HOME
The Info List - Prince-Bishop



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i)

A PRINCE-BISHOP is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty . Thus the principality or PRINCE-BISHOPRIC ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his diocesan jurisdiction, since some parts of his diocese , even the city of his residence, could be exempt from his civil rule, obtaining the status of free imperial city . If the episcopal see is an archbishopric , the correct term is PRINCE-ARCHBISHOP; the equivalent in the regular (monastic) clergy is prince-abbot . A prince-bishop is usually considered an elected monarch .

In the West, with the decline of imperial power from the 4th century onwards in the face of the barbarian invasions, sometimes Christian bishops of cities took the place of the Roman commander, made secular decisions for the city and led their own troops when necessary. Later relations between a prince-bishop and the burghers were invariably not cordial. As cities demanded charters from emperors, kings, or their prince-bishops and declared themselves independent of the secular territorial magnates, friction intensified between burghers and bishops.

In the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, the still autocratic Emperors passed general legal measures assigning all bishops certain rights and duties in the secular administration of their dioceses, but that was part of a caesaropapist development putting the Eastern Church in the service of the Empire, with its Ecumenical Patriarch
Ecumenical Patriarch
almost reduced to the Emperor's minister of religious affairs.

CONTENTS

* 1 Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 2 State of the Teutonic Order

* 3 Elsewhere

* 3.1 In Montenegro
Montenegro
* 3.2 In England * 3.3 In France
France
* 3.4 In Portugal
Portugal

* 4 Beyond Catholic feudalism * 5 Special
Special
cases * 6 See also * 7 Sources, references and external links

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

Ecclesiastical lands in the Holy Roman Empire, 1780

Bishops had been involved in the government of the Frankish realm and subsequent Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
frequently as the clerical member of a duo of envoys styled Missus dominicus , but that was an individual mandate, not attached to the see. Prince-bishoprics were most common in the feudally fragmented Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, where many were formally awarded the rank of an Imperial Prince
Prince
Reichsfürst , granting them the immediate power over a certain territory and a representation in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).

The stem duchies of the German kingdom inside the Empire had strong and powerful dukes (originally, war-rulers), always looking out more for their duchy 's "national interest " than for the Empire's. In turn the first Ottonian (Saxon ) king Henry the Fowler
Henry the Fowler
and more so his son, Emperor Otto I , intended to weaken the power of the dukes by granting loyal bishops Imperial lands and vest them with regalia privileges. Unlike dukes they could not pass hereditary titles and lands to any descendants. Instead the Emperors reserved the implementation of the bishops of their proprietary church for themselves, defying the fact that according to canon law they were part of the transnational Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. This met with increasing opposition by the Popes , culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy of 1076. Nevertheless, the Emperors continued to grant major territories to the most important (arch)bishops. The immediate territory attached to the episcopal see then became a prince-diocese or bishopric (Fürstbistum). The German term Hochstift
Hochstift
was often used to denote the form of secular authority held by bishops ruling a prince-bishopric with Erzstift being used for prince-archbishoprics.

Emperor Charles IV by the Golden Bull of 1356
Golden Bull of 1356
confirmed the privileged status of the Prince-Archbishoprics of Mainz , Cologne
Cologne
and Trier as members of the electoral college. At the eve of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
, the Imperial states comprised 53 ecclesiastical principalities. They were finally secularized in the 1803 German Mediatization upon the territorial losses to France
France
in the Treaty of Lunéville , except for the Mainz prince-archbishop and German archchancellor Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg , who continued to rule as Prince
Prince
of Aschaffenburg and Regensburg
Regensburg
. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 1806, the title finally became defunct. However, in some countries outside of French control, such as in the Austrian Empire (Salzburg , Seckau , and Olomouc ) and the Kingdom of Prussia (Breslau ), the institution nominally continued, and in some cases was revived; a new, titular type arose.

No less than three of the (originally only seven) prince-electors , the highest order of Reichsfürsten (comparable in rank with the French pairs ), were prince-archbishops, each holding the title of Archchancellor (the only arch-office amongst them) for a part of the Empire; given the higher importance of an electorate, their principalities were known as Kurfürstentum ("electoral principality") rather than prince-archbishoprics:

ARMS NAME RANK LOCAL NAME(S) IMPERIAL IMMEDIACY Imperial Circle Modern nation NOTES

Cologne
Cologne
Archbishopric Electorate German : Erzstift Köln, Kurköln 953–1803 Electoral Rhenish Germany
Germany
Prince-elector and Arch-Chancellor of Italy
Italy
. Duke
Duke
of Westphalia since 1180. Cologne
Cologne
became a Free Imperial City
City
in 1288.

