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Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation. Born the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, Arthur was educated by private tutors before entering the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich at the age of 16. Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the British Army, where he served for some 40 years, seeing service in various parts of the British Empire. During this time he was also created a royal duke, becoming the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, as well as the Earl of Sussex. In 1911, he was appointed as Governor General of Canada, replacing the Earl Grey as viceroy. He occupied this post until he was succeeded by the Duke of Devonshire in 1916. He acted as the King's, and thus the Canadian Commander-in-Chief's, representative through the first years of the First World War. After the end of his viceregal tenure, Arthur returned to the United Kingdom and there, as well as in India, performed various royal duties, while also again taking up military duties. Though he retired from public life in 1928, he continued to make his presence known in the army well into the Second World War, before his death in 1942. He was Queen Victoria's last surviving son.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Military career 3 Peerage, marriage, and family 4 Governor General of Canada 5 Later life 6 Death 7 Titles, styles, honours and arms

7.1 Arms

8 Issue 9 Ancestry 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Early life[edit]

A painting of Queen Victoria with Prince Arthur by Franz Xaver Winterhalter

Arthur was born at Buckingham Palace on 1 May 1850, the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The prince was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, on 22 June in the palace's private chapel. His godparents were Prince William of Prussia; his great-uncle's sister-in-law, Princess Bernard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (for whom his maternal grandmother the Duchess of Kent stood proxy); and the Duke of Wellington, with whom he shared his birthday and after whom he was named.[1][2] As with his older brothers, Arthur received his early education from private tutors. It was reported that he became the Queen's favourite child.[3] Military career[edit] It was at an early age that Arthur developed an interest in the army, and in 1866 he followed through on his military ambitions by enrolling at the Royal Military College at Woolwich, from where he graduated two years later and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Corps of Royal Engineers on 18 June 1868.[4] The Prince transferred to the Royal Regiment of Artillery on 2 November 1868 and,[5] on 2 August 1869, to the Rifle Brigade,[6] his father's own regiment, after which he conducted a long and distinguished career as an army officer, including service in South Africa, Canada in 1869, Ireland, Egypt in 1882, and in India from 1886 to 1890. In Canada, Arthur, as an officer with the Montreal detachment of the Rifle Brigade,[2] undertook a year's training and engaged in defending the Dominion from the Fenian Raids; there was initially concern that his personal involvement in Canada's defence might put the Prince in danger from Fenians and their supporters in the United States, but it was decided his military duty was primary.[2] Following his arrival at Halifax, Arthur toured the country for eight weeks and made a visit in January 1870 to Washington, D.C., where he met with President Ulysses S. Grant.[2][7] During his service in Canada he was also entertained by Canadian society; amongst other activities, he attended an investiture ceremony in Montreal, was a guest at balls and garden parties, and attended the opening of parliament in Ottawa (becoming the first member of the Royal Family to do so),[7] all of which was documented in photographs that were sent back for the Queen to view. It was not, however, all social and state functions for Arthur; the Prince was on 25 May 1870 engaged in fending off Fenian invaders during the Battle of Eccles Hill, for which he received the Fenian Medal.[8] Arthur made an impression on many in Canada. He was given on 1 October 1869 the title Chief of the Six Nations by the Iroquois of the Grand River Reserve in Ontario and the name Kavakoudge (meaning the sun flying from east to west under the guidance of the Great Spirit), enabling him to sit in the tribe's councils and vote on matters of tribe governance. As he became the 51st chief on the council, his appointment broke the centuries-old tradition that there should only be 50 chiefs of the Six Nations.[9] Of the Prince, Lady Lisgar, wife of then Governor General of Canada the Lord Lisgar, noted in a letter to Victoria that Canadians seemed hopeful Prince Arthur would one day return as governor general.[10]

