Prince Lu��s, Duke of Beja
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A prince is a
male ruler
male ruler
(ranked below a
king King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is , which title is also given to the of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to . G ...

king
,
grand prince Grand prince or great prince (feminine: grand princess or great princess) ( la, magnus princeps; Greek: ''megas archon ''Archon'' ( gr, ἄρχων, árchōn, plural: ἄρχοντες, ''árchontes'') is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequ ...
, and
grand duke Grand Duke (feminine: Grand Duchess) is a European , used either by certain s or by members of certain monarchs' families. In status, a Grand Duke traditionally ranks in below an , or and above a sovereign or sovereign . The title is used i ...
) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
(often highest), often
hereditary Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits Trait may refer to: * Phenotypic trait in biology, which involve genes and characteristics of organisms * Trait (computer programming), a model for str ...
, in some
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
an
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
. The feminine equivalent is a
princess Princess is a regal rank and the feminine equivalent of prince (from Latin ''princeps'', meaning wiktionary:principal, principal citizen). Most often, the term has been used for the consort of a prince, or for the daughter of a king or prince. ...
. The
English word
English word
derives, via the
French word
French word
''prince'', from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
noun , from (first) and (to seize), meaning "the first, foremost, the chief, most distinguished, noble
ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure distances or draw straight lines. Variants Rulers have long been made f ...

ruler
, prince".


Historical background

The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
word (older Latin *prīsmo-kaps, literally "the one who takes the first lace/position), became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and w ...

empire
, the ''
princeps senatus The ''princeps senatus'' (plural ''principes senatus'') was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. Although officially out of the ''cursus honorum The ''cursus honorum'' (; , or more colloquially 'ladder of offices') was the sequ ...
''.
Emperor Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety ...

Emperor Augustus
established the formal position of monarch on the basis of
principate The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Rep ...
, not
dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was formally accorded to Canada, Australia, Dominion of New Zealand, New Zealand, Dominion of Newfoundland ...
. He also tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, and, for that task, granted them the title of . The title has generic and substantive meanings: * Generically, ''prince'' refers to a member of a family that ruled by hereditary right (such as the
House of Sverre The House of Sverre ( no, Sverreætten) was a royal house or dynasty which ruled, at various times in history, the Kingdom of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokm ...
in
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: : ''Norge'' ; : '; Official names in minority languages: : ''Norga''; ''Vuodna''; : ''Nöörje''; fkv, Norja is a in , the territory of which compr ...

Norway
) or to non-reigning descendants, the title referring to sovereigns, former sovereigns'
descendant Descendant(s) or descendent(s) may refer to: * Lineal descendant, a consanguinous (i.e. biological) relative directly related to a person ** Collateral descendant, a relative descended from a brother or sister of an ancestor Books * The Descendant ...
s (such as the
House of Rosensverd House of Rosensverd – is a Norwegian Monarchy, royal and Nobility, noble family as direct descendantants of the ancient Norvegian House of Sverre, Dynasty the Kings from the House of Sverre Their ancestors also include all of the royal and n ...
as descendants of King
Haakon V Haakon V Magnusson (10 April 1270 – 8 May 1319) ( non, Hákon Magnússon; no, Håkon Magnusson, label=) was king of from 1299 until 1319. Biography Haakon was the younger surviving son of , and his wife . Through his mother, he was a de ...
) or to
cadets A cadet is an officer trainee or candidate. The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries. Usage by country Antig ...
of a sovereign's family. The term may be broadly used of persons in various cultures, continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title legally borne by
dynastic A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). Th ...
cadets A cadet is an officer trainee or candidate. The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries. Usage by country Antig ...
in monarchies, and borne by courtesy by members of formerly reigning dynasties. * As a
substantive title A substantive title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles ...
, a ''prince'' was a monarch of the lowest
rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked ...
in post-
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...
ic Europe, e.g. Princes of
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', w ...

Andorra
,
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a principality in Southwestern Germany. Its rulers belonged to the senior House of Hohenzollern#Swabian branch, Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. The Swabian Hohenzollerns were elevated to princes in 1623. Th ...

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
,
Mingrelia Mingrelia ( ka, სამეგრელო ''Samegrelo''; xmf, სამარგალო ''Samargalo'') is a historic province in the western part of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქარ ...
,
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque dialect, Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a Sovereign state, sovereign city-state and European microstates, microstate on the ...

Monaco
,
Waldeck and Pyrmont The County of Waldeck (later the Principality of Waldeck and Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and its successors from the late 12th century until 1929. In 1349 the county gained Imperial immediacy and in 171 ...
,
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; : ', : ) is a and geographical region of . It is situated north of the and south of the . Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections ...
, etc. * Also substantively, the title was granted by
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
s and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, however, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, ''viz'' the Princes de Beauvau-Craon, von
Bismarck
Bismarck
,
Colonna Colonna, also known as ''Sciarrillo'' or ''Sciarra'', is an Italian noble family, forming part of the papal nobility The Papal nobility is the nobility of the Holy See. History Like many other European countries, the Papal States under the temp ...

Colonna
, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von
Lichnowsky The House of Lichnowsky or House of Lichnovský is a Czech aristocratic family of Silesia Silesia (, also , ) is a historical region of Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous terr ...
, von
Pless Pleß or Pless may refer to: Places *Pleß, a municipality in the district of Unterallgäu in Bavaria, Germany * Pszczyna Pszczyna (English language, English: ''Pless'', german: Pleß, cs, Pština) is a town in southern Poland with 25,823 inha ...
, Ruffo di Calabria, (de Talleyrand) von
Sagan Sagan may refer to: Places * German name for ** Żagań, Poland ** Duchy of Żagań (1274–1549), one of the duchies of Silesia * Sagan, Iran, a village in Hormozgan Province, Iran * Sagan, West Azerbaijan, a village in West Azerbaijan Province ...
, van
UrselUrsel is a Flemish surname: Place Ursel, town in Flanders, part of Knesselare. Name * Ursel family, Noble house d'Ursel, Duke of Ursel, see too: D'Ursel Castle. ** Lancelot II of Ursel ** Charles-Joseph, 4th Duke d'Ursel ** Marie Joseph Charles ...
, etc. * Generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince (or, less commonly,
duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...

duke
) were sometimes also authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato,
Lieven The Lieven family ( lv, Līveni; russian: Ливен) is one of the oldest aristocratic families of Baltic German The Baltic Germans (german: Deutsch-Balten or , later ; and остзейцы ''ostzeitsy'' 'Balters' in Russian) are ethnic ...

