prince in 1957.

Philip has four children with Elizabeth: Prince Charles
Prince Charles
, Princess Anne , Prince Andrew , and Prince Edward . He has eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of Philip and Elizabeth not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor
Mountbatten-Windsor
, which has also been used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Charles and Anne.

A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving . He is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh\'s Award scheme for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest-ever male member of the British royal family . Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, after having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Youth

* 2.1 Education * 2.2 Naval and wartime service

* 3 Marriage

* 4 Consort of the Queen

* 4.1 Royal house
Royal house
* 4.2 Duties and milestones * 4.3 21st century

* 5 Personality and image

* 6 Titles, styles, honours and arms

* 6.1 Honours and honorary military appointments * 6.2 Arms

* 7 Issue * 8 Ancestry * 9 Portrayals in film and literature * 10 Bibliography * 11 Notes * 12 Citations * 13 References * 14 External links

EARLY LIFE

Mon Repos , the birthplace of Philip

Prince Philip of Greece
Greece
and Denmark
Denmark
was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu
Corfu
on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg . Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita , Theodora , Cecilie , and Sophie . He was baptised into the Greek Orthodox Church . His godparents were Queen Olga of Greece
Greece
(his paternal grandmother) and the Mayor of Corfu.

Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg , then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven , died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, who, after a career in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten during the First World War. After visiting London for the memorial, Philip and his mother returned to Greece
Greece
where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) .

The war went badly for Greece, and the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I , was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others. The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis , and five senior politicians were executed . Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, and Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece
Greece
for life. The British naval vessel HMS _Calypso_ evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece
Greece
and Denmark
Denmark
.

Because Philip left Greece
Greece
as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language
Greek language
. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, and his family spoke English, French, and German.

YOUTH

EDUCATION

Philip studied at Gordonstoun School, Scotland.

Philip was first educated at an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite". In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to attend Cheam School , living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven , at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven , at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire . In the next three years, his four sisters married German noblemen and moved to Germany, his mother was placed in an asylum after being diagnosed with schizophrenia , and his father moved to a small flat in Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to _Schule Schloss Salem _ in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Berthold, Margrave of Baden . With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn , fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland. After two terms at Salem, Philip moved to Gordonstoun. In 1937, his sister Cecilie , her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke
Duke
of Hesse , her two young sons and her mother-in-law were killed in an air crash at Ostend ; Philip, then sixteen years old, attended the funeral in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
. The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of cancer of the bone marrow.

NAVAL AND WARTIME SERVICE

After leaving Gordonstoun in 1939, Prince Philip joined the Royal Navy , graduating the next year from the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth , as the best cadet in his course. During the Second World War, he continued to serve in the British forces, while two of his brothers-in-law, Prince Christoph of Hesse and Berthold, Margrave of Baden , fought on the opposing German side. He was appointed as a midshipman in January 1940. Philip spent four months on the battleship HMS _Ramillies_ , protecting convoys of the Australian Expeditionary Force in the Indian Ocean, followed by shorter postings on HMS _Kent_ , on HMS _Shropshire_ and in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
). After the invasion of Greece
Greece
by Italy in October 1940, he was transferred from the Indian Ocean to the battleship HMS _Valiant_ in the Mediterranean Fleet . _ Philip served aboard HMS Valiant_ in the Battle of the Mediterranean .

Among other engagements, Philip was involved in the Battle of Crete
Battle of Crete
, and was mentioned in despatches for his service during the Battle of Cape Matapan , in which he controlled the battleship's searchlights. He was also awarded the Greek War Cross of Valour. Duties of lesser glory included stoking the boilers of the troop transport ship RMS _Empress of Russia_ . He was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant after a series of courses at Portsmouth
Portsmouth
in which he gained the top grade in four out of five sections of the qualifying examination. In June 1942, he was appointed to the V and W-class destroyer and flotilla leader HMS _Wallace_ , which was involved in convoy escort tasks on the east coast of Britain, as well as the Allied invasion of Sicily .

Promotion to lieutenant followed on 16 July 1942. In October of the same year, he became first lieutenant of HMS _Wallace_, at 21 years old one of the youngest first lieutenants in the Royal Navy. During the invasion of Sicily, in July 1943, as second in command of HMS _Wallace_, he saved his ship from a night bomber attack. He devised a plan to launch a raft with smoke floats that successfully distracted the bombers allowing the ship to slip away unnoticed. In 1944, he moved on to the new destroyer, HMS _Whelp_ , where he saw service with the British Pacific Fleet in the 27th Destroyer Flotilla. He was present in Tokyo Bay when the instrument of Japanese surrender was signed. In January 1946, Philip returned to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on the _Whelp_, and was posted as an instructor at HMS _Royal Arthur_ , the Petty Officers' School in Corsham
Corsham
, Wiltshire.