The Duke wearing 18th-century Highland dress, c. 1875 – 1880

Arthur was promoted to the honorary rank of colonel on 14 June 1871,[11] substantive lieutenant-colonel in 1876,[2] colonel on 29 May 1880 and,[12] on 1 April 13 years later, was made a general.[2] He gained military experience as Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army from December 1886 to March 1890.[13] He went on to be General Officer Commanding Southern District, at Portsmouth, from September 1890[14][15] to 1893.[16] The Prince had hoped to succeed his first cousin once-removed, the elderly Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, as Commander-in-chief of the British Army, upon the latter's forced retirement in 1895. But this desire was denied to Arthur, and instead he was given, between 1893[17] and 1898, command of the Aldershot District Command.[14] In August 1899 the 6th Battalion, Rifles of the Canadian Non-Permanent Active Militia, located in Vancouver, British Columbia, asked Prince Arthur to give his name to the regiment and act as its honorary colonel. The regiment had recently been converted to the infantry role from the 2nd Battalion, 5th British Columbia Regiment of Canadian Artillery. With the Prince's agreement the unit was renamed 6th Regiment, Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles (DCORs) on 1 May 1900. He was subsequently appointed colonel-in-chief of the regiment, then known as The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), in 1923. He held that appointment until his death.

Arthur, Duke of Connaught, John Singer Sargent, 1908

On 26 June 1902 he was promoted to the post of field marshal, and thereafter served in various important positions, including Commander-in-Chief of Ireland, from January 1900[18] to 1904, with the dual position of commander of the Third Army Corps from October 1901,[19] and Inspector-General of the Forces, between 1904 and 1907. Peerage, marriage, and family[edit] On his mother's birthday (24 May) in 1874, Arthur was created a royal peer, being titled as the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex.[20] Some years later, Arthur came into the direct line of succession to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in Germany, upon the death in 1899 of his nephew, Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, the only son of his elder brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. He decided, however, to renounce his own and his son's succession rights to the duchy, which then passed to his other nephew, Prince Charles Edward, the posthumous son of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany.[21] At St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, on 13 March 1879, Arthur married Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia, the daughter of Prince Frederick Charles and a great-niece of the German Emperor, Arthur's godfather, Wilhelm I. The couple bore three children: Princess Margaret Victoria Charlotte Augusta Norah (born 15 January 1882), Prince Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert (born 13 January 1883), and Princess Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth (born 17 March 1886), who were all raised at the Connaughts' country home, Bagshot Park, in Surrey, and after 1900 at Clarence House, the Connaughts' London residence. Through his children's marriages, Arthur became the father-in-law of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife; and Sir Alexander Ramsay. Arthur's first two children predeceased him, Margaret while pregnant with his sixth grandchild.[n 1] For many years, Arthur maintained a liaison with Leonie, Lady Leslie, sister of Jennie Churchill, while still remaining devoted to his wife.[22]

Prince Arthur wearing Masonic regalia.

Alongside his military career, he continued to undertake royal duties beyond, or vaguely associated with, the army. On the return from a posting in India, he again, this time with his wife, toured Canada in 1890, stopping in all major cities across the country.[9] He also toured Canada in 1906.[23] In 1910, Arthur travelled aboard the Union-Castle Line ship Balmoral Castle to South Africa, to open the first parliament of the newly formed union,[24] and in Johannesburg on 30 November he laid a commemorative stone at the Rand Regiments Memorial, dedicated to the British soldiers that died during the Second Boer War.[25] When his brother was obliged to resign the office upon his accession in 1901 as King Edward VII, Prince Arthur was elected as Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England and was subsequently re-elected as such an additional 37 times before 1939, when the Prince was nearly 90 years of age.

British Royalty

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Victoria and Albert

Victoria, Princess Royal and German Empress Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg

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Governor General of Canada[edit] It was announced on 6 March 1911 that King George V had, by commission under the royal sign-manual, approved the recommendation of his British prime minister, H.H. Asquith, to appoint Arthur as his representative.[26] His brother-in-law, the Duke of Argyll, had previously served as the country's governor general, but when Arthur was sworn in on 13 October 1911 in the salon rouge of the parliament buildings of Quebec,[27] he became the first Governor General of Canada who was a member of the British royal family.[26] To Canada, Arthur brought with him his wife and his youngest daughter, the latter of whom would become an extremely popular figure with Canadians. The Governor General and his viceregal family travelled throughout the country, performing such constitutional and ceremonial tasks as opening parliament in 1911 (to which Arthur wore his field marshal's uniform and the Duchess of Connaught wore the gown she had worn at the King's coronation the previous year) and,[27] in 1917, laying at the newly rebuilt Centre Block on Parliament Hill the same cornerstone his older brother, the late King Edward VII, had set on 1 September 1860, when the original building was under construction. The family crossed the country a number of times and the Governor General made another trip to the United States in 1912, when he met with President William Howard Taft.[28] When in Ottawa, Connaught maintained a routine of four days each week at his office on Parliament Hill and held small, private receptions for members of all political parties and dignitaries. The Duke learned to ice skate and hosted skating parties at the royal and viceroyal residence— Rideau Hall— to which the Connaughts made many physical improvements during Arthur's term as governor general. The royal family also took to camping and other outdoor sports, such as hunting and fishing.[29]