Lieven
, de Merode, Pignatelli, Radziwill, von
Wrede Wrede is a surname that includes the German and Finnish-Swede noble family "von Wrede". It may refer to: People *Caspar Wrede Baron Caspar Wrede af Elimä (or Casper Wrede) (8 February 1929 in Viipuri, Finland – 25 September 1998 in Helsinki ...
,
Yussopov
Yussopov
, etc. * Substantively, the
heirs apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ( ...
in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's
realm A realm is a community or territory over which a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin ...

realm
, e.g. the Princes of Asturias (Spain), Grão Pará (Brazil, formerly), Orange (Netherlands), Viana (Navarre, formerly), Wales (U.K.), etc. * Substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the
heirs apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ( ...
of the leading
ducal A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the f ...

ducal
families to assume a princely title, associated with a ''
seigneurie A fief (; la, feudum) was the central element of feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th cen ...
'' in the family's possession. These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the ''princes de'', respectively, Bidache (Gramont), Marcillac (La Rochefoucauld), Tonnay-Charente (Mortemart), Poix (Noailles), Léon (Rohan-Chabot), etc.


Prince as generic for ruler

The original but now less common use of the word was the application of the Latin word ', from
late Roman
late Roman
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
and the classical system of government that eventually gave way to the European
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discov ...
society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory that is
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the It ...
or quasi-sovereign, i.e., exercising substantial (though not all) prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, such as the immediate states within the historical boundaries of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
. In
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
and
Early Modern Europe Early modern Europe, also referred to as the post-medieval period, is the period of European history The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past ...
, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy, Germany, and
Gaelic Ireland Gaelic Ireland ( ga, Éire Ghaelach) was the Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages ...
. In this sense, "prince" is used of any and all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank. This is the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
use of the term found in
Niccolò Machiavelli Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (; ; rarely rendered Nicholas Machiavel (see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by ...
's famous work, ''
Il Principe ''The Prince'' ( it, Il Principe ; la, De Principatibus) is a 16th-century political treatise written by Italian diplomat and Political philosophy, political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli as an instruction guide for new princes and royals. The ge ...
''."Fürst - Origins and cognates of the title", 2006, webpage
EFest-Frst
.
It is also used in this sense in the
United States Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence is the pronouncement adopted by the Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies in America which united in the American Re ...

United States Declaration of Independence
. As a title, by the end of the medieval era, ''prince'' was borne by rulers of territories that were either substantially smaller than those of or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings. A
lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the Peera ...

lord
of even a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a ''prince'' before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin ' (as for the hereditary ruler of
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign ...

Wales
) or when the lord's territory was
allodial Allodial title constitutes ownership of real property In England, English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called Land improvement, ...
. The lord of an
allodiumIn the law of the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with ...
owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory absolutely, owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a
liege lord Homage (from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the
Princedom of Dombes
Princedom of Dombes
. Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were also sometimes regarded as ''princes'' in the general sense, especially if they held the rank of
count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...

count
or higher. This is attested in some surviving
styles Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashion, a prevailing mode of clothing s ...
for e.g., British earls,
marquess A marquess (; french: marquis ), es, marqués, pt, marquês. is a nobleman Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), arist ...
es, and
duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...

duke
s are still addressed by the
Crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...

Crown
on
ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community ...

ceremonial
occasions as ''high and noble princes'' (cf.
Royal and noble styles Styles represent the fashion by which monarchs and noblemen are properly addressed. Throughout history, many different styles were used, with little standardization. This page will detail the various styles used by royalty and nobility in Europe, ...
). In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
did not prevail (e.g., Germany), all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles. While offices such as
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...

emperor
,
king King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is , which title is also given to the of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to . G ...

king
, and elector could only be legally occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as
duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...

duke
,
margrave Margrave was originally the medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the pe ...
,
landgrave Landgrave (german: Landgraf, nl, landgraaf, sv, lantgreve, french: landgrave; la, comes magnus, ', ', ', ', ') was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire, and later on in its former territories. The German titles of ', ' ("margrave"), an ...
,
count palatine A count palatine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
, and prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their
appanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is ...
to the family's original title. This tended to proliferate unwieldy titles (e.g.
Princess Katherine of Anhalt-Zerbst
Princess Katherine of Anhalt-Zerbst
; Karl, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Neukastell-Kleeburg; or Prince Christian Charles of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön-Norburg) and, as
agnatic primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inheritance, inherit the parent's entire or main estate (law), estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child o ...
gradually became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another means of distinguishing the monarch from other members of his dynasty became necessary. Gradual substitution of the title of ''Prinz'' for the monarch's title of ''
Fürst ' (, female form ', plural '; from Old High German ', "the first", a translation of the Latin ') is a German language, German word for a ruler and is also a princely title. ' were, since the Middle Ages, members of the highest nobility who ruled ...
'' occurred, and became customary for cadets in all German dynasties except in the grand duchies of
Mecklenburg Mecklenburg (; nds, label=Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnici ...

Mecklenburg
and Oldenburg. Both and ' are translated into English as "prince", but they reflect not only different but mutually exclusive concepts. This distinction had evolved before the 18th century (although Liechtenstein long remained an exception, with cadets and females using into the 19th century) for dynasties headed by a ''
Fürst ' (, female form ', plural '; from Old High German ', "the first", a translation of the Latin ') is a German language, German word for a ruler and is also a princely title. ' were, since the Middle Ages, members of the highest nobility who ruled ...
'' in Germany. The custom spread through the
Continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in area to smal ...