MARRIAGE

Philip's monogram Further information: Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh

In 1939, King George VI
George VI
and Queen Elizabeth toured the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth . During the visit, the Queen and Earl Mountbatten asked Philip to escort the King's two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret , who were Philip's third cousins through Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, and second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark . Elizabeth fell in love with Philip and they began to exchange letters when she was thirteen. Eventually, in the summer of 1946, Philip asked the King for his daughter's hand in marriage. The King granted his request, provided that any formal engagement be delayed until Elizabeth's twenty-first birthday the following April. By March 1947, Philip had abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles, had adopted the surname Mountbatten from his mother's family, and had become a naturalised British subject. The engagement was announced to the public on 10 July 1947. Though Philip appeared "always to have regarded himself as an Anglican", and had attended Anglican services with his classmates and relations in England, and throughout his Royal Navy days, he had been baptised in the Greek Orthodox Church and the Archbishop of Canterbury , Geoffrey Fisher , wanted to "regularise" Philip's position by officially receiving him into the Church of England, which he did in October 1947. The day preceding his wedding, King George VI
George VI
bestowed the style of _ Royal Highness
Royal Highness
_ on Philip and, on the morning of the wedding, 20 November 1947, he was made the Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
, Earl of Merioneth , and Baron Greenwich of Greenwich in the County of London.

Philip and Elizabeth were married in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey , recorded and broadcast by BBC
BBC
radio to 200 million people around the world. Their marriage is the longest of any British sovereign. However, in post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for any of the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's German relations to be invited to the wedding, including Philip's three surviving sisters, all of whom had married German princes, some with Nazi connections. After their marriage, the Duke
Duke
and Duchess of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
took up residence at Clarence House
Clarence House
. Their first two children were born: Prince Charles
Prince Charles
in 1948 and Princess Anne in 1950.

Philip returned to the navy after his honeymoon, at first in a desk job at the Admiralty , and later on a staff course at the Naval Staff College, Greenwich . From 1949, he was stationed in Malta
Malta
(residing at Villa Guardamangia ) after being posted as the first lieutenant of the destroyer HMS _Chequers_ , the lead ship of the 1st Destroyer Flotilla in the Mediterranean Fleet. On 16 July 1950, he was promoted lieutenant commander and given command of the frigate HMS _Magpie_ . He was promoted to commander in 1952, but his active naval career ended in July 1951.

With the King in ill health, Princess Elizabeth and the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
were both appointed to the Privy Council on 4 November 1951, after a coast-to-coast tour of Canada
Canada
. At the end of January 1952, Philip and his wife set out on a tour of the Commonwealth . On 6 February 1952, when they were in Kenya
Kenya
, Elizabeth's father died and she became queen. It was Philip who broke the news of her father's death to Elizabeth at Sagana Lodge , and the royal party immediately returned to the United Kingdom.

CONSORT OF THE QUEEN

Coronation portrait of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
with the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh, June 1953

ROYAL HOUSE

The accession of Elizabeth to the throne brought up the question of the name of the royal house . The Duke's uncle, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma , advocated the name _House of Mountbatten_, as Elizabeth would typically have taken Philip's last name on marriage; however, when Queen Mary , Elizabeth's grandmother, heard of this suggestion, she informed the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill , who himself later advised the Queen to issue a royal proclamation declaring that the royal house was to remain known as the House of Windsor . Churchill's strong personal antipathy to Lord Mountbatten, whom he considered a dangerous and subversive rival who had lost India, may have contributed to this. Prince Philip privately complained, "I am nothing but a bloody amoeba. I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."

On 8 February 1960, several years after the death of Queen Mary and the resignation of Churchill, the Queen issued an Order in Council declaring that _ Mountbatten-Windsor
Mountbatten-Windsor
_ would be the surname of her and her husband's male-line descendants who are not styled as _Royal Highness_ or titled as Prince or Princess. While it seems the Queen had "absolutely set her heart" on such a change and had it in mind for some time, it occurred only eleven days before the birth of Prince Andrew (19 February), and only after three months of protracted correspondence between the constitutional expert Edward Iwi (who averred that, without such a change, the royal child would be born with "the Badge of Bastardy") and the Prime Minister Harold Macmillan (who attempted, ultimately unsuccessfully, to rebuff Iwi).

After her accession to the throne, the Queen also announced that the Duke
Duke
was to have "place, pre-eminence and precedence" next to her "on all occasions and in all meetings, except where otherwise provided by Act of Parliament ". This meant the Duke
Duke
took precedence over his son, the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
, except, officially, in the British parliament . In fact, however, he attends Parliament only when escorting the Queen for the annual State Opening of Parliament , where he walks and sits beside her.

Contrary to rumours over the years, the Queen and Duke
Duke
are said by insiders to have had a strong relationship throughout their marriage, despite the challenges of Elizabeth's reign. The Queen referred to Prince Philip in a speech on the occasion of her Diamond Jubilee
Diamond Jubilee
in 2012 as her "constant strength and guide".

