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Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(Charles Philip Arthur George;[fn 1] born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne
British throne
as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
and Duke of Rothesay
Duke of Rothesay
since 1952, and is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history.[2] He is also the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958. Charles was born at Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
as the first grandchild of King George VI
George VI
and Queen Elizabeth. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun
Gordonstoun
Schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School
Geelong Grammar School
in Victoria, Australia. After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Trinity College, Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and Royal Navy
Royal Navy
from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer
Lady Diana Spencer
and they had two sons: Prince William (b. 1982)—later to become Duke of Cambridge—and Prince Harry (b. 1984). In 1996, the couple divorced following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Diana died in a car crash in Paris
Paris
the following year. In 2005, Charles married long-time girlfriend Camilla Parker Bowles. Charles's interests encompass a range of humanitarian and social issues. He founded The Prince's Trust
The Prince's Trust
in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, and is patron of numerous other charitable and arts organisations. Charles has long championed organic farming for which he established the Duchy Home Farm, run by the Duchy of Cornwall, which produces ingredients for the Waitrose Duchy Organic
Waitrose Duchy Organic
brand, which he founded in 1990. Charles has sought to raise world awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment, and was an early advocate for action to combat climate change. As an environmentalist, he has received numerous awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world.[3][4][5][6] His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community.[7][8] He has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings. Subsequently, Charles created Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his theories, in Dorset
Dorset
in 1993. He has authored a number of books, including A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture in 1989 and the children's book The Old Man of Lochnagar
The Old Man of Lochnagar
in 1980.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Created Prince of Wales 3 Military training and career 4 Early romances 5 Marriages

5.1 Marriage to Lady Diana Spencer

5.1.1 Separation and divorce

5.2 Marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles

6 Social interests

6.1 Philanthropy and charity 6.2 Built environment 6.3 Livery company commitments 6.4 Natural environment 6.5 Alternative medicine 6.6 Religious and philosophical interests

7 Official duties 8 Hobbies and personal interests

8.1 Sports 8.2 Visual, performing and contemporary arts 8.3 Publications

9 Media image

9.1 Impact of marriage to Diana 9.2 Reaction to press treatment 9.3 Guest appearances on television

10 Residences and finance 11 Titles, styles, honours and arms

11.1 Titles and styles 11.2 Honours and military appointments 11.3 Arms 11.4 Banners, flags, and standards

12 Ancestry 13 Notes

13.1 Footnotes 13.2 Citations

14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Early life and education Prince Charles was born at Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
in London
London
on 14 November 1948,[9][10] at 9:14 pm (GMT), the first child of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and first grandchild of King George VI
King George VI
and Queen Elizabeth. He was baptised in the palace's Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948.[fn 3]

Prince Charles with his parents and sister in October 1957

The death of his grandfather and the accession of his mother as Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in 1952 made Charles her heir apparent. As the monarch's eldest son, he automatically took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles
Lord of the Isles
and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.[12] Charles attended his mother's coronation at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
on 2 June 1953. As was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, making him the first heir apparent ever to be educated in that manner.[13] Charles attended Hill House School
Hill House School
in west London. He did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and then-head, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field.[14] Charles then attended two of his father's former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, England, followed by Gordonstoun
Gordonstoun
in the north-east of Scotland.[15] Though he reportedly characterised the latter school, noted for its especially rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts",[16] Charles subsequently praised Gordonstoun, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities. It taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." In a 1975 interview, he said he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun
Gordonstoun
and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated".[17] He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School
Geelong Grammar School
in Victoria, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse.[18][19][20] In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education.[21] Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy. He left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively.[18][22] On his early education, Charles later remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have, but that was only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."[17] Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces.[16] In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read anthropology, archaeology, and history.[23][18] During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term.[18] He graduated from Cambridge
Cambridge
with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts on 23 June 1970, the first heir apparent to earn a university degree.[18] On 2 August 1975, he was awarded a Master of Arts degree from Cambridge, in accordance with the university's practice.[18] Created Prince of Wales Main article: Investiture of the Prince of Wales Charles was created Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
on 26 July 1958,[24][25] though his investiture as such was not conducted until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle.[26] He took his seat in the House of Lords in 1970[27][28] and made his maiden speech in June 1974.[29] Charles also began to take on more public duties, founding The Prince's Trust in 1976,[30] and travelling to the United States in 1981.[31] In the mid-1970s, the prince expressed an interest in serving as Governor-General of Australia; Commander Michael Parker explained: "The idea behind the appointment was for him to put a foot on the ladder of monarchy, or being the future King and start learning the trade." However, because of a combination of nationalist feeling in Australia
Australia
and the dismissal of the government by the Governor-General in 1975, nothing came of the proposal. Charles accepted the decision of the Australian ministers, if not without some regret; he reportedly stated: "What are you supposed to think when you are prepared to do something to help and you are told you are not wanted?"[32] Charles is the longest serving Prince of Wales, having surpassed the record held by Edward VII
Edward VII
on 9 September 2017.[33] He is the oldest and longest-serving British heir apparent, the longest-serving Duke of Cornwall, and the longest-serving Duke of Rothesay. If he became monarch at present he would be the oldest person to do so; the record holder is William IV, who was 64 when he became king in 1830.[34] Military training and career Charles followed family tradition when he served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. During his second year at Cambridge, he requested and received Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
training. On 8 March 1971, he flew himself to the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
College Cranwell to train as a jet pilot.[35] After the passing-out parade that September, he embarked on a naval career and enrolled in a six-week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth. He then served on the guided missile destroyer HMS Norfolk (1971–1972) and the frigates HMS Minerva (1972–1973) and HMS Jupiter (1974). In 1974, he qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton, and then joined 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes.[36] On 9 February 1976, he took command of the coastal minehunter HMS Bronington for his last ten months of active service in the navy.[36] He learned to fly on a Chipmunk basic pilot trainer, a BAC Jet Provost jet trainer, and a Beagle Basset
Beagle Basset
multi-engine trainer; he then regularly flew the Hawker Siddeley Andover, Westland Wessex
Westland Wessex
and BAe 146
BAe 146
aircraft of The Queen's Flight[37] until he gave up flying after crashing the BAe 146
BAe 146
in the Hebrides in 1994.[38][39] Early romances

Portrait of the Prince in Buckingham Palace, 1974, by Allan Warren

In his youth, Charles was amorously linked to a number of women. His great-uncle Lord Mountbatten
Lord Mountbatten
advised him: "In a case like yours, the man should sow his wild oats and have as many affairs as he can before settling down, but for a wife he should choose a suitable, attractive, and sweet-charactered girl before she has met anyone else she might fall for ... It is disturbing for women to have experiences if they have to remain on a pedestal after marriage."[40] Charles's girlfriends included Georgiana Russell, the daughter of the British Ambassador to Spain;[41] Lady Jane Wellesley, the daughter of the 8th Duke of Wellington;[42] Davina Sheffield;[43] Lady Sarah Spencer;[44] and Camilla Shand,[45] who later became his second wife and Duchess of Cornwall.[46] Early in 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to Amanda Knatchbull, who was Mountbatten's granddaughter.[47][48] Charles wrote to Amanda's mother—Lady Brabourne, who was also his godmother—expressing interest in her daughter, to which she replied approvingly, though she suggested that a courtship with the not yet 17-year-old girl was premature.[49] Four years later, Mountbatten arranged for Amanda and himself to accompany Charles on his 1980 tour of India. Both fathers, however, objected; Philip feared that Charles would be eclipsed by his famous uncle (who had served as the last British Viceroy
Viceroy
and first Governor-General of India), while Lord Brabourne warned that a joint visit would concentrate media attention on the cousins before they could decide on becoming a couple.[50] However, in August 1979, before Charles would depart alone for India, Mountbatten was killed by the IRA. When Charles returned, he proposed to Amanda, but in addition to her grandfather, she had lost her paternal grandmother and youngest brother Nicholas in the bomb attack and was now reluctant to join the Royal Family.[50] In June 1980, Charles officially turned down Chevening
Chevening
House, placed at his disposal since 1974, as his future residence. Chevening, a stately home in Kent, was bequeathed, along with an endowment, to the Crown by the last Earl Stanhope, Amanda's childless great-uncle, in the hope that Charles would eventually occupy it.[51] In 1977, a newspaper report mistakenly announced his engagement to Princess Marie-Astrid of Luxembourg.[52] Marriages Marriage to Lady Diana Spencer