Mainz Archbishopric Electorate German : Erzbistum Mainz, Kurmainz c. 780–1803 Electoral Rhenish Germany
Germany
Prince-elector and Arch-Chancellor of Germany
Germany
.

Trier Archbishopric Electorate German : Erzbistum Trier, Kurtrier French : Archevêque Trèves 772–1803 Electoral Rhenish Germany
Germany
Prince-elector and Arch-Chancellor of Burgundy .

Aquileia Patriarchate Latin : Patriarchæ Aquileiensis Italian : Patriarcato di Aquileia 1077–1433 None Italy
Italy
Conquered by Venice in 1420, officially incorporated after the 1445 Council of Florence

Augsburg
Augsburg
Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Augsburg c. 888–1803 Swabian Germany
Germany
Augsburg
Augsburg
became a Free imperial City
City
in 1276.

Bamberg Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Bamberg 1245–1802 Franconian Germany
Germany

Basel
Basel
Bishopric French : Principauté de Bâle German : Fürstbistum Basel
Basel
1032–1803 Upper Rhenish France
France
Germany
Germany
Switzerland
Switzerland
Basel
Basel
joined the Old Swiss Confederacy as the Canton of Basel
Basel
in 1501. A tiny fraction of the bishopric is not now in Switzerland: Schliengen and Istein are both now in Germany; a very small part of the Vogtei of St Ursanne is now in France.

Besançon
Besançon
Archbishopric French : Archévêqué de Besançon German : Erzstift Besantz None France
France
The archbishops had been rulers over Besançon
Besançon
, an Imperial city from 1307, which in 1512 joined the Burgundian Circle .

Brandenburg Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Brandenburg c. 1165–1598 Upper Saxon Germany
Germany
Founded in 948, annihilated 983, re-established c. 1161, continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation
Reformation
in 1520, secularized and incorporated to the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1571.

Bremen
Bremen
Archbishopric German : Erzstift Bremen 1180–1648 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany
Continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation
Reformation
in 1566 until 1645/1648. Bremen
Bremen
itself became autonomous in 1186, and was confirmed as a Free Imperial City
City
in 1646.

Brescia Bishopric Italian : Principato vescovile di Brescia

None Italy
Italy
Bishop
Bishop
Notingus was made count of Brescia in 844.

Breslau Bishopric German : Fürstbistum Breslau Polish : Biskupie Księstwo Wrocławskie Silesian German
Silesian German
: Brassel None Poland
Poland
In 1344 Bishop
Bishop
Przecław of Breslau (present-day Wrocław
Wrocław
) bought the town of Grottkau ( Grodków ) from the Silesian duke Bolesław III the Generous and added it to the episcopal Duchy
Duchy
of Neisse (Nysa ), becoming Prince
Prince
of Neisse and Duke
Duke
of Grottkau as a vassal to the Bohemian Crown .

Brixen Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Brixen Italian : Principato vescovile di Bressanone 1027–1803 Austrian Italy
Italy
secularized to Tyrol

Cambrai Bishopric, then Archbishopric French : Principauté de Cambrai German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Kammerich 1007–1678 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian France
France
To France
France
by 1678 Peace of Nijmegen

Cammin Bishopric German : Bistum Kammin Polish : Biskupie Księstwo Kamieńskie 1248–1650 Upper Saxon Poland
Poland
Lost Reichsfreiheit to Duchy
Duchy
of Pomerania in 1544, secularized in 1650, to Brandenburg Province of Pomerania

Chur Bishopric German : Bistum Chur Romansh : Chapitel catedral da Cuira Italian : Principato vescovile di Coira 831/1170–1526 Austrian Switzerland
Switzerland

Constance Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Konstanz 1155–1803 Swabian Austria
Austria
Germany
Germany
Switzerland
Switzerland
Greatly reduced during the Reformation
Reformation
, when significant parts of Swabia and Switzerland
Switzerland
became Protestant.