DUTIES AND MILESTONES

As consort to the Queen, Philip supported his wife in her new duties as sovereign, accompanying her to ceremonies such as the State Opening of Parliament in various countries, state dinners, and tours abroad. As Chairman of the Coronation Commission, he was the first member of the royal family to fly in a helicopter, visiting the troops that were to take part in the ceremony. Philip was not crowned in the service, but knelt before Elizabeth, with her hands enclosing his, and swore to be her "liege man of life and limb". The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh visits Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia, in 1954

In the early 1950s, his sister-in-law, Princess Margaret , considered marrying a divorced older man, Peter Townsend . The press accused Philip of being hostile to the match, to which he replied "I haven't done anything." Philip had not interfered, preferring to stay out of other people's love lives. Eventually, Margaret and Townsend parted. For six months, over 1953–54, Philip and Elizabeth toured the Commonwealth; again their children were left in the United Kingdom.

In 1956, the Duke, with Kurt Hahn , founded the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh\'s Award in order to give young people "a sense of responsibility to themselves and their communities". In the same year, he also established the Commonwealth Study Conferences . From 1956 to 1957, Philip travelled around the world aboard the newly commissioned HMY _Britannia_ , during which he opened the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and visited the Antarctic . The Queen and the children remained in the UK. On the return leg of the journey, Philip's private secretary, Mike Parker , was sued for divorce by his wife. As with Townsend, the press still portrayed divorce as a scandal and eventually Parker resigned. He later said that the Duke
Duke
was very supportive and "the Queen was wonderful throughout. She regarded divorce as a sadness, not a hanging offence." In a public show of support, the Queen created Parker a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order .

Further press reports claimed that the Queen and the Duke
Duke
were drifting apart, which enraged the Duke
Duke
and dismayed the Queen, who issued a strongly worded denial. On 22 February 1957, she granted her husband the style and title of a Prince of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
by Letters Patent
Letters Patent
, restoring the princely status that he had formally renounced ten years earlier. On the same date, it was gazetted that he was to be known as "His Royal Highness
Royal Highness
The Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh".

Philip was appointed to the Queen\'s Privy Council for Canada
Canada
on 14 October 1957, taking his Oath of Allegiance before the Queen in person at her Canadian residence, Rideau Hall . Remarks he made two years later to the Canadian Medical Association on the subject of youth and sport were taken as a suggestion that Canadian children were out of shape. This was at first considered "tactless", but Philip was later admired for his encouragement of physical fitness. In Canada
Canada
in 1969, Philip spoke about his views on republicanism:

It is a complete misconception to imagine that the monarchy exists in the interests of the monarch. It doesn't. It exists in the interests of the people. If at any time any nation decides that the system is unacceptable, then it is up to them to change it. Philip at the opening of the World Championship Coach-and-fours (1982)

Philip is patron of some 800 organisations, particularly focused on the environment, industry, sport, and education. He was President of the National Playing Fields Association (now known as Fields in Trust ) for 64 years, from 1947 until his grandson Prince William
Prince William
took over the role in 2013. He served as UK President of the World Wildlife Fund from 1961 to 1982, International President from 1981, and President Emeritus from 1996. He is patron of The Work Foundation , was President of the International Equestrian Federation from 1964 to 1986, and has served as Chancellor of the Universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Salford , and Wales .

At the beginning of 1981, Philip wrote to his eldest son, Charles, counselling him to make up his mind to either propose to Lady Diana Spencer or break off their courtship. Charles felt pressured by his father to make a decision and did so, proposing to Diana in February. They married six months later. Photograph by Allan Warren
Allan Warren
, 1992

By 1992, the marriage of the Prince and Princess of Wales had broken down. The Queen and Philip hosted a meeting between Charles and Diana, trying to effect a reconciliation, but without success. Philip wrote to Diana, expressing his disappointment at both Charles's and her extra-marital affairs, and asking her to examine both his and her behaviour from the other's point of view. The Duke
Duke
was direct and Diana was sensitive. She found the letters hard to take, but nevertheless she appreciated that he was acting with good intent. Charles and Diana separated and later divorced.

A year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. At the time, the Duke
Duke
was on holiday at Balmoral with the extended royal family. In their grief, Diana's two sons, Princes William and Harry , wanted to attend church and so their grandparents took them that morning. For five days, the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the ensuing press interest by keeping them at Balmoral, where they could grieve in private. The royal family's seclusion caused public dismay, but the public mood was transformed from hostility to respect by a live broadcast made by the Queen on 5 September. Uncertain as to whether they should walk behind her coffin during the funeral procession, Diana's sons hesitated. Philip told William, "If you don't walk, I think you'll regret it later. If I walk, will you walk with me?" On the day of the funeral, Philip, William, Harry, Charles and Diana's brother, Earl Spencer , walked through London behind her bier.

Over the next few years, Mohamed Fayed , whose son Dodi Fayed was also killed in the crash, claimed that Prince Philip had ordered the death of Diana and that the accident was staged. The inquest into the Princess of Wales's death concluded in 2008 that there was no evidence of a conspiracy.