The Prince and Princess of Wales visit Uluru
Uluru
(Ayers Rock), Australia, March 1983

Main article: Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer Charles first met Lady Diana Spencer
Lady Diana Spencer
in 1977 while he was visiting her home, Althorp. He was the companion of her elder sister, Sarah, and did not consider Diana romantically until mid-1980. While they were sitting together on a bale of hay at a friend's barbecue in July, he mentioned Mountbatten's death, to which Diana replied that Charles had looked forlorn and in need of care during his uncle's funeral. Soon, according to Charles's chosen biographer, Jonathan Dimbleby, "without any apparent surge in feeling, he began to think seriously of her as a potential bride", and she accompanied Charles on visits to Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House.[53] Charles's cousin, Norton Knatchbull (Amanda's eldest brother), and his wife told Charles that Diana appeared awestruck by his position and that he did not seem to be in love with her.[54] Meanwhile, the couple's continuing courtship attracted intense attention from the press and paparazzi. When Prince Philip told him that the media speculation would injure Diana's reputation if Charles did not come to a decision about marrying her soon, and realising that she was a suitable royal bride (according to Mountbatten's criteria), Charles construed his father's advice as a warning to proceed without further delay.[55] Prince Charles proposed to Diana in February 1981; she accepted and they married in St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
on 29 July of that year. Upon his marriage, Charles reduced his voluntary tax contribution from the profits generated by the Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
from 50% to 25%.[56] The couple lived at Kensington Palace
Kensington Palace
and at Highgrove House, near Tetbury, and had two children: Princes William (b. 1982) and Henry (known as "Harry") (b. 1984). Charles set a precedent by being the first royal father to be present at his children's births.[13] Persistent suggestions that Harry's father is not Charles but James Hewitt, with whom Diana had an affair, have been based on a physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry. However, Harry had already been born by the time the affair between Hewitt and Diana began.[57][58] Separation and divorce Within five years, the marriage was in trouble due to the couple's incompatibility and near thirteen-year age difference[59] Diana's concern about Charles's previous girlfriend, Camilla Shand
Camilla Shand
(later Camilla Parker Bowles),[60] was also visible and damaging to their marriage. Their evident discomfort in each other's company led to them being dubbed "The Glums" by the press.[61] Diana exposed Charles's affair with Camilla in a book by Andrew Morton, Diana, Her True Story. Audio tapes of her own extramarital flirtations also surfaced.[61] In December 1992, British Prime Minister John Major
John Major
announced the couple's formal separation in Parliament. Earlier that year, the British press had published transcripts of a passionate bugged telephone conversation between Charles and Camilla from 1989.[62][63] Charles and Diana divorced on 28 August 1996.[64] Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris
Paris
on 31 August of the following year; Charles flew to Paris
Paris
with Diana's sisters to accompany her body back to Britain.[65] Marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles Main article: Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Camilla Parker Bowles

The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and the Duchess of Cornwall in Jamaica, March 2008

The engagement of Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles
Camilla Parker Bowles
was announced on 10 February 2005; he presented her with an engagement ring that had belonged to his grandmother.[66] The Queen's consent to the marriage (as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772) was recorded in a Privy Council meeting on 2 March.[67] In Canada, the Department of Justice announced its decision that the Queen's Privy Council for Canada
Queen's Privy Council for Canada
was not required to meet to give its consent to the marriage, as the union would not result in offspring and would have no impact on the succession to the Canadian throne.[68] Charles was the only member of the Royal Family to have a civil rather than a church wedding in England. Government documents from the 1950s and 1960s, published by the BBC, stated that such a marriage was illegal,[69] though these were dismissed by Charles's spokesman,[70] and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.[71] The marriage was scheduled to take place in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, with a subsequent religious blessing at St George's Chapel. The venue was subsequently changed to Windsor Guildhall, because a civil marriage at Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
would oblige the venue to be available to anyone who wished to be married there. Four days before the wedding, the originally scheduled date of 8 April was postponed until the following day in order to allow Charles and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.[72] Charles's parents did not attend the civil marriage ceremony; the Queen's reluctance to attend probably arose from her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[73] The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh did attend the service of blessing and later held a reception for the newlyweds at Windsor Castle.[74] The blessing, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, was televised.[75] Social interests Philanthropy and charity Since founding The Prince's Trust
The Prince's Trust
in 1976, Charles has established sixteen more charitable organisations, and now serves as president of all of those.[76] Together, these form a loose alliance called The Prince's Charities, which describes itself as "the largest multi-cause charitable enterprise in the United Kingdom, raising over £100 million annually ... [and is] active across a broad range of areas including education and young people, environmental sustainability, the built environment, responsible business and enterprise and international."[76] In 2010, The Prince's Charities
The Prince's Charities
Canada
Canada
was established in a similar fashion to its namesake in the UK.[77] Charles is also patron of over 350 other charities and organisations,[78] and carries out duties related to these throughout the Commonwealth realms; for example, he uses his tours of Canada
Canada
as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education.[79] In Canada, Charles has supported humanitarian projects. Along with his two sons, he took part in ceremonies that marked the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.[79] Charles has also set up The Prince's Charities Australia, which is based in Melbourne, Victoria. The Prince's Charities Australia
Australia
is to provide a coordinating presence for the Prince of Wales’s Australian and international charitable endeavors.[80] Charles was one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, initiating objections in the international arena,[81] and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation,[78] a charity for Romanian orphans and abandoned children.[82] In 2013, Charles donated an unspecified sum of money to the British Red Cross
Cross
Syria Crisis appeal and DEC Syria appeal, which is run by 14 British charities to help victims of the Syrian civil war.[83][84] According to The Guardian, It is believed that after turning 65 years old in 2013, Charles donated his state pension to an unnamed charity that supports elderly people.[85] In March 2014, Charles arranged for five million measles-rubella vaccinations for children in the Philippines
Philippines
on the outbreak of measles in South-East Asia. According to Clarence House, Charles was affected by news of the damage caused by Typhoon Yolanda
Typhoon Yolanda
in 2013. International Health Partners, of which he has been Patron since 2004, sent the vaccines, which are believed to protect five million children below the age of five from measles.[86][87] Built environment The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
has openly expressed his views on architecture and urban planning; he fostered the advancement of New Classical Architecture and asserted that he "care[s] deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life."[88][89] In a speech given for the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects
Royal Institute of British Architects
(RIBA) on 30 May 1984, he memorably described a proposed extension to the National Gallery in London
London
as a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved friend" and deplored the "glass stumps and concrete towers" of modern architecture.[90] He asserted that "it is possible, and important in human terms, to respect old buildings, street plans and traditional scales and at the same time not to feel guilty about a preference for facades, ornaments and soft materials,"[90] called for local community involvement in architectural choices, and asked:

Why can't we have those curves and arches that express feeling in design? What is wrong with them? Why has everything got to be vertical, straight, unbending, only at right angles – and functional?[90]

The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
at the newly opened @ Bristol, 14 June 2000