Continent
to such an extent that a renowned imperial general who belonged to a
cadet branch #REDIRECT Cadet branch In history and heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, ...
of a reigning ducal family, remains best known to history by the generic dynastic title, "
Prince Eugene of Savoy Prince Eugene Francis of Savoy–Carignano, (18 October 1663 – 21 April 1736) better known as Prince Eugene, was a Generalfeldmarschall, field marshal in the army of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty during the 17th an ...

Prince Eugene of Savoy
". Note that the princely title was used as a prefix to his Christian name, which also became customary. Cadets of France's other affected similar usage under the
BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich biscuit * A beer produced by Brass ...

Bourbon
kings. Always facing the scepticism of Saint-Simon and like-minded courtiers, these quasi-royal aristocrats' assumption of the princely title as a personal, rather than territorial, designation encountered some resistance. In writing ''Histoire Genealogique et Chonologique'', Père Anselme accepts that, by the end of the 17th century, the heir apparent to the
House of La Tour d'Auvergne La Tour d'Auvergne () was a noble French dynasty. Its senior branch, extinct in 1501, held two of the last large fiefs acquired by the French crown, the counties of Auvergne Auvergne (; ; oc, label=Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ) ...
's sovereign duchy bears the title ''Prince de Bouillon'', but he would record in 1728 that the heir's ''La Tour'' cousin, the Count of Oliergues, is "''known as'' the Prince Frederick" ("''dit'' le prince Frédéric"). The post-medieval rank of (princely count) embraced but elevated the German equivalent of the intermediate French, English and Spanish nobles. In the Holy Roman Empire, these nobles rose to dynastic status by preserving from the Imperial crown ( after the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
in 1648) the exercise of such sovereign prerogatives as the
minting Minting is a village and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. The village is situated south from the A158 road. The population (including Gautby) at the 2011 census was 286. Minting Priory was located here. Mint ...
of money; the muster of military troops and the right to wage war and contract
treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...

treaties
; local judicial authority and
constabularyConstabulary may have several definitions: *A civil, non-paramilitary (police) force consisting of police officers called constables. This is the usual definition in the United Kingdom, in which all county Law enforcement in the United Kingdom, polic ...
enforcement; and the habit of inter-marrying with sovereign dynasties. By the 19th century, cadets of a ' would become known as '.


Princes consort and princes of the blood

The husband of a
queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of st ...
is usually titled "
prince consort A prince consort is the husband of a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety o ...
" or simply "prince", whereas the wives of male monarchs take the female equivalent (e.g., empress, queen) of their husband's title. In Brazil, Portugal and Spain, however, the husband of a female monarch is accorded the masculine equivalent of her title (e.g., emperor, king), at least after he fathered her heir. In previous epochs, husbands of queens regnant were often deemed entitled to the crown matrimonial, sharing their consorts' regnal title and rank . However, in cultures which allow the ruler to have several wives (e.g., four in
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
) or official
concubine Concubinage is an interpersonal The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclos ...
s (e.g.,
Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...
,
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
,
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern A ...

Thailand
,
KwaZulu-Natal KwaZulu-Natal (, also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; zu, iKwaZulu-Natali; xh, KwaZulu-Natala; af, KwaZoeloe-Natal) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu people, ...
), these women, sometimes collectively referred to as a
harem Harem ( ar, حريم ''ḥarīm'', "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family") properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice ...
, often have specific rules determining their relative hierarchy and a variety of titles, which may distinguish between those whose offspring can be in line for the succession or not, or specifically who is mother to the heir to the throne. To complicate matters, the style ''His/Her (Imperial/Royal) Highness'', a
prefix A prefix is an which is placed before the of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix ''un-'' is added to the word ''happy'', it creates the word ''unhappy''. Particularly in t ...
often accompanying the title of a dynastic prince, may be awarded/withheld separately (as a compromise or consolation prize, in some sense, e.g., Duke of Cádiz,
Duchess of Windsor Wallis, Duchess of Windsor (born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1896 – 24 April 1986), known as Wallis Simpson, was an American socialite and wife of the Duke of Windsor, the former British king Edward VIII. Their intention to marry a ...
, Princesse de Réthy, Prince d'Orléans-Braganza). Although the arrangement set out above is the one that is most commonly understood, there are also different systems. Depending on country, epoch, and translation, other usages of "prince" are possible. Foreign-language titles such as , , , (non-reigning descendant of a reigning monarch),
Duden The Duden () is a dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is ...

Duden
; Definition of the German title ''Fürst'' (in German)

Duden The Duden () is a dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is ...

Duden
; Definition of the German title ''Prinz'' (in German)

russian: князь,
knyaz or () is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English as prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a k ...
, etc., are usually translated as "prince" in English. Some princely titles are derived from those of national rulers, such as
tsarevich TsarevichAlso spelled ''Czarevich'' in English. (russian: Царевич, ) is a Slav Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages ...
from
tsar , by Ivan Makarov Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate East and South Slavic monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mi ...

tsar
. Other examples are (all using the
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
patronymic suffix ''-zada'', meaning "son, descendant"). However, some princely titles develop in unusual ways, such as adoption of a style for dynasts which is not pegged to the ruler's title, but rather continues an old tradition (e.g., "
grand duke Grand Duke (feminine: Grand Duchess) is a European , used either by certain s or by members of certain monarchs' families. In status, a Grand Duke traditionally ranks in below an , or and above a sovereign or sovereign . The title is used i ...
" in
Romanov The House of Romanov (also transcribed Romanoff; rus, Рома́новы, Románovy, rɐˈmanəvɨ) was the reigning imperial house of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning ...
Russia or "
archduke Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within ...
" in Habsburg Austria), claims dynastic succession to a lost monarchy (e.g. for the La Trémoïlle heirs to the
Neapolitan throne
Neapolitan throne
), or descends from a ruler whose princely title or sovereign status was not de jure hereditary, but attributed to descendants as an international courtesy, (e.g., Bibesco-Bassaraba de Brancovan,
Poniatowski Poniatowski (plural: ''Poniatowscy'') is a prominent Poles, Polish family that was part of the szlachta, nobility of Poland. A member of this family, Stanisław August Poniatowski, Stanisław Poniatowski, was elected as King of Poland and reigne ...