Prince Arthur and his viceregal party visit the Valcartier military base, 1914

In 1914, the First World War broke out, with Canadians called to arms against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Arthur maintained a wider role in the empire— for instance, from 1912 until his death, serving as Colonel-in-Chief of the Cape Town Highlanders Regiment[30]— but the Connaughts remained in Canada after the beginning of the global conflict, with Arthur emphasising the need for military training and readiness for Canadian troops departing for war, and giving his name to Connaught Cup for the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, to encourage pistol marksmanship for recruits. He was also active in auxiliary war services and charities and conducted hospital visits. Though well intended, upon the outbreak of the war, Arthur immediately donned his field marshal's uniform and went, without advice or guidance from his ministers, to training grounds and barracks to address the troops and to see them off before their voyage to Europe. This was much to the chagrin of Prime Minister Robert Borden, who saw the Prince as overstepping constitutional conventions.[31] Borden placed blame on the military secretary, Edward Stanton (whom Borden considered to be "mediocre"), but also opined that Arthur "laboured under the handicap of his position as a member of the Royal Family and never realised his limitations as Governor General."[32] At the same time, the Duchess of Connaught worked for the Red Cross and other organisations to support the war cause. She was also Colonel-in-Chief of the Duchess of Connaught's Own Irish Canadian Rangers battalion, one of the regiments in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and Princess Patricia also lent her name and support to the raising of a new Canadian army regiment— Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. His term as Canada's Governor General ended in 1916. Following the war, Arthur commissioned in memory of Canada's fallen a stained glass window which is located in St. Bartholomew's Church, Ottawa, next to Rideau Hall, and which the family attended regularly. Later life[edit] After his years in Canada, the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn held no similar public offices but undertook a number of public engagements. In 1921, he travelled to India, where he officially opened the new Central Legislative Assembly, Council of State, and Chamber of Princes.[33] As president of the Boy Scouts Association and one of Lord Baden-Powell's friends and admirers, he performed the official opening of the 3rd World Scout Jamboree at Arrowe Park. The Duke also returned to military service and continued well into the Second World War,[34] where he was seen as a grandfather figure by aspiring recruits. The Duchess, who had been ill during their years at Rideau Hall, died in March 1917, and Arthur mostly withdrew from public life in 1928; his last formal engagement was the opening of the Connaught Gardens in Sidmouth, Devon, on 3 November 1934. Death[edit] He died in 1942 at Bagshot Park, at the age of 91 years, 8 months and 15 days, the same age to the day as his elder sister, Louise, Duchess of Argyll, who had died three years before. He was buried in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore.[35][36] He was the second last of Queen Victoria's children to die, with his younger sister Princess Beatrice dying two years later. Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit] Main article: List of titles and honours of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn As a member of the royal family and having been a viceroy, Prince Arthur held a number of titles and styles during his life. He was also the recipient of many honours, both domestic and foreign. He was an active member of the military, eventually reaching the rank of Field Marshal, and served as personal aide-de-camp to four successive sovereigns. Arms[edit]

Coat of arms of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

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Notes Prince Arthur was granted a coat of arms with his dukedom, consisting of the escutcheon of the arms of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom, with a difference of a label argent, of three points, the first and third bearing fleurs-de-lys azure, and the central a cross gules and an inescutcheon of Saxony. In 1917, the inescutcheon was dropped by royal warrant from King George V.[37] Adopted 1874 Escutcheon Quarterly 1st and 4th gules three lions passant guardant in pale or 2nd or a lion rampant gules within a double tressure flory counterflory gules 3rd azure a harp or stringed argent. Overall differenced by a label of three points argent, the central point charged with a St George's Cross, the points dexter and sinister charged with a Fleur-de-Lis azure. Until 1917, an inescutcheon of Saxony (for his father). Supporters Dexter a lion rampant gardant or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn argent, armed, crined and unguled or, gorged with a coronet or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also or. Banner Arthur's banner of arms between 1917 and 1942.