His book and BBC
BBC
documentary A Vision of Britain
A Vision of Britain
(1987) was also critical of modern architecture, and he has continued to campaign for traditional urbanism, human scale, restoration of historic buildings, and sustainable design,[91] despite criticism in the press. Two of his charities ( The Prince's Regeneration Trust and The Prince's Foundation for Building Community) promote his views, and the village of Poundbury
Poundbury
was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
to a master plan by Léon Krier
Léon Krier
under the guidance of Prince Charles and in line with his philosophy.[88] Charles helped establish a national trust for the built environment in Canada
Canada
after lamenting, in 1996, the unbridled destruction of many of the country's historic urban cores. He offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage
Department of Canadian Heritage
in creating a trust modelled on Britain's National Trust, a plan that was implemented with the passage of the 2007 Canadian federal budget.[92] In 1999, the Prince agreed to the use of his title for the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the Heritage Canada Foundation to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places.[93] While visiting the United States and surveying the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, Charles received the National Building Museum's Vincent Scully Prize
Vincent Scully Prize
in 2005, for his efforts in regard to architecture; he donated $25,000 of the prize money towards restoring storm-damaged communities.[94][95] From 1997, the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
has visited Romania
Romania
to view and highlight the destruction of Orthodox monasteries and Transylvanian Saxon villages during the Communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu.[96][97][98] Charles is patron of the Mihai Eminescu
Mihai Eminescu
Trust, a Romanian conservation and regeneration organisation,[99] and has purchased a house in Romania.[100] Historian Tom Gallagher wrote in the Romanian newspaper România Liberă
România Liberă
in 2006 that Charles had been offered the Romanian throne by monarchists in that country; an offer that was reportedly turned down,[101] but Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
denied the reports.[102] Charles also has "a deep understanding of Islamic art and architecture", and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies
Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies
that combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles.[103] Charles has occasionally intervened in projects that employ architectural styles such as modernism and functionalism.[104][105][106] In 2009, Charles wrote to the Qatari royal family, the developers of the Chelsea Barracks
Chelsea Barracks
site, labelling Lord Rogers's design for the site "unsuitable". Subsequently, Rogers was removed from the project and The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment was appointed to propose an alternative.[107] Rogers claimed the Prince had also intervened to block his designs for the Royal Opera House
Royal Opera House
and Paternoster Square, and condemned Charles's actions as "an abuse of power" and "unconstitutional".[107] Lord Foster, Zaha Hadid, Jacques Herzog, Jean Nouvel, Renzo Piano, and Frank Gehry, among others, wrote a letter to The Sunday Times complaining that the Prince's "private comments" and "behind-the-scenes lobbying" subverted the "open and democratic planning process".[108] Piers Gough
Piers Gough
and other architects condemned Charles's views as "elitist" in a letter encouraging colleagues to boycott a speech given by Charles to RIBA in 2009.[104][106] In 2010, The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment decided to help reconstruct and redesign buildings in Port-au-Prince, Haiti after the capital was destroyed by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[109] The foundation is known for refurbishing historic buildings in Kabul, Afghanistan and in Kingston, Jamaica. The project has been called the "biggest challenge yet" for the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment.[110] For his work as patron of New Classical Architecture, in 2012 he was awarded the Driehaus Architecture Prize for patronage. The prize, awarded by the University of Notre Dame, is considered the highest architecture award for New Classical Architecture and urban planning.[111] Livery company commitments The Worshipful Company of Carpenters
Worshipful Company of Carpenters
installed Charles as an Honorary Liveryman "in recognition of his interest in London's architecture."[112] The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
is also Permanent Master of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Drapers, an Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Musicians, an Honorary Member of the Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, and a Royal Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners.[113] Natural environment

The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and the Duchess of Cornwall meeting Federal Emergency Management Agency officials in Louisiana, as they arrive to tour the damage created by Hurricane Katrina, November 2005

Since the early 1980s, Charles has promoted environmental awareness.[114] Upon moving into Highgrove House, he developed an interest in organic farming, which culminated in the 1990 launch of his own organic brand, Duchy Originals,[115] which now sells more than 200 different sustainably produced products, from food to garden furniture; the profits (over £6 million by 2010) are donated to The Prince's Charities.[115][116] Documenting work on his estate, Charles co-authored (with Charles Clover, environment editor of The Daily Telegraph) Highgrove: An Experiment in Organic Gardening and Farming, published in 1993, and offers his patronage to Garden Organic. Along similar lines, the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade. Although the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic in England prevented Charles from visiting organic farms in Saskatchewan, he met the farmers at Assiniboia town hall.[117][118] In 2004, he founded the Mutton
Mutton
Renaissance Campaign, which aims to support British sheep farmers and make mutton more attractive to Britons.[119] His organic farming has attracted media criticism: According to The Independent
The Independent
in October 2006, "the story of Duchy Originals has involved compromises and ethical blips, wedded to a determined merchandising programme."[120] In 2007, he received the 10th annual Global Environmental Citizen Award from the Harvard Medical School's Center for Health and the Global Environment, the director of which, Eric Chivian, stated: "For decades the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
has been a champion of the natural world ... He has been a world leader in efforts to improve energy efficiency and in reducing the discharge of toxic substances on land, and into the air and the oceans".[121] Charles's travels by private jet drew criticism from Plane Stupid's Joss Garman.[122][123] In 2007, Charles launched The Prince's May Day Network, which encourages businesses to take action on climate change. Speaking to the European Parliament
European Parliament
on 14 February 2008, he called for European Union leadership in the war against climate change. During the standing ovation that followed, Nigel Farage, the leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), remained seated and went on to describe Charles's advisers as "naive and foolish at best."[124] In a speech to the Low Carbon Prosperity Summit in a European Parliament chamber on 9 February 2011, Charles said that climate change sceptics are playing "a reckless game of roulette" with the planet's future and are having a "corrosive effect" on public opinion. He also articulated the need to protect fisheries and the Amazon rain forest, and to make low-carbon emissions affordable and competitive.[125] In 2011, Charles received the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Medal for his engagement with the environment, such as the conservation of rainforests.[126] On 27 August 2012, the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
addressed the International Union for Conservation of Nature – World Conservation Congress, supporting the view that grazing animals are needed to keep soils and grassland productive:

I have been particularly fascinated, for example, by the work of a remarkable man called Allan Savory, in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and other semi arid areas, who has argued for years against the prevailing expert view that is the simple numbers of cattle that drive overgrazing and cause fertile land to become desert. On the contrary, as he has since shown so graphically, the land needs the presence of feeding animals and their droppings for the cycle to be complete, so that soils and grassland areas stay productive. Such that, if you take grazers off the land and lock them away in vast feedlots, the land dies.[127]

In February 2014, Charles visited the Somerset levels
Somerset levels
to meet residents affected by winter flooding. During his visit, Charles remarked that "There's nothing like a jolly good disaster to get people to start doing something. The tragedy is that nothing happened for so long." He pledged a £50,000 donation, provided by the Prince's Countryside Fund, to help families and businesses.[128][129][130] Alternative medicine

The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and the Duchess of Cornwall with NIH
NIH
Director Elias Zerhouni
Elias Zerhouni
and Surgeon-General Richard Carmona, November 2005