Poniatowski
,
Ypsilanti
Ypsilanti
).


Specific titles

In some dynasties, a specific style other than prince has become customary for dynasts, such as in the
House of Capet The House of Capet (french: Maison capétienne) or the Direct Capetians (''Capétiens directs''), also called the House of France (''la maison de France''), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most s ...
, and . was borne by children of the monarch other than the
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
in all of the
Iberian Iberian refers to Iberia (disambiguation), Iberia. Most commonly Iberian refers to: *Someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Spain, Portugal and Andorra. The term ''Iberian'' is also used to refer to anything pertain ...

Iberian
monarchies. Some monarchies used a specific princely title for their heirs, such as
Prince of Asturias Prince or Princess of Asturias ( es, link=no, Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title used by the heir apparent or heir presumptive to the monarchy of Spain, throne of Spain. According to the Spanish Constitution of 1978: ...
in Spain and
Prince of Brazil Prince of Brazil ( pt, Príncipe do Brasil) was the title held by the heir-apparent to the Kingdom of Portugal, from 1645 to 1815. Tied with the title of Prince of Brazil was the title Duke of Braganza and the various subsidiary titles of the D ...
in Portugal. Sometimes a specific title is commonly used by various dynasties in a region, e.g. Mian in various of the Punjabi princely Hill States (lower Himalayan region in British India). European dynasties usually awarded
appanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is ...
s to princes of the blood, typically attached to a feudal noble title, such as
Prince of Orange Prince of Orange (or Princess of Orange if the holder is female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or ...
in the Netherlands, Britain's royal dukes, the in France, the Count of Flanders in Belgium, and the Count of Syracuse in
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...
. Sometimes appanage titles were princely, e.g. Prince of Achaia (Courtenay), (Bourbon), Prince of Carignan (Savoy), but it was the fact that their owners were of princely ''rank'' rather than that they held a princely ''title'' which was the source of their pre-eminence. For the often specific terminology concerning an heir apparent, see
Crown prince A crown prince or hereditary prince is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it ...

Crown prince
.


Prince as a substantive title

Other princes derive their title not from dynastic membership as such, but from inheritance of a title named for a specific and historical territory. The family's possession of prerogatives or properties in that territory might be long past. Such were most of the "princedoms" of France's ''
ancien régime The '' Storming of the Bastille'' on 14 July 1789, later taken to mark the end of the ''Ancien Régime''; watercolour by Jean-Pierre Houël The Ancien Régime (; ; literally "old rule"), also known as the Old Regime, was the political and soc ...
'', so resented for their pretentiousness in the memoirs of Saint-Simon. These included the princedoms of Arches-Charleville, Boisbelle-Henrichemont, Chalais, Château-Regnault, Guéménée, Martigues, Mercœur, Sedan, Talmond, Tingrey, and the "kingship" of Yvetot, among others.


Prince as a reigning monarch

A prince or princess who is the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
of a territory that has a
monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore ...
as a
form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...
is a reigning prince.


Extant principalities

The current princely monarchies include: * The co-principality of
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', w ...
(current reigning princes are the
French President The president of France, officially the president of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state ( ...
Emmanuel Macron Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician who has been serving as the president of France and ''ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) wh ...
and HE Joan Enric Vives Sicília) * The
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...

emir
ate of
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
(current reigning emir is
Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah ( ar, نواف الأحمد الجابر الصباح ''Nawwāf al-ʾAḥmad al-Jābir aṣ-Ṣabāḥ''; born 25 June 1937) is the and the of the . On 30 September 2020, he succeeded to the throne following th ...
) * The
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...
of
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein ( ; ), officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (german: link=no, Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europ ...

Liechtenstein
(current reigning prince is
Hans-Adam II Hans-Adam II (Johannes Adam Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marco d'Aviano Pius; born 14 February 1945) is the reigning prince of Liechtenstein. He is the son of Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1906–1989) and his wife, Countess Georgina v ...
) * The principality of
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque dialect, Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a Sovereign state, sovereign city-state and European microstates, microstate on the ...

Monaco
(current reigning prince is
Albert II
Albert II
) * The
Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta ( it, Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; l ...
(currently vacant following the death of
Giacomo dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto Friar, Fra' Giacomo dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto (9 December 1944 – 29 April 2020) was the 80th List of Princes and Grand Masters of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of ...
,
Marco Luzzago
Marco Luzzago
is Lieutenant of the Grand Master and acting head of the order. The election of a permanent successor has been delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic ) * The emirate of Qatar (current reigning emir is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani) * The member emirates of the federation in the United Arab Emirates (''United Arab Principalities''): ** Abu Dhabi (Emir Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, also President of the UAE) ** Ajman (Emir Humaid bin Rashid Al Nuaimi) ** Dubai (Emir Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, also Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE) ** Fujairah (Emir Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi) ** Ras al-Khaimah (Emir Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi) ** Emirate of Sharjah, Sharjah (Emir Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi, Sultan III bin Muhammad al-Qasimi) ** Umm al-Quwain (Emir Saud bin Rashid Al Mu'alla) File:Coat of arms of Andorra.svg, Coat of arms of the principality of Andorra (1607). File:Staatswappen-Liechtensteins.svg, Coat of arms of the
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...
of
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein ( ; ), officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (german: link=no, Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europ ...

Liechtenstein
(1719).