Prince Philip receives a Parliamentary annuity (of £359,000 since 1990 ) that serves to meet official expenses in carrying out public duties. The annuity is unaffected by the reform of royal finances under the Sovereign Grant Act 2011 . Any part of the allowance that is not used to meet official expenditure is liable for tax. In practice, the entire allowance is used to fund his official duties.

21ST CENTURY

The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
on the balcony of Buckingham Palace , June 2012

During his wife\'s Golden Jubilee in 2002, the Duke
Duke
was commended by the Speaker of the British House of Commons for his role in supporting the Queen during her reign. The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's time as royal consort exceeds that of any other consort in British history; however, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (his mother-in-law), who died aged 101, had a longer lifespan.

In April 2008, Philip was admitted to the King Edward VII
Edward VII
Hospital for "assessment and treatment" for a chest infection, though he walked into the hospital unaided and recovered quickly, and was discharged three days later to recuperate at Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
. In August, the _ Evening Standard
Evening Standard
_ reported that he was suffering from prostate cancer . Buckingham Palace, which usually refuses to comment on rumours of ill health, claimed that the report was an invasion of privacy and issued a statement denying the story. The newspaper retracted the report and admitted it was untrue.

In June 2011, in an interview marking his 90th birthday he said that he would now slow down and reduce his duties, stating that he had "done bit". His wife, the Queen, gave him the title Lord High Admiral for his 90th birthday. While staying at the royal residence at Sandringham, Norfolk, on 23 December 2011, the Duke
Duke
suffered chest pains and was taken to the cardio-thoracic unit at Papworth Hospital , Cambridgeshire, where he underwent successful coronary angioplasty and stenting . He was discharged on 27 December.

On 4 June 2012, during the celebrations in honour of his wife's Diamond Jubilee
Diamond Jubilee
, Philip was taken from Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
to the King Edward VII
Edward VII
Hospital , London, suffering from a bladder infection. He was released from hospital on 9 June. After a recurrence of infection in August 2012, while staying at Balmoral Castle
Balmoral Castle
, he was admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary for five nights as a precautionary measure. In June 2013, Philip was admitted to the London Clinic for an exploratory operation on his abdomen, spending 11 days in hospital. On 21 May 2014, the Prince appeared in public with a bandage on his right hand after a "minor procedure" was performed in Buckingham Palace the preceding day.

Prince Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, meeting Royal Marines in his final solo public engagement. Since 1952 he had completed 22,219 solo engagements. Prime Minister Theresa May
Theresa May
thanked him, via Twitter , for "a remarkable lifetime of service".

He is the longest-lived male member of the British royal family. He is also the longest-lived male descendant of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, having surpassed (on 13 December 2016) Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg (the Duke
Duke
of Connaught\'s grandson) who lived to be 95 years, 6 months and 5 days old. He became the world's longest-serving current consort on 13 October 2016 with the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand
Thailand
, whose widow Sirikit
Sirikit
became consort upon her marriage in 1950.

PERSONALITY AND IMAGE

_ Her Majesty the Queen at Breakfast_ painted by her husband in 1957. Biographer Robert Lacey described the painting as "a tender portrayal, impressionistic in style, with brushstrokes that are charmingly soft and fuzzy".

Philip played polo until 1971, when he started to compete in carriage driving , a sport which he helped expand; the early rule book was drafted under his supervision. He was a keen yachtsman, striking up a friendship in 1949 with Uffa Fox in Cowes
Cowes
. He and the Queen regularly attended Cowes
Cowes
Week in HMY _Britannia_ . His first airborne flying lesson took place in 1952; by his 70th birthday he had accrued 5,150 pilot hours. He was presented with Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
wings in 1953. In April 2014, it was reported that an old British Pathe newsreel film had been discovered of Philip's 1962 two-month flying tour of South America . Filmed sitting alongside Philip at the aircraft's controls was his co-pilot Captain Peter Middleton , the grandfather of the Duke's granddaughter-in-law, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge .

He has painted with oils, and collected artworks, including contemporary cartoons , which hang at Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Sandringham House, and Balmoral Castle. Hugh Casson described Philip's own artwork as "exactly what you'd expect ... totally direct, no hanging about. Strong colours, vigorous brushstrokes."