Charles has controversially championed alternative medicine.[131] The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health attracted opposition from the scientific and medical community over its campaign encouraging general practitioners to offer herbal and other alternative treatments to National Health Service
National Health Service
patients,[132][133] and in May 2006, Charles made a speech at the World Health Assembly
World Health Assembly
in Geneva, urging the integration of conventional and alternative medicine and arguing for homeopathy.[134][7] In April 2008, The Times
The Times
published a letter from Edzard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, which asked the Prince's Foundation to recall two guides promoting alternative medicine, saying "the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective, and many are downright dangerous." A speaker for the foundation countered the criticism by stating: "We entirely reject the accusation that our online publication Complementary Healthcare: A Guide contains any misleading or inaccurate claims about the benefits of complementary therapies. On the contrary, it treats people as adults and takes a responsible approach by encouraging people to look at reliable sources of information ... so that they can make informed decisions. The foundation does not promote complementary therapies."[135] That year, Ernst published a book with Simon Singh, mockingly dedicated to "HRH the Prince of Wales" called Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. The last chapter is highly critical of Charles's advocacy of complementary and alternative treatments.[136] The Prince's Duchy Originals produce a variety of complementary medicinal products including a "Detox Tincture" that Edzard Ernst
Edzard Ernst
has denounced as "financially exploiting the vulnerable" and "outright quackery".[137] In 2009, the Advertising Standards Authority criticised an email that Duchy Originals had sent out to advertise its Echina-Relief, Hyperi-Lift and Detox Tinctures products saying that it was misleading.[137] The Prince personally wrote at least seven letters[138] to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) shortly before they relaxed the rules governing labelling of such herbal products, a move that has been widely condemned by scientists and medical bodies.[139] In October 2009, it was reported that Charles had personally lobbied the Health Secretary, Andy Burnham, regarding greater provision of alternative treatments in the NHS.[137] In 2016 Charles said in a speech that he used homeopathic veterinary medicines to reduce antibiotic use at his farm.[140] In April 2010, following accounting irregularities, a former official at the foundation and his wife were arrested for fraud believed to total £300,000.[141] Four days later, the foundation announced its closure, claiming that it "has achieved its key objective of promoting the use of integrated health."[142] The charity's finance director, accountant George Gray, was convicted of theft totalling £253,000 and sentenced to three years in prison.[143] The Prince's Foundation was re-branded and re-launched later in 2010 as The College of Medicine.[143][144][145] Religious and philosophical interests

Czech Orthodox priest Jaroslav Šuvarský with the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
in 2010

Prince Charles was confirmed at age 16 by Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey
Michael Ramsey
at Easter 1965, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[146] He attends services at various Anglican churches close to Highgrove,[147] and attends the Church of Scotland's Crathie Kirk
Crathie Kirk
with the rest of the royal family when staying at Balmoral Castle. In 2000, he was appointed as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Charles has visited (amid some secrecy) Orthodox monasteries several times on Mount Athos[148] as well as in Romania.[96] Charles is also patron of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford, and in the 2000s, he inaugurated of the Markfield Institute of Higher Education, which is dedicated to Islamic studies in a plural multicultural context.[103][149][150] Sir Laurens van der Post
Laurens van der Post
became a friend of Charles in 1977; he was dubbed his "spiritual guru" and was godfather to Charles's son, Prince William.[151] From Van der Post, Prince Charles developed a focus on philosophy, especially that of Asian and Middle Eastern nations. He has praised Kabbalistic artworks,[152] and wrote a memorial for Kathleen Raine, the Neoplatonist poet who died in 2003.[153] Charles expressed his philosophical views in his 2010 book, Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World,[154][155][156] which won a Nautilus Book Award.[157] Although it had been rumoured that Charles would vow to be "Defender of the Faiths" or "Defender of Faith" as king, he stated in 2015 that he will retain the monarch's traditional title of "Defender of the Faith", whilst "ensuring that other people's faiths can also be practised", which he sees as a duty of the Church of England.[158] Official duties In 2008, The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
declared Charles the "hardest-working member of the royal family."[159] He carried out 560 official engagements in 2008,[159] 499 in 2010,[160] and over 600 in 2011. As Prince of Wales, Charles undertakes official duties on behalf of the Queen and the Commonwealth realms. He officiates at investitures and attends the funerals of foreign dignitaries.[161] At the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Charles unintentionally caused controversy when he shook hands with Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe, who had been seated next to him. Charles's office subsequently released a statement saying: "The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
was caught by surprise and not in a position to avoid shaking Mr Mugabe's hand. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Defence and Aid Fund, which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government."[162]

Official opening of the Fourth Assembly at the Senedd
Senedd
in Cardiff, Wales. From left to right: Carwyn Jones, the Prince of Wales, the Duchess of Cornwall, the Queen and Rosemary Butler, 7 June 2011

Prince Charles makes regular tours of Wales, fulfilling a week of engagements each summer, and attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd.[163] The six trustees of the Royal Collection Trust meet three times a year under his chairmanship.[164] Prince Charles travels abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Charles has been regarded as an effective advocate of the country. On his visit to the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
in 1995, he delivered a personally researched and written speech on Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
affairs that was warmly received by Irish politicians and the media; this is cited as an example. In 2000, Charles revived the tradition of the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
having an official harpist, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the harp, the national instrument of Wales. He and the Duchess of Cornwall also spend one week each year in Scotland, where he is patron of several Scottish organisations.[165] His service to the Canadian Armed Forces permits him to be informed of troop activities, and allows him to visit these troops while in Canada
Canada
or overseas, taking part in ceremonial occasions.[166] For instance, in 2001 he placed a specially commissioned wreath, made from vegetation taken from French battlefields, at the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier,[167] and in 1981 he became the patron of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.[168] In 2010, Charles represented the Queen at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games
2010 Commonwealth Games
in Delhi, India.[169] He attends official events in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in support of Commonwealth countries, such as the Christchurch
Christchurch
earthquake memorial service at Westminster Abbey in 2011.[170][171][172] From 15 to 17 November 2013, he represented the Queen for the first time at a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[173][174] Letters sent by Prince Charles to government ministers during 2004 and 2005—the so-called black spider memos—have presented potential embarrassment following a challenge by The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper to release the letters under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. In March 2015, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
decided that the Prince's letters must be released.[175] The letters were published by the Cabinet Office
Cabinet Office
on 13 May 2015.[176][177][178] The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and the Duchess of Cornwall made their first joint trip to the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
in May 2015. The trip was called an important step in "promoting peace and reconciliation" by the British Embassy.[179] During the trip, Charles shook hands with Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
and supposed IRA leader Gerry Adams
Gerry Adams
in Galway, which was described by the media as a "historic handshake" and a "significant moment for Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
relations".[180][181][182] In the run up to the Prince's visit, two Irish republican
Irish republican
dissidents were arrested for planning a bomb attack. Semtex
Semtex
and rockets were found at the Dublin
Dublin
home of suspect Donal O’Coisdealbha, member of a self-styled Óglaigh na hÉireann organisation, who was later jailed for five and a half years.[183] He was connected to a veteran republican, Seamus McGrane of County Louth, a member of the Real IRA, who was jailed for 11 and a half years.[184][185] In 2015, it was revealed that Prince Charles had access to confidential UK cabinet papers.[186] Charles has made frequent visits to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in order to promote arms exports for companies such as BAE Systems. In 2013,[187] 2014,[188] and 2015,[189] he met with the commander of Saudi Arabia's National Guard Mutaib bin Abdullah. In February 2014, he took part in a traditional sword dance with members of the Saudi royal family at the Janariyah festival in Riyadh.[190] At the same festival, British arms company BAE Systems
BAE Systems
was honoured by Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz.[191] Charles was criticised by Scottish MP Margaret Ferrier in 2016 over his role in the sale of Typhoon fighter jets to Saudi Arabia.[192] According to Charles's biographer Catherine Mayer, a Time magazine journalist who claims to have interviewed several sources from Prince Charles's inner circle, he "doesn't like being used to market weaponry" in deals with Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and other Gulf states. According to Mayer, Charles has only raised his objections to being used to sell weapons abroad in private.[193] Hobbies and personal interests Sports

The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Prince William
Prince William
after a polo match at Ham Polo Club, London