Eichstätt Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Eichstätt 1305–1802 Franconian Germany
Germany

Freising Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Freising 1294–1802 Bavarian Austria
Austria
Germany
Germany

Fulda Abbey, then Bishopric German : Reichskloster Fulda, Reichsbistum Fulda 1220–1802 Upper Rhenish Germany
Germany
Imperial Abbey until 5 October 1752, when it was raised to a bishopric. Secularized in 1802 in the German Mediatization

Geneva
Geneva
Bishopric French : Évêché de Genève German : Fürstbistum Genf Upper Rhenish France
France
Switzerland
Switzerland
De jure Reichsfrei since 1154, de facto dominated by their guardians, the counts of Geneva
Geneva
(until 1400) and Savoy (since 1401). Geneva
Geneva
joined the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1526.

Halberstadt Bishopric German : Bistum Halberstadt 1180–1648 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany

Havelberg Bishopric German : Bistum Havelberg 1151–1598 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany
Founded in 948, annihilated 983, re-established 1130, continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation
Reformation
in 1548 until 1598

Hildesheim Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Hildesheim 1235–1803 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany

Lausanne Bishopric French : Prince-Évêché de Lausanne German : Bistum Lausanne 1270–1536 None Switzerland
Switzerland
Conquered by the Swiss city canton of Bern in 1536.

Lebus Bishopric German : Fürstbistum Lebus Polish : Diecezja lubuska 1248–1598 None Germany
Germany
Poland
Poland
Seated in Fürstenwalde since 1385; Reichsfreiheit challenged by Brandenburg , continued by Hohenzollern Lutheran administrators after Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in 1555 until secularization 1598.

Liège Bishopric Dutch : Prinsbisdom Luik French : Principauté de Liège German : Fürstbistum Lüttich Walloon : Principåté d' Lidje 980–1789/1795 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian Belgium
Belgium
Netherlands
Netherlands

Lübeck
Lübeck
Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Lübeck 1180–1803 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany
Seated in Eutin since the 1270s; Reformation
Reformation
started in 1535, continued by Lutheran administrators since 1586 until secularization in 1803. Lübeck
Lübeck
became a Free Imperial City
City
in 1226.

Magdeburg Archbishopric German : Erzstift Magdeburg 1180–1680 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany
Continued by Lutheran administrators between 1566 and 1631, and again since 1638 until 1680.

Merseburg Bishopric German : Bistum Merseburg 1004–1565 None Germany
Germany
Administered by the Lutheran Electorate of Saxony between 1544 until 1565.

Metz Bishopric French : Évêché de Metz German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Metz 10th century–1552 Upper Rhenish France
France
One of the Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
ceded to France
France
by the 1552 Treaty of Chambord .

Minden Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Minden 1180–1648 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian Germany
Germany

Münster Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Münster 1180–1802 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian Germany
Germany

Naumburg Bishopric German : Bistum Naumburg-Zeitz

Germany
Germany
Under guardianship of Meissen from 1259, administrated by Saxony from 1564.

Olomouc Bishopric Czech : Biskupství olomoucké German : Bistum Olmütz None Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech bishopric (later Metropolitan) of Olomouc , as a vassal principality of the Bohemian crown , was the peer of the margraviate of Moravia , and from 1365 its prince-bishop was ' Count
Count
of the Bohemian Chapel', i.e., first court chaplain , who was to accompany the monarch on his frequent travels.

Osnabrück Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Osnabrück 1225/1236–1802 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian Germany
Germany
Alternated between Catholic and Protestant incumbents after the Thirty Years\' War , secularized in 1802/1803

Paderborn Bishopric German : Fürstbistum Paderborn 1281–1802 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian Germany
Germany

Passau Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Passau 999–1803 Bavarian Austria
Austria
Germany
Germany
Princely title was confirmed at Nuremberg in 1217.

Ratzeburg Bishopric German : Bistum Ratzeburg 1236–1648 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany
Ruled by Lutheran administrators between 1554 and 1648.

Regensburg
Regensburg
Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Regensburg 1132?–1803 Bavarian Germany
Germany
Regensburg
Regensburg
became a Free Imperial City
City
in 1245.

Salzburg Archbishopric German : Fürsterzbistum Salzburg 1278–1803 Bavarian Austria
Austria
Raised to an electorate in 1803, but simultaneously secularized; see Electorate of Salzburg . Since 1648, the archbishop has also borne the title Primas Germaniae, First of Germania. The powers of this title – non-jurisdictional – are limited to being the Pope's first correspondent in the German-speaking world, but used to include the right to preside over the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
.

Schwerin Bishopric German : Bistum Schwerin 1180–1648 Lower Saxon Germany
Germany
Ruled by an administrator between 1516 and 1648.