His down-to-earth manner was attested to by a White House butler who recalled that, on a visit in 1979, Philip had engaged him and a fellow butler in a conversation, and poured them drinks. As well as a reputation for bluntness and plain speaking, Philip is noted for occasionally making observations and jokes that have been construed as either funny, or as gaffes: awkward, politically incorrect or even offensive, but sometimes perceived as stereotypical of someone of his age and background. In an address to the General Dental Council in 1960, he jokingly coined a new word for his blunders: "Dontopedalogy  is  the science of opening your mouth and putting your foot in it, a science which I have practised for a good many years." Later in life he suggested his comments may have contributed to the perception that he is "a cantankerous old sod". The historian David Starkey has described him as a kind of "HRH Victor Meldrew ". For example, in May 1999 British newspapers accused Philip of insulting deaf children at a pop concert in Wales by saying, "No wonder you are deaf listening to this row." Later Philip wrote, "The story is largely invention. It so happens that my mother was quite seriously deaf and I have been Patron of the Royal National Institute for the Deaf for ages, so it's hardly likely that I would do any such thing." When he and the Queen met Stephen Menary, an army cadet blinded by an IRA bomb, and the Queen enquired how much sight he retained, Philip quipped: "Not a lot, judging by the tie he's wearing". Menary later said: "I think he just tries to put people at ease by trying to make a joke. I certainly didn't take any offence." During a state visit to the People's Republic of China in 1986, in a private conversation with British students from Xi\'an 's North West University , Philip joked, "If you stay here much longer, you'll go slit-eyed." The British press reported on the remark as indicative of racial intolerance, but the Chinese authorities were reportedly unconcerned. Chinese students studying in the UK, an official explained, were often told in jest not to stay away too long, lest they go "round-eyed". His comment had no effect on Sino-British relations , but it shaped his own reputation.

TITLES, STYLES, HONOURS AND ARMS

Main article: List of titles and honours of Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh, Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Regiment , presenting the 3rd Battalion with their Regimental Colours in April 2013

Philip has held a number of titles throughout his life. Originally holding the title and style of a prince of Greece
Greece
and Denmark
Denmark
, Philip abandoned these royal titles prior to his marriage, and was thereafter created a British duke , among other noble titles. It was not, however, until the Queen formally issued letters patent in 1957 that Philip was again titled as a prince.

When addressing the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh, as with any male member of the royal family except the monarch, the rules of etiquette are to address him the first time as _Your Royal Highness_, and thereafter as _Sir_.

HONOURS AND HONORARY MILITARY APPOINTMENTS

Ni-Vanuatu with pictures of Philip

The Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
was appointed by King George VI
George VI
to the Order of the Garter on 19 November 1947, the eve of his wedding. Since then, Philip has received 17 different appointments and decorations in the Commonwealth, and 48 from foreign states. The inhabitants of some villages on the island of Tanna, Vanuatu also worship Prince Philip as a god ; the islanders possess portraits of the Duke
Duke
and hold feasts on his birthday.

Upon his wife's accession to the throne in 1952, the Duke
Duke
was appointed Admiral of the Sea Cadet Corps , Colonel-in-Chief of the British Army
British Army
Cadet Force , and Air Commodore-in-Chief of the Air Training Corps . The following year, he was appointed to the equivalent positions in Canada, and made Admiral of the Fleet , Captain General Royal Marines , Field Marshal , and Marshal of the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
in the United Kingdom. Subsequent military appointments were made in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia
Australia
. In 1975, he was appointed Colonel
Colonel
of the Grenadier Guards
Grenadier Guards
. On 16 December 2015, his role as Honorary Air Commodore-in-Chief was handed over to the Duchess of Cambridge.

To celebrate his 90th birthday, the Queen appointed him Lord High Admiral of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(the highest rank in the organisation anyone other than the sovereign can hold) and Canada
Canada
appointed him to the highest ranks available in all three branches of the Canadian Armed Forces .

ARMS

Arms of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh

Notes Following his marriage to Princess Elizabeth until 1949, Prince Philip's arms featured a differenced version of the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, derived from his ancestor Princess Alice .

Unlike the arms used by other members of the royal family, the Duke's arms no longer features the royal arms of the United Kingdom, as men are not entitled to bear the arms of their wives. However they do feature elements representing Greece
Greece
and Denmark, from which he is descended in the male line; the Mountbatten family arms, from which he is descended in the female line; and the City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
. Adopted 19 November 1947 Crest Issuant from a ducal coronet Or, a plume of five ostrich feathers alternately Sable and Argent; Torse Mantling Or and ermine Helm Upon a coronet of a son of the sovereign Proper, the royal helm Or Escutcheon FROM 1949:

Quarterly : First Or, semée of hearts Gules, three lions passant in pale Azure (For Denmark
Denmark
), Second Azure, a cross Argent (For Greece
Greece
), Third Argent, two pallets Sable (For Battenberg or Mountbatten), Fourth Argent, upon a rock Proper a castle triple towered Sable, masoned Argent, windows, port, turret-caps and vanes Gules (For Edinburgh
Edinburgh
), the whole surrounded by the Garter. Supporters Dexter, a representation of Hercules girt about the loins with a lion skin, crowned with a chaplet of oak leaves, holding in the dexter hand a club Proper (from the Danish and Greek royal coat of arms); sinister, a lion queue fourchée ducally crowned Or and gorged with a naval coronet Azure; Motto GOD IS MY HELP Orders The Order of the Garter ribbon. HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE _(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)_ Symbolism The arms of Denmark
Denmark
and Greece, represent the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh's familial lineage. The arms of the City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
represent Philip's dukedom. The naval crown collar alludes to the Duke's naval career. Previous versions