From his youth until 1992, Prince Charles was an avid player of competitive polo. He continued to play informally, including for charity, until 2005.[194] Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting until the sport was banned in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 2005. By the late 1990s, opposition to the activity was growing when Charles's participation was viewed as a "political statement" by those who were opposed to it. The League Against Cruel Sports launched an attack against Charles after he took his sons on the Beaufort Hunt in 1999. At that time, the government was trying to ban hunting with hounds.[195][196] Charles has been a keen salmon angler since youth and supports Orri Vigfússon's efforts to protect the North Atlantic salmon. He frequently fishes the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, while he claims his most special angling memories are from his time in Vopnafjörður, Iceland.[197] Charles is a supporter of Burnley Football Club.[198] Visual, performing and contemporary arts Prince Charles is president or patron of more than twenty performing arts organisations, which include the Royal College of Music, the Royal Opera, the English Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, Welsh National Opera, and the Purcell School. In 2000, he revived the tradition of appointing harpists to the Royal Court, by appointing an Official Harpist to the Prince of Wales. As an undergraduate at Cambridge
Cambridge
he played cello, and has sung with the Bach Choir twice.[199] Charles founded The Prince's Foundation for Children and The Arts in 2002, to help more children experience the arts first-hand. He is president of the Royal Shakespeare Company
Royal Shakespeare Company
and attends performances in Stratford-Upon-Avon, supports fundraising events and attends the company's annual general meeting.[199] He enjoys comedy,[200] and is interested in illusionism, becoming a member of The Magic Circle
The Magic Circle
after passing his audition in 1975 by performing the "cups and balls" effect.[201] Charles is a keen and accomplished watercolourist who has exhibited and sold a number of his works and also published books on the subject. In 2001, 20 lithographs of his watercolour paintings illustrating his country estates were exhibited at the Florence International Biennale of Contemporary Art.[202] Charles was awarded the 2011 Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award by the Montblanc Cultural Foundation for his support and commitment to the arts, particularly in regard to young people.[203] On 23 April 2016, Charles appeared in a comedy sketch for the Royal Shakespeare Company's Shakespeare Live! at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare's death in 1616. The event was televised live by the BBC. Charles made a surprise entrance to settle the disputed delivery of Hamlet's celebrated line, "To be or not to be, that is the question".[204] Publications Main article: Charles, Prince of Wales, bibliography Prince Charles is an author of several books that reflect his own interests. He has also contributed a foreword or preface to books by other writers and has also written, presented and has been featured in documentary films.[205][206][207][208] Media image Since his birth, Prince Charles has undergone close media attention, which increased as he matured. It has been an ambivalent relationship, largely impacted by his marriages to Diana and Camilla and its aftermath, but also centred on his future conduct as king, such as the 2014 play King Charles III.[209] Impact of marriage to Diana

The Prince and Princess of Wales with Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and Nancy Reagan in November 1985

Described as the "world's most eligible bachelor" in the late 1970s,[210] Prince Charles was subsequently overshadowed by Diana. After her death, the media regularly breached Charles's privacy and printed exposés. In 2006, the prince filed a court case against the Mail on Sunday, after excerpts of his personal journals were published, revealing his opinions on matters such as the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997, in which Charles described the Chinese government officials as "appalling old waxworks".[211] Mark Bolland, his ex-private secretary, declared in a statement to the High Court that Charles "would readily embrace the political aspects of any contentious issue he was interested in ... He carried it out in a very considered, thoughtful and researched way. He often referred to himself as a 'dissident' working against the prevailing political consensus."[211] Jonathan Dimbleby
Jonathan Dimbleby
reported that the prince "has accumulated a number of certainties about the state of the world and does not relish contradiction."[212] Other people who were formerly connected with the prince have betrayed his confidence. An ex-member of his household handed the press an internal memo in which Charles commented on ambition and opportunity, and which was widely interpreted as blaming meritocracy for creating a combative atmosphere in society. Charles responded: "In my view, it is just as great an achievement to be a plumber or a bricklayer as it is to be a lawyer or a doctor".[213] Reaction to press treatment Charles's anguish was recorded in his private comments to Prince William, caught on a microphone during a press photo-call in 2005 and published in the national press. After a question from the BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, Charles muttered: "These bloody people. I can't bear that man. I mean, he's so awful, he really is."[214]

Charles's ninth visit to New Zealand
New Zealand
in 2015

In 2002, Charles, "so often a target of the press, got his chance to return fire" when addressing "scores of editors, publishers and other media executives" gathered at St Bride's Fleet Street to celebrate 300 years of journalism.[215][216] Defending public servants from "the corrosive drip of constant criticism", he noted that the press had been "awkward, cantankerous, cynical, bloody-minded, at times intrusive, at times inaccurate and at times deeply unfair and harmful to individuals and to institutions."[216] But, he concluded, regarding his own relations with the press, "from time to time we are probably both a bit hard on each other, exaggerating the downsides and ignoring the good points in each."[216] Guest appearances on television The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
has occasionally appeared on television. In 1984, he read his children's book The Old Man of Lochnagar
The Old Man of Lochnagar
for the BBC's Jackanory
Jackanory
series. The UK soap opera Coronation Street
Coronation Street
featured an appearance by Charles during the show's 40th anniversary in 2000,[217] as did the New Zealand
New Zealand
young adult cartoon series bro'Town (2005), after he attended a performance by the show's creators during a tour of the country.[218][219] Charles was interviewed with Princes William and Harry by Ant & Dec to mark the 30th anniversary of The Prince's Trust
The Prince's Trust
in 2006[220] and in 2016 was interviewed by them again along with his sons and the Duchess of Cornwall to mark the 40th anniversary.[221] His saving of the Scottish stately home Dumfries House
Dumfries House
was the subject of Alan Titchmarsh's documentary Royal Restoration, which aired on TV in May 2012.[222] Also in May 2012, Charles tried his hand at being a weather presenter for the BBC, reporting the forecast for Scotland as part of their annual week at Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
alongside Christopher Blanchett. He injected humour in his report, asking, "Who the hell wrote this script?" as references were made to royal residences.[223] In December 2015 Channel 4 News
Channel 4 News
revealed that interviews with Charles were subject to a contract that restricts questions to those previously approved, and gives his staff oversight of editing and the right to "remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme". Channel 4 News
Channel 4 News
decided not to proceed with an interview on this basis, which some journalists believed would put them at risk of breaching the Ofcom
Ofcom
Broadcasting Code on editorial independence and transparency.[224] Residences and finance

Clarence House, the official residence of the Prince of Wales

Clarence House
Clarence House
in London
London
is Charles's official residence. Previously, he had an apartment at St James's Palace. Charles also has two private homes: Highgrove House
Highgrove House
in Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and Birkhall
Birkhall
near Balmoral Castle. Both Clarence House
Clarence House
and Birkhall
Birkhall
were previously the residences of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[225] His primary source of income is generated from the Duchy of Cornwall, which owns 133,658 acres of land (around 54,090 hectares), including farming, residential, and commercial properties, as well as an investment portfolio. Highgrove is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, having been purchased for his use in 1980, and which Prince Charles rents for £336,000 per annum.[226] The Public Accounts Committee published its 25th report into the Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
accounts in November 2013 noting that the duchy performed well in 2012–13, increasing its total income and producing an overall surplus of £19.1 million.[227] In 2007 the prince purchased a 192-acre property (150 acres of grazing and parkland, and 40 acres of woodland) in Carmarthenshire, and applied for permission to convert the farm into a Welsh home for him and the Duchess of Cornwall, to be rented out as holiday flats when the couple is not in residence.[228] A neighbouring family said the proposals flouted local planning regulations, and the application was put on hold temporarily while a report was drafted on how the alterations would affect the local bat population.[229] Charles and Camilla first stayed at the new property, called Llwynywermod, in June 2008.[230] In 2016 it was reported that his estates receive £100,000 a year in European Union agricultural subsidies.[231] Starting in 1993, the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
has paid tax voluntarily under the Memorandum of Understanding on Royal Taxation, updated 2013.[232] In December 2012, Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs
Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs
were asked to investigate alleged tax avoidance by the Duchy of Cornwall.[233] The Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
is named in the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment that were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung. The papers show that the Duchy invested in a Bermuda-based carbon credits trading company run by one of Charles's Cambridge
Cambridge
contemporaries. The investment was kept secret but there is no suggestion that Charles or the estate avoided UK tax.[234] Titles, styles, honours and arms Main article: List of titles and honours of Charles, Prince of Wales See also: List of awards received by Charles, Prince of Wales