(The previous version with the coat of arms of the Royal House of Saxony superimposed on it.)

Symbolism As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland.

Issue[edit]

Image Name Birth Death Notes

Princess Margaret of Connaught ("Daisy") 15 January 1882 1 May 1920 married, 15 June 1905, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; had issue

Prince Arthur of Connaught 13 January 1883 12 September 1938 married, 15 October 1913, Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife; had issue

Princess Victoria Patricia of Connaught ("Patsy") 17 March 1886 12 January 1974 married, 27 February 1919, Captain Sir Alexander Ramsay, renouncing her title and becoming Lady Patricia Ramsay; had issue

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

16. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

8. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

17. Duchess Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

4. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

18. Heinrich XXIV, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf

9. Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf

19. Countess Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg

2. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

20. Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

10. Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

21. Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen

5. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

22. Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg

11. Duchess Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

23. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

1. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

24. Frederick, Prince of Wales

12. George III of the United Kingdom

25. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha

6. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn

26. Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow

13. Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

27. Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen

3. Victoria of the United Kingdom

28. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (= 16)

14. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (= 8)

29. Duchess Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (= 17)

7. Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

30. Heinrich XXIV, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf (= 18)

15. Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf (= 9)

31. Countess Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg (= 19)

See also[edit]

Scouting portal

British prince Royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom

Named in his honour:

Connaught, a neighbourhood in Calgary, Alberta, Canada Connaught Place, New Delhi, the commercial centre of India's capital, the epicentre of the imperial Lutyens' Delhi Connaught Place, London, at the south end of Edgware Road, very close to the Marble Arch and Hyde Park Connaught Road, Hong Kong, a major thoroughfare on the north shore of Hong Kong Island. fr:Rue Prince-Arthur, a street in Montreal which is partly a pedestrian mall.

Notes[edit]

^ Through Princess Margaret, the reigning monarchs of Sweden and Denmark are descended from the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.

References[edit]

^ "No. 21108". The London Gazette. 26 June 1850. p. 1807.  ^ a b c d e f Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2010). Home to Canada: Royal Tours 1786–2010. Tonawanda: Dundurn Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-55488-800-9.  ^ Erickson, Carolly (15 January 2002). Her Little Majesty: The Life of Queen Victoria. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-3657-7.  ^ "No. 23391". The London Gazette. 19 June 1868. p. 3431.  ^ "No. 23436". The London Gazette. 30 October 1868. p. 5467.  ^ "No. 23522". The London Gazette. 3 August 1869. p. 4313.  ^ a b Bousfield 2010, p. 81 ^ Bousfield 2010, p. 82 ^ a b Bousfield 2010, p. 83 ^ Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6.  ^ "No. 23751". The London Gazette. 30 June 1871. p. 3006.  ^ "No. 24849". The London Gazette. 29 May 1880. p. 3269.  ^ India Office (1819). The India List and India Office List. London: Harrison. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ a b "Army Commands" (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2015.  ^ "No. 26084". The London Gazette. 2 September 1890. p. 4775.  ^ "No. 26458". The London Gazette. 14 November 1893. p. 6356.  ^ "No. 26446". The London Gazette. 3 October 1893. p. 5554.  ^ "No. 27154". The London Gazette. 16 January 1900. p. 289.  ^ "No. 27360". The London Gazette. 1 October 1901. p. 6400.  ^ "No. 24098". The London Gazette. 26 May 1874. p. 2779.  ^ "House Laws of the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha". Heraldica.org.  ^ King, Greg (2007). Twilight of Splendor: The Court of Queen Victoria During Her Diamond Jubilee. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-470-04439-1.  ^ Edmonton Bulletin, March 9, 1906 ^ Cox, Martin. "Union-Castle Line – A brief Company History". Maritime Matters. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008.  ^ "The Anglo-Boer War Memorial at the Museum of Military History". The All at Sea Network. Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008.  ^ a b Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General > Former Governors General > Field Marshal His Royal Highness the Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 30 April 2009.  ^ a b Bousfield 2010, p. 85 ^ Bousfield 2010, p. 86 ^ Bousfield 2010, p. 87 ^ "History – Past Royal Connections". Cape Town Highlanders Website (Unofficial). Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2008.  ^ Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6.  ^ Borden, Robert (1 January 1969). Memoires. 1. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. pp. 601–602.  ^ Harrison, Brian, ed. (2004), "Arthur, Prince, first duke of Connaught and Strathearn", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, I, Oxford: Oxford University Press  ^ Bell, Edward (4 June 1939), Letter to Mrs. E.I.J. Bell, The Letter Repository, retrieved 25 April 2010  ^ "Duke Of Connaught Dead In England, 91. Last of Four Sons of Queen Victoria, Governor General of Canada, 1911-16. King Orders Mourning. Senior Field Marshal of the British Army Had a Notable Career in Armed Forces". New York Times. January 17, 1942. p. 8.  ^ Coincidentally this was exactly the same age at which his elder sister, Princess Louise, Dowager Duchess of Argyll, died, making them jointly the two longest-lived of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert's nine children with him being the longest-lived living at almost 92. ^ "British Royalty Cadency". Heraldica. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.

Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article about Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.

Works by or about Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn at Internet Archive "Archival material relating to Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn". UK National Archives.  8 May 1915, newspaper coverage of the Duke of Connaught's appearance at McGill University Convocation. Scouting Round the World, John S. Wilson, first edition, Blandford Press 1959 p. 81

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha later House of Windsor Cadet branch of the House of Wettin Born: 1 May 1850 Died: 16 January 1942

Government offices

Preceded by The Earl Grey Governor General of Canada 1911–1916 Succeeded by The Duke of Devonshire

Military offices

Preceded by Sir Charles Arbuthnot C-in-C, Bombay Army 1886–1890 Succeeded by Sir George Greaves

Preceded by Sir Leicester Smyth GOC Southern District 1890–1893 Succeeded by Sir John Davis

Preceded by Sir Evelyn Wood GOC-in-C Aldershot Command 1893–1898 Succeeded by Sir Redvers Buller

Preceded by The Lord Roberts of Kandahar Commander-in-Chief, Ireland 1900–1904 Succeeded by The Lord Grenfell

Preceded by New post Inspector-General of the Forces 1904–1907 Succeeded by Sir John French

Preceded by Sir William Thomas Knollys Colonel of the Scots Guards 1883–1904 Succeeded by The Lord Methuen

Preceded by The Duke of Cambridge Colonel of the Grenadier Guards 1904–1942 Succeeded by Princess Elizabeth

Honorary titles

Preceded by The Prince of Wales Great Master of the Order of the Bath 1901–1942 Succeeded by The Duke of Gloucester

Preceded by The Earl of Ducie Senior Privy Counsellor 1921–1942 Succeeded by The Duke of Portland

Masonic offices

Preceded by The Prince of Wales Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England 1901–1939 Succeeded by The Duke of Kent

Peerage of the United Kingdom

New creation Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1874–1942 Succeeded by Alastair Windsor

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British princes

The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family.

1st generation

King George II

2nd generation

Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke of Cumberland

3rd generation

King George III Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Prince Frederick

4th generation

King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

5th generation

Albert, Prince Consort1 King George V of Hanover Prince George, Duke of Cambridge

6th generation

King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover

7th generation

Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince Alexander John of Wales Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick

8th generation

King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Prince George, Duke of Kent Prince John Alastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover

9th generation

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2 Prince William of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent

10th generation

Charles, Prince of Wales Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex

11th generation

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince Henry of Wales James, Viscount Severn3

12th generation

Prince George of Cambridge

1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see his article.

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Princes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Forefather

Duke Francis I

1st generation

Ernest I^ Prince Ferdinand^ King Leopold I of the Belgians^

2nd generation

Ernest II^ Albert, Prince Consort of the United Kingdom^* Koháry: King Fernando II of Portugal^¶ Prince August^ Prince Leopold^ Belgium: Crown Prince Louis Philippe# King Leopold II# Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders#

3rd generation

United Kingdom: King Edward VII* Alfred I* Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn* Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany* Braganza: King Pedro V¶ King Luís I¶ Infante João, Duke of Beja¶ Infante Fernando¶ Infante Augusto, Duke of Coimbra¶ Koháry: Prince Philipp Prince Ludwig August Tsar Ferdinand I of the Bulgarians† Belgium: Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant# Prince Baudouin# King Albert I#