FROM 1947 TO 1949 "Arms of Greece
Greece
surmounted by an inescutcheon of the arms of Denmark; and over all in the first quarter the arms of Princess Alice , daughter of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, viz, the Royal Arms differenced with a label of three points argent, the middle point charged with a rose gules and each of the others with an ermine spot. The shield is encircled by the Garter and ensigned with a princely coronet of crosses pattée and fleurs-de-lis, above which is placed a barred helm affronte, and thereon the crest; out of a ducal coronet or, a plume of five ostrich feathers alternately sable and argent. The supporters are, dexter, the figure of Hercules proper, and sinister, a lion queue fourche ducally crowned or, gorged with a naval coronet azure."

ISSUE

NAME BIRTH MARRIAGE THEIR CHILDREN THEIR GRANDCHILDREN

DATE SPOUSE

Prince Charles, Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
14 November 1948 29 July 1981 Divorced 28 August 1996 Lady Diana Spencer Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince George of Cambridge
Prince George of Cambridge
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

Prince Henry of Wales

9 April 2005 Camilla Parker Bowles

Princess Anne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 14 November 1973 Divorced 28 April 1992 Mark Phillips Peter Phillips Savannah Phillips Isla Phillips

Zara Tindall Mia Tindall

12 December 1992 Timothy Laurence

Prince Andrew, Duke of York 19 February 1960 23 July 1986 Divorced 30 May 1996 Sarah Ferguson Princess Beatrice of York

Princess Eugenie of York
Princess Eugenie of York

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 10 March 1964 19 June 1999 Sophie Rhys-Jones Lady Louise Windsor

James, Viscount Severn

ANCESTRY

Philip is the oldest living great-great-grandchild of Queen Victoria. Through his descent from the British royal family, he is in the line of succession to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms .

In July 1993, through mitochondrial DNA analysis of a sample of Prince Philip's blood, British scientists were able to confirm the identity of the remains of several members of Empress Alexandra of Russia 's family, more than seventy years after their 1918 massacre by the Bolsheviks. Prince Philip was then one of two living great-grandchildren in the female line of Alexandra's mother, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the other being his sister Sophie , who died in 2001.

ANCESTORS OF PRINCE PHILIP, DUKE OF EDINBURGH

16. Frederick William, Duke
Duke
of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

8. Christian IX of Denmark

17. Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel

4. George I of Greece
Greece

18. Prince William
Prince William
of Hesse-Kassel

9. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Louise of Hesse-Kassel

19. Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark

2. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark

20. Nicholas I of Russia

10. Grand Duke
Duke
Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia

21. Princess Charlotte of Prussia

5. Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia

22. Joseph, Duke
Duke
of Saxe-Altenburg

11. Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg

23. Duchess Amelia of Württemberg

1. PRINCE PHILIP, DUKE OF EDINBURGH

24. Louis II, Grand Duke
Duke
of Hesse and by Rhine

12. Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine

25. Princess Wilhelmine of Baden

6. Prince Louis of Battenberg

26. Count John Maurice Hauke

13. Countess Julia Hauke

27. Sophie Lafontaine

3. Princess Alice of Battenberg

28. Prince Charles
Prince Charles
of Hesse and by Rhine

14. Louis IV, Grand Duke
Duke
of Hesse and by Rhine

29. Princess Elisabeth of Prussia

7. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine

30. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

15. Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

31. Victoria of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

PORTRAYALS IN FILM AND LITERATURE

Philip has been portrayed by Matt Smith (_The Crown _, 2016), James Cromwell (_The Queen _, 2006), David Threlfall (_The Queen\'s Sister _, 2005), Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(_Charles ">

* ^ He was born on 10 June 1921 according to the Gregorian calendar . Until 1 March 1923, Greece
Greece
used the Julian calendar , in which the date is 28 May 1921 * ^ In 1957, it was established by a ruling in _Attorney-General v. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover _ 1 All ER 49, that all descendants of Sophia of Hanover , including Philip, were already naturalised British subjects under the terms of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705 . * ^ The amount was set by the Civil List (Increase of Financial Provision) Order 1990. It was initially set at £40,000 in the Civil List Act 1952, raised to £65,000 by the Civil List Act 1972, and raised to £165,000 by the Civil List (Increase of Financial Provision) Order 1984.