The Prince of Wales's feathers
Prince of Wales's feathers
heraldic badge

Titles and styles The Prince's full title is: His Royal Highness
Royal Highness
Prince Charles Philip Arthur George, Prince of Wales, KG, KT, GCB, OM, AK, QSO, PC, ADC, Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles
Lord of the Isles
and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.[235][236] Charles has held titles throughout his life: the grandson of the monarch, the son of the monarch and in his own right. He has been a British prince
British prince
since birth and was created Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
in 1958.[fn 4] There has been speculation as to what regnal name the prince will choose upon his succession to the throne. If he uses his first name, he will be known as Charles III. However, it was reported in 2005 that Charles has suggested he may choose to reign as George VII in honour of his maternal grandfather, and to avoid association with the Stuart kings Charles I (who was beheaded) and Charles II (who was known for his promiscuous lifestyle),[238] as well as to be sensitive to the memory of Bonnie Prince Charlie, who was called "Charles III" by his supporters.[238] Charles's office responded that "no decision has been made".[239] Honours and military appointments Charles has held substantive ranks in the armed forces of a number of countries since he was made a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force in 1972. Charles's first honorary appointment in the armed forces was as Colonel-in-Chief
Colonel-in-Chief
of the Royal Regiment of Wales
Royal Regiment of Wales
in 1969; since then, the prince has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 32 military formations throughout the Commonwealth, including the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army.[240] Since 2009, Charles holds the second-highest ranks in all three branches of the Canadian Forces and, on 16 June 2012, the Queen awarded the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
honorary five-star rank in all three branches of the British Armed Forces, "to acknowledge his support in her role as Commander-in-Chief", installing him as Admiral of the Fleet, Field Marshal and Marshal of the Royal Air Force.[241][242][243] He has been inducted into seven orders and received eight decorations from the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 20 different honours from foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Arms

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Charles, Prince of Wales

This box:

view talk edit

Notes The Prince's coat of arms, as used outside Scotland, is the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with the addition a three-pointed label and an inescutcheon bearing the arms of Wales. For the arms of the Duke of Rothesay
Duke of Rothesay
in Scotland, see royal coat of arms of Scotland. Crest Upon the royal helm the coronet of the Prince of Wales, thereon a lion statant guardant Or crowned with the coronet of the Prince of Wales Escutcheon Quarterly 1st and 4th Gules
Gules
three lions passant guardant in pale Or armed and langed Azure 2nd Or a lion rampant Gules
Gules
armed and langued Azure within a double tressure flory counterflory 3rd Azure a harp Or stringed Argent
Argent
overall an inescutcheon of the Royal Badge of Wales. Supporters Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or Motto ICH DIEN (German for I serve) Orders Garter ribbon. Honi soit qui mal y pense (French for Shame be to him who thinks evil of it) Other elements The whole differenced by a plain label of three points Argent, as the eldest child of the sovereign Symbolism As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland.

Banners, flags, and standards The banners used by the prince vary depending upon location. His Personal Standard is the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom differenced as in his arms with a label of three points Argent, and the escutcheon of the arms of the Principality of Wales
Principality of Wales
in the centre. It is used outside Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, and Canada, and throughout the entire United Kingdom
United Kingdom
when the prince is acting in an official capacity associated with the UK Armed Forces.[244] The personal flag for use in Wales is based upon the Royal Badge of Wales (the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd), which consist of four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field, and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field. Superimposed is an escutcheon Vert bearing the single-arched coronet of the Prince of Wales.[244] In Scotland the personal banner used since 1974 is based upon three ancient Scottish titles: Duke of Rothesay
Duke of Rothesay
(heir apparent to the King of Scots), High Steward of Scotland
High Steward of Scotland
and Lord of the Isles. The flag is divided into four quadrants like the arms of the Chief of Clan Stewart of Appin; the first and fourth quadrants comprise a gold field with a blue and silver checkered band in the centre; the second and third quadrants display a black galley on a silver field. The arms are differenced from those of Appin by the addition of an inescutcheon bearing the tressured lion rampant of Scotland; defaced by a plain label of three points Azure to indicate the heir apparent.[244] In Cornwall, the banner is the arms of the Duke of Cornwall: "Sable fifteen bezants Or", that is, a black field bearing fifteen gold coins.[244] In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority
Canadian Heraldic Authority
introduced a personal heraldic banner for the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
for use in Canada, consisting of the shield of the Arms of Canada
Arms of Canada
defaced with both a blue roundel of the Prince of Wales's feathers
Prince of Wales's feathers
surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, and a white label of three points.[245]

Banner of arms

Standard for Wales

Standard for Scotland

Banner of arms
Banner of arms
of the Duke of Cornwall

Flag of the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
for personal use in Canada

Ancestry

Ancestors of Charles, Prince of Wales

8. George I of Greece

4. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark

9. Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia

2. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark

10. Prince Louis of Battenberg

5. Princess Alice of Battenberg

11. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine

1. Charles, Prince of Wales

12. George V
George V
of the United Kingdom

6. George VI
George VI
of the United Kingdom

13. Princess Mary of Teck

3. Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the United Kingdom

14. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne

7. Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon

15. Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck[246]

Notes Footnotes

^ a b Charles does not usually use a family name but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1] ^ a b In addition to his active service listed here, Charles holds ranks and honorary appointments in the armed forces of Australia, Canada, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
as well as the United Kingdom. ^ Prince Charles's godparents were: the King (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway
Norway
(his cousin, for whom the Earl of Athlone stood proxy); Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother); Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece and Denmark
Denmark
(his paternal great-uncle, for whom the Duke of Edinburgh stood proxy); the Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle).[11] ^ As the child of a daughter of the sovereign, Charles would not usually have been accorded the titles of a British prince
British prince
or the style Royal Highness. However, on 22 October 1948, George VI
George VI
had issued letters patent granting a royal and princely status to any children of Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh,[237] making Charles a royal prince from birth.