"Micronations"

In the same tradition, some self-proclaimed monarchs of so-called "micronations" style themselves as princes: * Roy Bates called himself "Prince Roy" of the Principality of Sealand * Leonard George Casley called himself "Prince Leonard I" of the Principality of Hutt River (enclave in Australia)


Prince exercising head of state's authority

Various monarchies provide for different modes in which princes of the dynasty can temporarily or permanently share in the style and/or office of the monarch, e.g. as regent or viceroy. Though these offices may not be reserved legally for members of the ruling dynasty, in some traditions they are filled by dynasts, a fact which may be reflected in the style of the office, e.g. "Napoleon III#Prince-President (1848–51), prince-president" for Napoleon III as French
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
but not yet emperor, or "prince-lieutenant" in Luxembourg, repeatedly filled by the crown prince before the grand duke's abdication, or in form of . Some monarchies even have a practice in which the monarch can formally abdicate in favour of his heir and yet retain a kingly title with executive power, e.g. ''Maha Upayuvaraja'' (Sanskrit for ''Great Joint King'' in Cambodia), though sometimes also conferred on powerful regents who exercised executive powers.


Non-dynastic princes

In several countries of the European continent, such as France, prince can be an aristocratic title of someone having a high rank of
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
or as lord of a significant fief, but not ruling any actual territory and without any necessary link to the royal family, which makes it difficult to compare with the British system of royal princes. France and the Holy Roman Empire The kings of France started to bestow the style of prince, as a title among the nobility, from the 16th century onwards. These titles were created by elevating a to the nominal status of a principality—although prerogatives of sovereignty were never conceded in the letters patent. Princely titles self-assumed by the and by the were generally tolerated by the king and used at the royal court, outside the Parlement of Paris. These titles held no official place in the hierarchy of the nobility, but were often treated as ranking just below French peerage, ducal peerages, since they were often inherited (or assumed) by ducal heirs: * French titles of prince recognized by the king ** Holy Roman Empire states annexed by France *** Arches-Charleville: in the Ardennes region, near the border with the Empire *** Château-Renaud: near Arches-Charleville *** Dombes: on the east bank of the Rhône *** Principality of Orange, Orange *** Sedan, France, Sedan: held by the Duchy of Bouillon, Dukes of Bouillon ** Ancient principalities seated in the Kingdom of France *** Boisbelle, later Henrichemont: in the Berry (province), Berry region, a sovereign principality recognized in 1598 *** Luxe: in the Béarn region, also styled ''Sovereign Count'' (cf. Graf#Gefürsteter Graf, Princely Count) *** Yvetot: in the Normandy region, recognized, nominally, as ''King of Yvetot'' ** Principalities created by the King *** Château-Porcien: in the Ardennes region, created in 1561 for the House of Croÿ *** Guéméné: in Brittany, created in 1667 for the House of Rohan (title borne by the Duke of Montbazon or his heir) *** Joinville, Haute-Marne, Joinville: in the Champagne, France, Champagne region, created in 1552 for the House of Lorraine *** Martigues: in the Provence region, created 16th century for
cadets A cadet is an officer trainee or candidate. The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries. Usage by country Antig ...
of the House of Lorraine *** Mercœur: in the Auvergne (province), Auvergne region, created in 1563 for cadets of the House of Lorraine, later a duchy; recreated in 1719 *** Tingry: in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, created in 1587 for the House of Luxemburg ** The princes of prince of Condé, Condé and prince of Conti, Conti, heads of
cadet branch #REDIRECT Cadet branch In history and heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, ...
es of the French royal House of Bourbon: used recognized princely titles, but the lordships of Condé and Conti were never formally created principalities by the King * Unrecognized titles of Prince ** Aigremont ** Anet: used by the Dukes of Vendôme, then the Dukes of Penthièvre ** Antibes: claimed by the de Grasse family ** Bédeille, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Bédeille: in Béarn ** Bidache: in Béarn used by the Duke of Gramont, Dukes of Gramont, but the heir was usually styled Count of Guiche rather than Prince of Bidache ** Carency: in Artois (originally a lordship of the House of Bourbon, it was inherited by the Counts of La Vauguyon, who used the style of Prince of Carency for the heir) ** Chabanais: in Angoumois; reduced to a marquisate in 1702 ** Chalais, Dordogne, Chalais: in Périgord (inherited by the elder branch of the Talleyrand family; Spanish Grandeeship attached to the title in 1714) ** Commercy: lordship of Lorraine (region), Lorraine (cadets of the House of Lorraine used the style of Prince of Commercy) ** Courtenay: the House of Courtenay legitimately descended from Louis VI of France but was not recognized as by France's kings. The last branch of the house used the style of Prince of Courtenay from the 17th century. The style passed to the Dukes of Bauffremont. ** Elbeuf: lordship of Normandy (younger sons of the House of Guise used the style of ; later a duchy) ** Lamballe: in Brittany, used by the heir of the
BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich biscuit * A beer produced by Brass ...