CITATIONS

* ^ Canadian Heritage; Daily Telegraph; Sky News; Website of the Royal Family, all retrieved 10 June 2011 * ^ Brandreth, p. 56 * ^ Yvonne\'s Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings * ^ Brandreth, pp. 58–59 * ^ "News in Brief: Prince Andrew's Departure", _The Times_: 12, 5 December 1922 * ^ Alexandra, pp. 35–37; Heald, p. 31; Vickers, pp. 176–178 * ^ _A_ _B_ Rocco, Fiammetta (13 December 1992). "A strange life: Profile of Prince Philip". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010. * ^ Alexandra, p. 42; Heald, p. 34. Fellow pupils at the school included Princess Anne of Bourbon , who later married King Michael of Romania . * ^ Heald, pp. 35–39 * ^ Brandreth, p. 66; Vickers, p. 205 * ^ Brandreth, p. 67 * ^ Prince Philip quoted in Brandreth, p. 72 * ^ Brandreth, p. 72; Heald, p. 42 * ^ Brandreth, p. 69; Vickers, p. 273 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 77, 136 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _Naval career_, Official website of the British Monarchy, archived from the original on 29 May 2010, retrieved 7 May 2010 * ^ Vickers, pp. 293–295 * ^ Heald, p. 60 * ^ _Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) officers 1939–1945 – M_, Unithistories.com, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Brandreth, p. 154; Heald, p. 66 * ^ _A_ _B_ Smith, David (28 December 2003), "Prince Philip\'s war heroics come to light after 60 years", _The Guardian_, London, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 155–163; Heald, pp. 66–67 * ^ _HMS Whelp, destroyer_, Naval-history.net, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Brandreth, p. 176 * ^ Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia quoted in Heald, p. 57 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 132–136, 166–168 * ^ Brandreth, p. 183 * ^ Heald, p. 77 * ^ _The Times_, 10 July 1947, p. 4 * ^ Boothroyd, Basil (1971). _Prince Philip: An Informal Biography_. McCall. pp. 45–47. ISBN 0841501165 . * ^ "Elizabeth\'s Fiance Now an Anglican" _ The New York Times _, 4 October 1947 * ^ "No. 38128". _ The London Gazette _. 21 November 1947. pp. 5495–5496. * ^ Heald, p. 86 * ^ "Queen celebrates diamond wedding". BBC
BBC
News. 19 November 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2017. * ^ Rayner, Gordon (19 November 2012). "Queen and Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh celebrate 65th wedding anniversary". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 February 2017. * ^ Heald, p. 94 * ^ Heald, p. 95 * ^ "No. 38994". _ The London Gazette _ (Supplement). 15 August 1950. p. 4152. * ^ _The Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
> Military involvement_, Official website of the British Monarchy, archived from the original on 28 May 2010, retrieved 7 May 2010 * ^ Heald, p. 97 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 245–247 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 253–254 * ^ "Supplement to The London Gazette of Friday, 5th February 1960". _ The London Gazette _. 8 February 1960. * ^ Travis, Alan (18 February 1999). "Queen feared \'slur\' on family", _The Guardian_. Retrieved 17 April 2014 * ^ British-Japanese Parliamentary Group. Tour of the Palace of Westminster. Retrieved 2012/5/2. * ^ "Love and Majesty". _Vanity Fair _. January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Prince Philip: The Man At The Queen's Side_, 5 June 2012 http://www.itv.com/news/2012-06-05/prince-philip-the-man-at-the-queens-side/ * ^ Brandreth, p. 259 * ^ Brandreth, p. 263 * ^ Brandreth, p. 270 * ^ Brandreth, p. 278 * ^ Quoted in Brandreth, p. 287 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 287, 289 * ^ Brandreth, p. 288 * ^ _A_ _B_ "No. 41009". _ The London Gazette _. 22 February 1957. p. 1209. * ^ Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002), _Fifty Years the Queen_, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 12, ISBN 1-55002-360-8 * ^ "Prince Philip (HRH The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh)", _The Canadian Encyclopedia_, Historica Canada, retrieved 23 June 2017 * ^ Brandreth, p. 50 * ^ " Prince William
Prince William
succeeds the Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
as he gives up royal role". Daily Express. Apr 9, 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2016. * ^ _The Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh: Activities and interests_, Official website of the British Monarchy, archived from the original on 6 November 2011, retrieved 19 October 2011 * ^ Brandreth, p. 344; Lacey, p. 276 * ^ Brandreth, p. 346; Lacey, pp. 277–278 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 348–349 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 349–351 * ^ Brandreth, p. 351 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 351–353 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Brandreth, p. 358 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Brandreth, p. 359 * ^ " Duke
Duke
\'did not order Diana death\'". BBC
BBC
News. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2010. * ^ "Royal Public Finances" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014. * ^ "Living off the State, A critical guide to UK Royal Finance", Jon Temple, 2nd edition 2012 * ^ "Sovereign grant Act 2011: Tax". _www.gov.uk_. Retrieved 7 August 2014. * ^ "Prince Philip reaches milestone". BBC
BBC
News. 18 April 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2013. * ^ _ Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
is in hospital_, BBC, 4 April 2008, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ _Prince discharged from hospital_, BBC, 6 April 2008, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ _Statement From Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