Citations

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BBC
News. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2011.  ^ Rourke, Matt (28 January 2007). "Prince Charles to receive environmental award in NYC". USA Today. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  ^ Alderson, Andrew (14 March 2009). "Prince Charles given 'friend of the forest' award". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  ^ Lange, Stefan (29 April 2009). "Prince Charles collects award in Germany". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  ^ "2012 Lifetime Achievement Award Winner – HRH The Prince of Wales". greenawards.com. Retrieved 7 August 2013.  ^ a b Weissmann, Gerald (September 2006). "Homeopathy: Holmes, Hogwarts, and the Prince of Wales". The FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1755–1758. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0901ufm. PMID 16940145. Retrieved 28 November 2015.  ^ Brady, Brian (21 July 2013). "He's at it again: Prince Charles accused of lobbying Health Secretary over homeopathy". The Independent. Retrieved 28 November 2015.  ^ "No. 38455". The London
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Gazette. 15 November 1948. p. 6003.  ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 120. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings". Users.uniserve.com. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 127. ^ a b "Growing Up Royal". Time. 25 April 1988. Archived from the original on 31 March 2005. Retrieved 4 June 2009.  ^ "Lieutenant-Colonel H. Stuart Townend". The Times. London. 30 October 2002. Retrieved 29 May 2009.  ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 139. ^ a b "HRH The Prince of Wales". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.  ^ a b "Colditz in kilts? Charles loved it, says old school as Gordonstoun
Gordonstoun
hits back at The Crown". The Telegraph. 10 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ a b c d e f "The Prince of Wales – Education". Prince of Wales. Retrieved 8 December 2012.  ^ "The New Boy at Timbertop". The Australian Women's Weekly. 33, (37). Australia, Australia. 9 February 1966. p. 7. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.  ^ "Timbertop - Prince Charles Australia" (Video with audio, 1 min 28 secs). British Pathé. 1966 – via YouTube.  ^ "Prince had happy time at Timbertop". The Canberra Times. 47, (13,346). Australian Capital Territory, Australia. 31 January 1973. p. 11. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.  ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 145. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 151. ^ "No. 41460". The London
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Gazette. 29 July 1958. p. 4733.  ^ "The Prince of Wales – Previous Princes of Wales". Prince of Wales. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ "The Prince of Wales – Investiture". Prince of Wales. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ "The Prince of Wales – Biography". Prince of Wales. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ "H.R.H. The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Introduced". Hansard. 11 February 1970.  ^ "Sport and Leisure". Hansard. 13 June 1974.  ^ "The Prince's Trust". The Prince's Charities. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ Ferretti, Fred (18 June 1981). "Prince Charles pays a quick visit to city". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 August 2013.  ^ "Episode 1". Australia: ABC. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ Bryan, Nicola. "Prince Charles is longest-serving Prince of Wales". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ Rayner, Gordon (19 September 2013). " Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
will be oldest monarch crowned". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ Brandreth 2007, pp. 169–170. ^ a b Brandreth 2007, p. 170. ^ "Military Career of the Prince of Wales". Prince of Wales. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  ^ https://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/wiki.php?id=187927 ^ Steve Boggan (19 July 1995). "Prince gives up flying royal aircraft after Hebrides crash". The Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2017.  ^ Junor 2005, p. 72. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 192. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 193. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 194. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 195. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 178. ^ Brandreth 2007, pp. 15–17. ^ Dimbleby 1994, pp. 204–206. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 200. ^ Dimbleby 1994, p. 263. ^ a b Dimbleby 1994, pp. 263–265. ^ Dimbleby 1994, pp. 299–300. ^ Brandreth 2007, p. 196. ^ Dimbleby 1994, p. 279. ^ Dimbleby 1994, pp. 280–282. ^ Dimbleby 1994, pp. 281–283. ^ "Royally Minted: What we give them and how they spend it". New Statesman. UK. 13 July 2009.  ^ "Hewitt denies Prince Harry
Prince Harry
link". BBC
BBC
News. 21 September 2002.  ^ Holder, Margaret (24 August 2011). "Who Does Prince Harry
Prince Harry
Look Like? James Hewitt Myth Debunked". The Morton Report.  ^ Brown, Tina (2007). The Diana Chronicles. p. 720.  ^ Smith 2000, p. 561. ^ a b Quest, Richard (3 June 2002). "Royals, part 3: Troubled Times", CNN. Retrieved 17 June 2012 ^ "The Camillagate Tapes", 18 December 1989, phone transcript, Phone Phreaking ^ "Royals caught out by interceptions". BBC
BBC
News. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2012.  ^ "'Divorce': Queen to Charles and Diana". BBC
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and Mrs Parker Bowles, like anyone else, to marry by a civil ceremony in accordance with Part III of the Marriage Act 1949. ¶ Civil marriages were introduced in England, by the Marriage Act 1836. Section 45 said that the Act ... shall not extend to the marriage of any of the Royal Family". ¶ But the provisions on civil marriage in the 1836 Act were repealed by the Marriage Act 1949. All remaining parts of the 1836 Act, including Section 45, were repealed by the Registration Service Act 1953. No part of the 1836 Act, therefore, remains on the statute book." ^ "Pope funeral delays royal wedding". BBC
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(RIBA) Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Royal Gala Evening at Hampton Court Palace, 30 May 1984. Retrieved 17 June 2012. ^ "The Prince of Wales
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References

Brandreth, Gyles (2007). Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair. U.K: Random House. ISBN 0-09-949087-0.  Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-12996-X.  Holden, Anthony (1979). Prince Charles. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-593-02470-6.  Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35274-5. OCLC 59360110.  Lacey, Robert (2008). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4391-0839-0.  Smith, Sally Bedell (2000). Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Signet. ISBN 978-0-451-20108-9. 

Further reading

Benson, Ross (1994). Charles: The Untold Story. St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-312-10950-9.  Brown, Michèle (1980). Prince Charles. Crown. ISBN 978-0-517-54019-0.  Campbell, J. (1981). Charles: Prince of Our Times. Smithmark. ISBN 978-0-7064-0968-0.  Cathcart, Helen (1977). Prince Charles: The biography (illustrated ed.). Taplinger Pub. Co; Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8008-6555-9.  Fisher, Graham; Fisher, Heather (1977). Charles: The Man and the Prince. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7091-6095-3.  Gilleo, Alma (1978). Prince Charles: Growing Up in Buckingham Palace. Childs World. ISBN 978-0-89565-029-0.  Heald, Tim; Mohrs, Mayo (1979). The Man Who Will Be King H.R.H. ( Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Charles). New York: Arbor House.  Hedley, Olwen (1969). Charles, 21st Prince of Wales. Pitkin Pictorials. ISBN 978-0-85372-027-0.  Hodgson, Howard (2007). Charles: The Man Who Will Be King (illustrated ed.). John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84454-306-9.  Holden, Anthony (1988). King Charles III: A Biography. Grove. ISBN 978-1-55584-309-0.  Holden, Anthony (1998). Charles at Fifty. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50175-3.  Holden, Anthony (1999). Charles: A Biography. Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-552-99744-7.  Jencks, Charles (1988). Prince, Architects & New Wave Monarchy. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-1010-9.  Junor, Penny (1998). Charles: Victim or Villain?. Harpercollins. ISBN 978-0-00-255900-3.  Lane, Peter (1988). Prince Charles:a study in development. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-3320-2.  Liversidge, Douglas (1975). Prince Charles: monarch in the making. A. Barker.  Martin, Christopher (1990). Prince Charles and the Architectural Debate (Architectural Design Profile). St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04048-2.  Nugent, Jean (1982). Prince Charles, England's Future King. Dillon. ISBN 978-0-87518-226-1.  Regan, Simon (1977). Charles, the clown prince. Everest Books. ISBN 978-0-905018-50-8.  Veon, Joan M. (1997). Prince Charles: The Sustainable Prince. Hearthstone. ISBN 978-1-57558-021-0.  Wakeford, Geoffrey (1962). Charles, Prince of Wales. Associated Newspapers.  Mayer, Catherine (2015). Born to Be King: Prince Charles on Planet Windsor. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-1627794381.  Mayer, Catherine (2015). Charles: The Heart of a King. Random House. ISBN 978-0753555934. 

External links

Find more aboutCharles, Prince of Walesat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks

Official website of the Prince of Wales The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
at the Royal Family website Charles, prince of Wales at Encyclopædia Britannica Official website of 'The Prince's Trust' Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
on IMDb

Charles, Prince of Wales House of Windsor Born: 14 November 1948

Lines of succession

First Heir apparent

Succession to the British throne Followed by The Duke of Cambridge

British royalty

Vacant Title last held by The Prince Edward later became King Edward VIII Prince of Wales 26 July 1958 – present Incumbent Presumed next holder: The Duke of Cambridge

Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay 6 February 1952 – present

Academic offices

Preceded by The Earl Mountbatten of Burma President of the United World Colleges 1978–1995 Succeeded by The Queen of Jordan

Honorary titles

Preceded by The Duke of Gloucester Great Master of the Order of the Bath 10 June 1974 – present Incumbent

Order of precedence

Preceded by The Duke of Edinburgh Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom Succeeded by The Duke of York

in current practice Succeeded by The Duke of Cambridge

v t e

Charles, Prince of Wales

Titles

Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay Earl of Carrick Baron of Renfrew Lord of the Isles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland more