4th generation

United Kingdom: Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale* King George V* Prince Alexander John of Wales* Hereditary Prince Alfred* Prince Arthur of Connaught* Charles Edward I* Braganza: King Carlos I¶ Infante Afonso, Duke of Porto¶ Koháry: Prince Leopold Clement Prince Pedro Augusto1 Prince August Leopold1 Prince Joseph Ferdinand1 Prince Ludwig Gaston1 Bulgaria: Tsar Boris III† Kiril, Prince of Preslav† Belgium: King Leopold III# Prince Charles, Count of Flanders#

5th generation

United Kingdom: King Edward VIII, Duke of Windsor* King George VI* Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester* Prince George, Duke of Kent* Prince John* Prince Alastair of Connaught* Hereditary Prince Johann Leopold* Prince Hubertus* Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Braganza: Luís Filipe, Prince Royal¶ King Manuel II¶ Koháry: Prince August Clemens Prince Rainer Prince Philipp Prince Ernst Prince Antonius Bulgaria: Tsar Simeon II† Belgium: King Baudouin I# King Albert II# Prince Alexandre#

6th generation

Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Adrian Koháry: Prince Johannes Heinrich Bulgaria: Kardam, Prince of Turnovo† Kyril, Prince of Preslav† Kubrat, Prince of Panagyurishte† Konstantin-Assen, Prince of Vidin† Belgium: King Philippe# Prince Laurent#

7th generation

Hereditary Prince Hubertus Prince Alexander Koháry: Prince Johannes Bulgaria: Boris, Prince of Turnovo† Prince Beltrán† Prince Tassilo† Prince Mirko† Prince Lukás† Prince Tirso† Prince Umberto† Belgium: Prince Gabriel# Prince Emmanuel# Prince Nicolas# Prince Aymeric#

8th generation

Prince Philipp

^Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld until 1826 *also a prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland #also a prince of Belgium ¶also a member of the Portuguese royal family †also a member of the Bulgarian royal family 1also a member of the Brazilian imperial family

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Governors General of Canada

Monck Lisgar Dufferin Lorne Lansdowne Stanley Aberdeen Minto Grey Connaught Devonshire Byng Willingdon Bessborough Tweedsmuir Athlone Alexander Massey Vanier Michener Léger Schreyer Sauvé Hnatyshyn LeBlanc Clarkson Jean Johnston Payette

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Great Masters of the Order of the Bath

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu Vacant Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews Vacant Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Albert, Prince Consort Vacant Albert Edward, Prince of Wales Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Charles, Prince of Wales

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United Grand Lodge of England

Grand Masters

19th century

The Duke of Sussex (1813–1843) The Earl of Zetland (1844–1870) The Marquess of Ripon (1870–1874) The Prince of Wales (1874–1901)

20th century

The Duke of Connaught (1901–1939) The 1st Duke of Kent (1939–1942) The Earl of Harewood (1942–1947) The Duke of Devonshire (1947–1950) The Earl of Scarbrough (1951–1967) The 2nd Duke of Kent (1967–present)

Related articles

History of Freemasonry Premier Grand Lodge of England Antient Grand Lodge of England Freemasons' Hall, London Mark Masons' Hall, London Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution York Rite Provincial Grand Lodges (UGLE) Lectures of the Three Degrees in Craft Masonry Emulation Lodge of Improvement Quatuor Coronati Lodge

Appendant bodies

Trinitarian

Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia Royal Order of Scotland Ancient and Accepted Rite Royal Order of Eri Order of Knights Templar and Knights of Malta Order of the Red Cross of Constantine Order of Holy Wisdom Order of Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests Order of St Thomas of Acon Order of Knights Beneficent of the Holy City

non-Trinitarian

Order of the Holy Royal Arch Order of Mark Master Masons Order of the Secret Monitor Order of Athelstan Order of the Allied Masonic Degrees Order of the Royal and Select Masters Order of Knight Masons Fraternity of the Royal Ark Mariners Order of the Scarlet Cord Order of the Trowel

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 74661807 LCCN: nr93042306 ISNI: 0000 0000 5196 6762 GND: 119373289 SUDOC: 032716877 BNF:

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