Following the Evening Standard\'s Story Entitled \'Prince Philip Defies Cancer Scare\'_, Buckingham Palace, 6 August 2008, archived from the original on 2 December 2010, retrieved 20 April 2010 * ^ _British Paper Retracts Story Claiming Prince Philip Has Prostate Cancer_, Fox News, 8 August 2008 * ^ _Paper apologises for Prince Philip story_, Sydney Morning Herald, 8 August 2008 * ^ _Prince Philip turns 90 and vows to \'slow down\'_, BBC, 10 June 2011, retrieved 11 June 2011 * ^ "New title for Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
as he turns 90". BBC
BBC
News. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011. * ^ Peter Hunt (24 December 2011), _Prince Philip has heart procedure at Papworth Hospital_, BBC, retrieved 24 December 2011 * ^ _ Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
leaves hospital_, BBC, 27 December 2011, retrieved 27 December 2011 * ^ " Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
hospitalised". ITN . 4 June 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2012. * ^ "Prince Philip in hospital and to miss Diamond Jubilee concert". BBC. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012. * ^ "Britain\'s Prince Philip released from hospital in time for his birthday". CNN. 9 June 2012. * ^ "Prince Philip leaves Aberdeen hospital after five nights". BBC. 20 August 2012. * ^ "Prince Philip leaves hospital, will recuperate at Windsor Castle". CNN. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ " Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
has \'minor procedure\' on hand". _BBC_. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014. * ^ "Prince Philip carries out final royal engagement before retirement". Sky News. 2 August 2017. * ^ * ^ Lacey, p. 368 * ^ Heald, pp. 212–214 * ^ Heald, pp. 148–149 * ^ Monarchy, British. "The Royal Air Force". _Official website of the British Monarchy_. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013. * ^ Sparkes, Matthew (22 April 2014). "Royal couples\' grandparents\' jet-age meeting". _Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 7 May 2014. * ^ Tominey, Camilla (14 February 2016). "Truth behind Prince George’s love of aviation". _Daily Express_. UK. Retrieved 19 February 2015. It (the photograph) shows the Duchess of Cambridge’s grandfather, Captain Peter Middleton, with Prince Philip in 1962... * ^ Heald, p. 253 * ^ Goodwin, Christopher (18 January 2009). "I\'m tickled to death. I never thought I\'d see such a thing". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ "Prince Philip at 90 on a lifetime of speaking his mind – BBC News". _ BBC
BBC
News_. Retrieved 2016-04-22. * ^ _Caught on tape: Infamous gaffes_, BBC, 19 September 2006, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Tim Blair (23 May 2008), _Prince Philip right to have a dig at Durie_, News.com.au, archived from the original on 8 January 2009, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ _AM – Prince Philip reminded of blunders on his 85th birthday_, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Naysmith, Stephen (23 April 2000), "The Ssecret Life of Prince Philip", _Sunday Herald_, archived from the original on 6 December 2008, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Duggan, Paul, "Prince Philip Has a Mouthful Of a Title. And, Often, His Foot", _The Washington Post_, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Dolby, Karen _The Wicked Wit of Queen Elizabeth II_, Michael O'Mara Books, London 2015, p44 * ^ Prince Philip quoted in Brandreth, p. 7 * ^ Starkey, speaking on BBC
BBC
News Radio Four, 10 June 2011 * ^ Brandreth, p. 46 * ^ Letter of 4 June 1999 quoted in Brandreth, p. 46 * ^ Leach, By Ben. " Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
gaffes by mocking blind boy". _Telegraph.co.uk_. Retrieved 2016-04-22. * ^ Heald, pp. 244–245; Lacey, p. 303 * ^ Lacey, p. 304; see also Heald, p. 245 for a Hong Kong version of the "round-eyed" joke. * ^ Heald, p. 246; Lacey, p. 304 * ^ Debrett\'s: section on everyday Etiquette: royalty * ^ Squires, Nick (10 June 2007), _Is Prince Philip an island god?_, London, UK: BBC, retrieved 12 October 2008 * ^ Heald, p. 111 * ^ Heald, pp. 264–267 * ^ Brandreth, pp. 407–408; Heald, pp. 264–267 * ^ "The Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
appointed Lord High Admiral". royal.uk. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2016. * ^ Office of the Prime Minister of Canada
Canada
(10 June 2011). "PM announces the appointment of His Royal Highness
Royal Highness
the Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh to the highest ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 10 June 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Boutell’s Heraldry. (1973) ISBN 0-7232-1708-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Pinces, J.H. & R.V., The Royal Heraldry of England, 1974, Heraldry Today. * ^ Cassidy, Suzanne (25 December 1993). "The British Novelist Who Turned A Class System Upside Down". _ The New York Times _. Retrieved 2015-09-16.

REFERENCES

* Alexandra of Yugoslavia (1959). _Prince Philip: A Family Portrait_. London: Hodder and Stoughton. * Brandreth, Gyles (2004). _Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage_. London: Century. ISBN 0-7126-6103-4 * Heald, Tim (1991). _The Duke: A Portrait of Prince Philip_. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-54607-7 * Lacey, Robert (2002). _Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II_. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-85940-0 * Vickers, Hugo (2000). _Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece_. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-13686-5

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