Ancestry

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Mountbatten-Windsor

Family

Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
(former wife) Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
(elder son) Prince Harry
Prince Harry
(younger son) Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
(current wife) Prince George of Cambridge
Prince George of Cambridge
(grandson) Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
(granddaughter) Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
(father) Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
(mother) Princess Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal
(sister) Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
(brother) Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
(brother)

Extended family

Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
(paternal grandfather) Princess Alice of Battenberg
Princess Alice of Battenberg
(paternal grandmother) King George VI
King George VI
(maternal grandfather) Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (maternal grandmother) Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (paternal aunt) Theodora, Margravine of Baden (paternal aunt) Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse (paternal aunt) Sophie, Princess George William of Hanover (paternal aunt) Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (maternal aunt)

Life events

Investiture of the Prince of Wales First wedding (guest list) Second wedding

Charities and campaigns

The Prince's Trust Mutton
Mutton
Renaissance Campaign The Prince's Charities/ The Prince's Charities
The Prince's Charities
Canada/The Prince's Charities Australia

Residences

Clarence House
Clarence House
(official) Highgrove House
Highgrove House
(family) Birkhall Llwynywermod

Awards given and created

Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership List of environmental/social interest awards received The Sun Military Awards

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Black spider memos Coronet Duchy Home Farm Duchy Originals from Waitrose Dumfries House Poundbury The Prince's May Day Network Prince Charles Island Prince Charles stream tree frog The Prince of Wales's Charitable Foundation King Charles III (play, film)

Commons Wikiquote

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Order of Precedence in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Gentlemen)

Shared (royal family)

Elizabeth II Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(in Scotland: the Duke of Rothesay) Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
(in Scotland: the Earl of Strathearn) Prince Henry of Wales James, Viscount Severn Peter Phillips David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent then...

England and Wales

Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury David Lidington, Lord Chancellor John Sentamu, Archbishop of York John Bercow, Commons Speaker Norman Fowler, Baron Fowler, Lord Speaker Ian Burnett, Baron Burnett of Maldon, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales Ambassadors and High Commissioners David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, Lord Great Chamberlain Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal James Ramsay, 17th Earl of Dalhousie, Lord Steward William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel, Lord Chamberlain Samuel Vestey, 3rd Baron Vestey, Master of the Horse

Scotland

Lord Lieutenants Sheriffs Principal David Lidington, Lord High Chancellor Russell Barr, Moderator of the General Assembly John Bercow, Commons Speaker David Neuberger, President of the UK Supreme Court David Mundell, Scottish Secretary Merlin Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of Scotland Torquhil Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll, Master of the Household of Scotland

Northern Ireland

Richard Clarke, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland) Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh (Roman Catholic) Diarmuid Martin, Archbishop of Dublin
Dublin
(Roman Catholic) Michael Jackson, Archbishop of Dublin
Dublin
(Church of Ireland) Ian McNie, Moderator of the Presbyterian Church Chris Grayling, Lord President of the Council (Commons Leader) John Bercow, Commons Speaker David Neuberger, President of the UK Supreme Court Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal James Ramsay, 17th Earl of Dalhousie, Lord Steward David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, Lord Great Chamberlain

not including short-term appointments, visiting dignitaries and most peers

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British princes

The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family.

1st generation

King George II

2nd generation

Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke of Cumberland

3rd generation

King George III Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany Prince William
Prince William
Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Prince Frederick

4th generation

King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William
Prince William
Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

5th generation

Albert, Prince Consort1 King George V
George V
of Hanover Prince George, Duke of Cambridge

6th generation

King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover

7th generation

Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince Alexander John of Wales Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick

8th generation

King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Prince George, Duke of Kent Prince John Alastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover

9th generation

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2 Prince William
Prince William
of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent

10th generation

Charles, Prince of Wales Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex

11th generation

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince Henry of Wales James, Viscount Severn3

12th generation

Prince George of Cambridge

1 Not a British prince
British prince
by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince
British prince
by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see his article.

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Princes of Wales

Edward (1301–1307) Edward (1343–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Edward (1454–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1471–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1489–1502) Henry (1504–1509) Edward (1537–1547) Henry (1610–1612) Charles (1616–1625) Charles (1641–1649) James (1688) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1729–1751) George (1751–1760) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1958–present)

See also: Principality of Wales

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Dukes of Cornwall

Edward (1337–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Henry (1421–1422) Edward (1453–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1470–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1486–1502) Henry (1502–1509) Henry (1511) Henry (1513) Henry (1515) Edward (1537–1547) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1701/2) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present)

Cornwall Portal

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Dukes of Rothesay

David (1398–1402) James (1402–1406) Alexander (1430) James (1430–1437) James (1452–1460) James (1473–1488) James (1507–1508) Arthur (1509–1510) James (1512–1513) James (1540–1541) James (1566–1567) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles James (1629) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1689) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present)

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Dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland*

Royal dukes

Edinburgh Cornwall & Rothesay Cambridge York Gloucester Kent

Others

Norfolk Somerset Hamilton & Brandon Buccleuch & Queensberry Richmond, Lennox & Gordon Grafton Beaufort St Albans Bedford Devonshire Argyll Marlborough Rutland Atholl Montrose Roxburghe Manchester Northumberland Leinster Wellington Sutherland Abercorn Westminster Fife

* Current title holders, listed by date of creation, from earliest to most recent

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Great Masters of the Order of the Bath

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu Vacant Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews Vacant Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Albert, Prince Consort Vacant Albert Edward, Prince of Wales Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Charles, Prince of Wales

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Current members of the Order of the Garter

Ex officio

The Queen, Elizabeth II Charles, Prince of Wales

Knights and Ladies Companion

Peter, Lord Carrington Edwin, Lord Bramall John, Lord Sainsbury of Preston Candover John, Lord Ashburton Timothy Colman James Hamilton, Duke of Abercorn Peter, Lord Inge Antony Acland Robin, Lord Butler of Brockwell John, Lord Morris of Aberavon John Major Richard, Lord Luce Thomas Dunne Nick, Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers Michael, Lord Boyce Jock, Lord Stirrup Eliza, Baroness Manningham-Buller Mervyn, Lord King of Lothbury Charles Kay-Shuttleworth, Lord Shuttleworth David Brewer 4 vacancies

Royal Knights and Ladies

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Anne, Princess Royal Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Princess Alexandra Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Stranger Knights and Ladies

Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg Margrethe II of Denmark Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden King Juan Carlos I of Spain Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands Emperor Akihito
Akihito
of Japan Harald V of Norway Felipe VI of Spain

Officers

Tim Dakin, Bishop of Winchester
Bishop of Winchester
(Prelate) James Hamilton, Duke of Abercorn (Chancellor) David Conner, Dean of Windsor
Dean of Windsor
(Registrar) Thomas Woodcock (Garter Principal King of Arms) Patric Dickinson, Clarenceux King of Arms
Clarenceux King of Arms
(Secretary) Sarah Clarke (Black Rod)

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Current heirs apparent and presumptive of monarchies

Africa

Lerotholi Seeiso Moulay Hassan N/A

Asia

Salman Jigme Namgyel Wangchuck Al-Muhtadee Billah N/A (elected by council) Naruhito Hussein Nawaf N/A (elected by council) N/A N/A Mohammad bin Salman Dipangkorn Rasmijoti N/A (elected by council)

Europe

N/A (elected by the French population and appointed by the Pope) Elisabeth Frederik Alois Guillaume Jacques Catharina-Amalia Haakon Leonor Victoria Charles N/A (elected by Cardinals)

Americas

Charles

Oceania

Charles Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala

Royalty portal British politics portal England portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 84034215 LCCN: n78089005 GND: 118520180 SELIBR: 236359 SUDOC: 027378365 BNF: cb118961635 (data) ULAN: 500185586 MusicBrainz: 87362f54-bcf4-486a-9ed5-c6251b7cd4c1 NLA: 35827158 NDL: 00435740 NKC: jn20000700760 BNE: XX1160

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