Bourbon
Duke of Penthièvre ** Lambesc: in Provence, used by various cadets of the House of Guise, notably by the heirs of the Dukes of Elbeuf ** Kingdom of León, Léon: viscountcy of Brittany (the heirs of the Dukes of Rohan used the style of Prince of Léon) ** Listenois: in Franche-Comté, used by the Dukes of Bauffremont after the Courtenay inheritance ** Marcillac: in Angoumois, used by the heir of the Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Duke de La Rochefoucauld ** Maubuisson: in Île-de-France, used by the Dukes of Rohan-Rohan ** Montauban: in Brittany, used by various cadets of the House of Rohan ** Montbazon: a duchy of the House of Rohan, style of Prince of Montbazon used by various cadets of the House ** Mortagne-sur-Gironde, Mortagne: in Aquitaine, used by the Duke of Richelieu, Dukes of Richelieu ** Poix-de-Picardie, Poix: in Picardy, used by various families, twice raised to a duchy ** Pons: in County of Saintonge, Saintonge, used by cadets of the House of Guise ** Rochefort, Charente-Maritime, Rochefort: used by cadets of the House of Rohan ** Siles, Spain: used by the head of the House of Siles ** Soubise, Charente-Maritime, Soubise: used by head of the second branch of the House of Rohan, also Dukes of Rohan-Rohan ** Soyons: in Dauphiné, used by cadets of the Dukes of Uzès ** Talmond: in Vendée, used by the Dukes of La Trémoïlle ** Tonnay-Charente: used by the heirs of the Dukes of Mortemart ** Turenne: viscounty of the House of La Tour d'Auvergne, style of Prince de Turenne used by cadets of the house ** Villegas, Province of Burgos: used by the head of the House of Villegas This can even occur in a monarchy within which an identical but real and substantive feudal title exists, such as ' in German. An example of this is: * Otto von Bismarck was created Prince of Bismarck, Prince von Bismarck in the empire of reunited Germany, under the Hohenzollern dynasty. Spain, France and Netherlands In other cases, such titular princedoms are created in chief of an event, such as a treaty or a victory. Examples include: * The Spanish minister Manuel Godoy was created ''Principe de la Paz'' ("Prince of Peace") by his king for negotiating the 1795 double peace treaty of Basilea, by which the revolutionary French republic made peace with Prussia and with Spain. * The triumphant generals who led their troops to victory often received a victory title from Napoleon, both princely and ducal. * King William I of the Netherlands bestowed the victory title of Prince of Waterloo upon Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington after his defeat of Napoleon I Bonaparte at Battle of Waterloo, Waterloo in 1815. *Joseph Bonaparte conferred the title "Prince of Spain" to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren in the male and female line. Eastern Europe In the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the titles of prince dated either to the times before the Union of Lublin or were granted to Polish nobles by foreign monarchs, as the law in Poland forbade the king from dividing nobility by granting them hereditary titles: see The Princely Houses of Poland. In the Russian system, (), translated as "prince", is the highest degree of official nobility. Members of older dynasties, whose realms were eventually annexed to the Russian Empire, were also accorded the title of '—sometimes after first being allowed to use the higher title of
tsarevich TsarevichAlso spelled ''Czarevich'' in English. (russian: Царевич, ) is a Slav Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages ...
(e.g. the Princes Gruzinsky and Sibirsky (surname), Sibirsky). The many surviving branches of the Rurik dynasty used the ' title before and after they yielded sovereignty to their kinsmen, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Princes of Muscovy, who became Tsars and, under the House of Romanov, Emperors of Russia.


Title in various Western traditions and languages

In each case, the title is followed (when available) by the female form and then (not always available, and obviously rarely applicable to a prince of the blood without a principality) the name of the territory associated with it, each separated by a slash. If a second title (or set) is also given, then that one is for a Prince of the blood, the first for a principality. Be aware that the absence of a separate title for a prince of the blood may not always mean no such title exists; alternatively, the existence of a word does not imply there is also a reality in the linguistic territory concerned; it may very well be used exclusively to render titles in other languages, regardless whether there is a historical link with any (which often means that linguistic tradition is adopted) Etymologically, we can discern the following traditions (some languages followed a historical link, e.g. within the Holy Roman Empire, not their language family; some even fail to follow the same logic for certain other aristocratic titles):


Romance languages

*Languages (mostly Romance languages, Romance) only using the Latin language, Latin root ': **Catalan: Príncep/Princesa, Príncep/Princesa **French: Prince/Princesse, Prince/Princesse **Friulian: Princip/Principesse, Princip/Principesse **Italian: Principe/Principessa, Principe/Principessa **Latin (post-Roman): Princeps/*Princeps/* **Monegasque: Principu/Principessa, Principu/Principessa **Occitan: Prince/Princessa, Prince/Princessa **Portuguese: Príncipe/Princesa, Príncipe/Princesa **Rhaeto-Romansh: Prinzi/Prinzessa, Prinzi/Prinzessa **Romanian: Prinţ/Prinţesă, Principe/Principesă **Spanish: Príncipe/Princesa, Príncipe/Princesa **Venetian: Principe/Principessa, Principe/Principessa


Celtic languages

*Celtic languages: **Breton: Priñs/Priñsez **Irish: Prionsa/Banphrionsa, Flaith/Banfhlaith **Scottish Gaelic: Prionnsa/Bana-phrionnsa, Flath/Ban-fhlath **Welsh: Tywysog/Tywysoges, Prins/Prinses


Germanic languages

* Languages (mainly Germanic languages, Germanic) that use (generally alongside a '-derivate for princes of the blood) an equivalent of the German ''
Fürst ' (, female form ', plural '; from Old High German ', "the first", a translation of the Latin ') is a German language, German word for a ruler and is also a princely title. ' were, since the Middle Ages, members of the highest nobility who ruled ...
'': **Anglo-Teutonic: King's Thane **English: Prince/Princess, Prince/Princess **Afrikaans: Prins **Danish: Fyrste/Fyrstinde, Prins/Prinsesse **Dutch: Vorst/Vorstin, Prins/Prinses **Faroese: Fúrsti/Fúrstafrúa/Fúrstinna, Prinsur/Prinsessa **West Frisian: Foarst/Foarstinne, Prins/Prinsesse **German: Fürst/Fürstin, Prinz/Prinzessin **Icelandic: Fursti/Furstynja, Prins/Prinsessa **Luxembourgish: Fürst/Fürstin, Prënz/Prinzessin **Norwegian: Fyrste/Fyrstinne, Prins/Prinsesse **Old Norwegian, Old-Norwegian - Konningers Thienner (Prince) **Old English: Ǣðeling/Hlæfdiġe **Swedish: Furste/Furstinna, Prins/Prinsessa


Slavic languages

* Slavic languages, Slavic: **Belarusian: Tsarevich/Tsarewna, Karalevich/Karalewna, Prynts/Pryntsesa **Bosnian: Кнез/Кнегиња (Knez/Kneginja), Краљевић/Краљевна (Kraljević/Kraljevna), Принц/Принцеза (Princ/Princeza) **Bulgarian (phonetically spelt): Knyaz/Knyaginya, Prints/Printsesa **Croatian: Knez/Kneginja, Kraljević/Kraljevna, Princ/Princeza **Czech: Kníže/Kněžna, Kralevic, Princ/Princezna **Macedonian: Knez/Knegina, Princ/Princeza **Polish: Książę/Księżna, Królewicz/Królewna **Russian: Князь/Княгиня (Knyaz/Knyagina/Knyazhna), Tsarevich/Tsarevna, Korolyevich/Korolyevna, Prints/Printsessa **Serbian: Кнез/Кнегиња (Knez/Kneginja), Краљевић/Краљевна (Kraljević/Kraljevna), Принц/Принцеза (Princ/Princeza) **Slovak: Knieža/Kňažná, Kráľovič, Princ/Princezná **Slovene: Knez/Kneginja, Princ/Princesa, Kraljevič/Kraljična **Ukrainian: Knyaz/Knyazhnya, Tsarenko/Tsarivna, Korolenko/Korolivna, Prints/Printsizna


Other Western languages

*Albanian: Princ/Princeshë, Princ/Princeshë *Estonian: Vürst/Vürstinna, Prints/Printsess *Finnish: Ruhtinas/Ruhtinatar, Prinssi/Prinsessa *Georgian: თავადი/''Tavadi'', უფლისწული/"Uplists'uli" ("Child of the Lord") *Greek (Medieval, formal): Πρίγκηψ/Πριγκήπισσα (Prinkips/Prinkipissa) *Greek (Modern, colloquial): Πρίγκηπας/Πριγκήπισσα (Prinkipas/Prinkipissa) *Hungarian (Magyar): ''Herceg''/''Hercegnő'' or ''Fejedelem''/''Fejedelemnő'' if head of state *Latvian: Firsts/Firstiene, Princis/Princese *Lithuanian: Kunigaikštis/Kunigaikštienė, Princas/Princese *Maltese: Prinċep/Prinċipessa, Prinċep/Prinċipessa *
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
: Shahzade (both genders), Shahpour (King's son in general) *Turkish: Prens/Prenses, Şehzade


Title in other traditions and languages

In Netherlands, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Russia, Spain and Hungary the title of ''prince'' has also been used as the highest title of
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
(without membership in a ruling dynasty), above the title of ''duke'', while the same usage (then as ''Fürst'') has occurred in Germany and Austria but then one rank below the title of ''duke'' and above ''count''. The above is essentially the story of European, Christian dynasties and other nobility, also 'exported' to their colonial and other overseas territories and otherwise adopted by rather westernized societies elsewhere (e.g. Haiti). Applying these essentially western concepts, and terminology, to other cultures even when they don't do so, is common but in many respects rather dubious. Different (historical, religious...) backgrounds have also begot significantly different dynastic and nobiliary systems, which are poorly represented by the 'closest' western analogy. It therefore makes sense to treat these per civilization.


Islamic traditions

*Arabian tradition since the caliphate—in several monarchies it remains customary to use the title Sheikh (in itself below princely rank) for all members of the royal family. In families (often reigning dynasties) which claim descent from Muhammad, this is expressed in either of a number of titles (supposing different exact relations): sayid, sharif; these are retained even when too remote from any line of succession to be a member of any dynasty. *In Saudi Arabia the title of Emir is used in role of prince for all members of the House of Saud. *In Iraq, the direct descendants of previous Emirs from the largest tribes, who ruled the kingdoms before modern statehood, use the title of Sheikh or Prince as the progeny of royalty. *In the Ottoman Empire, the sovereign of imperial rank (incorrectly known in the west as ''(Great) sultan'') was styled ''padishah'' with a host of additional titles, reflecting his claim as political successor to the various conquered states. Princes of the blood, male, were given the style Şehzade. *Persia (Iran)—Princes as members of a royal family, are referred to by the title ''Shahzadeh'', meaning "descendant of the king". Since the word ''zadeh'' could refer to either a male or female descendant, ''Shahzadeh'' had the parallel meaning of "princess" as well. Princes can also be sons of provincial kings (Khan (title), Khan) and the title referring to them would be the title of Khanzadeh. Princes as people who got a title from the King are called "Mirza", diminutive of "Amir Zadeh" (King's Son). *In Indian Muslim dynasties, the most common titles were ''Mirza'' (from ''Amirzada'') and ''Shah#Shahzada, Shahzada''; while ''Nawabzada'' and ''Sahibzada'' were also given to younger blood princes. *In Kazakh Khanate the title Sultan was used for lords from a ruling dynasty (direct descendants of Genghis Khan), that gives them a right to be elected as khan (title), khan, as an experienced ruler; and an honorific ''tore'' (:ru:Торе (род)) for ordinary members of a ruling dynasty.


Non-Islamic Asian traditions


China

Before Qin dynasty, prince (in the sense of royal family member) had no special title. Since Han dynasty, royal family members were entitled ''Wang'' (, lit. King), the former highest title which was then replaced by ''Huang Di'' (, lit. Emperor). Since Western Jin, the ''Wang'' rank was divided into two ranks, ''Qin Wang'' (, lit. King of the Blood) and ''Jun Wang'' (, lit. King of the Commandery). Only family of the Emperor can be entitled ''Qin Wang'', so prince is usually translated as ''Qin Wang'', e.g. 菲利普親王 (Prince Philip). For the son of the ruler, prince is usually translated as ''Huang Zi'' (, lit. Son of the Emperor) or ''Wang Zi'' ( lit., Son of the King), e.g. 查爾斯王子 (Prince Charles). As a title of nobility, prince can be translated as ''Qin Wang'' according to tradition, ''Da Gong'' (大公, lit., Grand Duke) if one want to emphasize that it is a very high rank but below the King (''Wang''), or just ''Zhu Hou'' (, lit. princes) which refers to princes of all ranks in general. For example, 摩納哥親王 (Prince of Monaco).


Japan

In Japan, the title ''Kōshaku'' () was used as the highest title of ''Kazoku'' ( Japanese modern nobility) before the present constitution. ''Kōshaku'', however, is more commonly translated as "Duke" to avoid confusion with the following royal ranks in the Imperial Household: ''Shinnō'' ( literally, Prince of the Blood); ''Naishinnō'' ( lit., Princess of the Blood in her own right); and ''Shinnōhi'' lit., Princess Consort); or ''Ō'' ( lit., Prince); ''Jyo-Ō'' ( lit., Princess (in her own right)); and ''Ōhi'' ( lit., Princess Consort). The former is the higher title of a male member of the Imperial family while the latter is the lower.


Korea

In the Joseon Dynasty, the title "Prince" was used for the king's male-line descendants. There were generally the divisions of princedom: the king's legitimate son used the title ''daegun'' (대군, 大君, literally "grand prince"). A son born of a concubine as well as the great-great-grandsons of the king used the title ''gun'' (군, 君, lit. "prince"). But the title of ''gun'' wasn't limited to the royal family. Instead, it was often granted as an honorary and non-hereditory title. As noble titles no longer exist in modern Korea, the English word "Prince" is now usually translated as (왕자, 王子, lit. "king's son"), referring to princes from non-Korean royal families. Princes and principalities in continental Europe are almost always confused with dukes and duchies in Korean speech, both being translated as ''gong'' (공, 公, lit. "duke") and (공국, 公國, lit. "duchy").


Sri Lanka

The title 'Prince' was used for the Monarch, King's son in Sinhalese people, Sinhalese generation in Sri Lanka.


India

''See'' princely states for the often particular, mainly Hindu titles in former British Raj, British India, including modern Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, and Nepal.


Indochina

''See'' Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos


Philippines

''See'' Principalia, the Sultanate of Maguindanao and the Sultanate of Sulu.


Thailand

In
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern A ...

Thailand
(formerly Siam), the title of Prince was divided into three classes depending on the rank of their mothers. Those who were born of a king and had a royal mother (a queen or princess consort) are titled ''Thai royal ranks and titles#Chao Fa .28HRH Prince.29 .28HRH Princess.29, Chaofa Chai'' ( th, เจ้าฟ้าชาย: literally, "Male Celestial Lord"). Those born of a king and a commoner, or children of Chaofas, are tilted ''Phra Ong Chao'' (พระองค์เจ้า). The children of Phra Ong Chaos are titled ''Mom Chao'' (หม่อมเจ้า), abbreviated as M.C. (or ม.จ.).


African traditions

A Western model was sometimes copied by emancipated colonial regimes (e.g. Bokassa I's short-lived Central-African Empire in Napoleonic fashion). Otherwise, most of the styles for members of ruling families do not lend themselves well to English translation. Nonetheless, in general the princely style has gradually replaced the colony, colonialist title of "tribal chief, chief", which does not particularly connote dynastic rank to Westerners, e.g. House of Dlamini, Swazi Royal Family and Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu#Children, Zulu Royal Family. Nominally Minister (government), ministerial chiefly titles, such as the Yoruba people, Yoruba ''Oba (ruler)#Oloye, Oloye'' and the Zulu people, Zulu ''InDuna'', still exist as distinct titles in kingdoms all over Africa.


Title in religion

In states with an element of theocracy, this can affect princehood in several ways, such as the style of the ruler (e.g. with a secondary title meaning son or servant of a named divinity), but also the mode of succession (even reincarnation and recognition). Furthermore, certain religious offices may be considered of princely rank, or imply comparable temporal rights. The Prince-Popes, Pope, Hereditary Prince-Cardinals, Cardinal (Roman Catholic), Cardinals, Prince-Lord Bishops, Prince Bishops, Lord Bishops, Prince-Provost, and Prince-abbots are referred to as Prince of the Church, Princes of the Church. Also, in Christianity, Jesus Christ is sometimes referred to as the ''Prince of Peace''. Other titles for Jesus Christ are ''Prince of Princes'', ''Prince of the Covenant'', ''Prince of Life'', and ''Prince of the Kings of the Earth''. Further, Satan is popularly titled the ''Prince of Darkness''; and in the Christian faith he is also referred to as the ''Prince of this World'' and the ''Prince of the Power of the Air''. Another title for Satan, not as common today but apparently so in approximately 30 A.D. by the Pharisees of the day, was the title ''Prince of the Devils''. ''Prince of Israel'', ''Prince of the Angels'', and ''Prince of Light'' are titles given to the Archangel Saint Michael, Michael. Some Christian churches also believe that since all Christians, like Jesus Christ, are children of God,One of several passages explaining that regenerate men are both children of God and co-heirs with His son Jesus Christ is given in Roman 8:17. then they too are princes and princesses of Heaven. Saint Peter, a disciple of Jesus, is also known as the Prince of the Apostles.


See also

*
Crown prince A crown prince or hereditary prince is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it ...

Crown prince
*Grand prince *British prince *''
Fürst ' (, female form ', plural '; from Old High German ', "the first", a translation of the Latin ') is a German language, German word for a ruler and is also a princely title. ' were, since the Middle Ages, members of the highest nobility who ruled ...
'' * Prince Charming *Prince consort and Princess consort *''Prince du sang'' *Prince-elector and Prince regent *Prince of the Church *Raja, Rajkumar *Yuvraj *Taizi *Emir *Principality and Princely state *List of fictional princes *:Lists of princes, Lists of princes


References


External links


Princely States in British India and talaqdars in Oudh
{{Authority control Princes, Court titles Feudalism Heads of state Royal titles Noble titles Positions of authority Men's social titles