Sion Bishopric French : Prince-Évêché de Sion German : Bistum Sitten 999–1798 None Switzerland
Switzerland
A classic example of unified secular and diocesan authority

Speyer Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Speyer 888–1803 Upper Rhenish Germany
Germany
Territories to the east of the Rhine
Rhine
were annexed by France
France
in 1681, confirmed in 1697. Speyer became a Free Imperial City
City
in 1294.

Strasbourg Bishopric Alemannic German : Bistum Strossburi French : Évêché de Strasbourg German : Fürstbistum Straßburg 982–1803 Upper Rhenish France
France
Germany
Germany
Territories to the east of the Rhine
Rhine
were annexed by France
France
in 1681, confirmed in 1697. Speyer became a Free Imperial City in 1262.

Toul Bishopric French : Principauté de Toul German : Bistum Toul 10th century–1552 Upper Rhenish France
France
One of the Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
ceded to France
France
by the 1552 Treaty of Chambord , confirmed in 1648.

Trent Bishopric Italian : Principato vescovile di Trento German : Fürstbistum Trient 1027–1803 Austrian Circle Italy
Italy
Secularized to Tyrol in 1803.

Utrecht Bishopric Dutch : Sticht Utrecht 1024–1528 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian Netherlands
Netherlands
Sold to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
in 1528, after which it was moved to the Burgundian Circle . Founding member of the Dutch Republic in 1579/1581, confirmed in 1648.

Verden Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Verden 1180–1648 Lower Rhenish / Westphalian Germany
Germany
Continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation
Reformation
until 1645/1648, when it was continued as a secular and independent principality until its disestablishment in 1807. It became a part of the Kingdom of Hanover in 1815.

Verdun Bishopric French : Principauté de Verdun German : Bistum Verdun 10th century–1552 Upper Rhenish France
France
One of the Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
ceded to France
France
by the 1552 Treaty of Chambord , confirmed in 1648.

Worms Bishopric German : Bistum Worms 861–1801 Upper Rhenish Germany
Germany
Worms city rule established by Bishop
Bishop
Burchard (1000–1025), episcopal residence at Ladenburg from 1400, held large estates in the former Lahngau region, territories left of the Rhine
Rhine
lost by the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio , secularized at first to French Empire , finally Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt in 1815.

Würzburg Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Würzburg 1168–1803 Franconian Germany
Germany
Duke
Duke
of Franconia

The suffragan-bishoprics of Gurk (established 1070), Chiemsee (1216), Seckau (1218), and Lavant (1225) sometimes used the Fürstbischof title, but never held any reichsfrei territory. The bishops of Vienna (established 1469) and Wiener Neustadt (1469–1785) didn't control any territory, nor did they claim a princely title.

STATE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER

Order's State in 1466: Livonian episcopal territories in violet, Prince-Bishopric of Warmia in cyan

Upon the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1237, the territory of the Order\'s State largely corresponded with the Diocese
Diocese
of Riga . Bishop
Bishop
Albert of Riga in 1207 had received the lands of Livonia
Livonia
as an Imperial fief from the hands of German king Philip of Swabia , he however had to come to terms with the Brothers of the Sword. At the behest of Pope
Pope
Innocent III the Terra Mariana confederation was established, whereby Albert had to cede large parts of the episcopal territory to the Livonian Order . Albert proceeded tactically in the conflict between the Papacy and Emperor Frederick II : in 1225 he reached the acknowledgement of his status as a Prince- Bishop
Bishop
of the Empire, though the Roman Curia insisted on the fact that the Christianized Baltic territories were solely under the suzerainty of the Holy See
Holy See
. By the 1234 Bull of Rieti, Pope
Pope
Gregory IX stated that all lands acquired by the Teutonic Knights were no subject of any conveyancing by the Emperor.

Within this larger conflict, the continued dualism of the autonomous Riga prince-bishop and the Teutonic Knights led to a lengthy friction. Around 1245 the Papal legate
Papal legate
William of Modena reached a compromise: though incorporated into the Order's State, the archdiocese and its suffragan bishoprics were acknowledged with their autonomous ecclesiastical territories by the Teutonic Knights. The bishops pursued the conferment of the princely title by the Holy Roman Emperor to stress their sovereignty. In the original Prussian lands of the Teutonic Order, Willam of Modena established the suffragan bishoprics of Culm , Pomesania , Samland and Warmia . From the late 13th century onwards, the appointed Warmia bishops were no longer members of the Teutonic Knights, a special status confirmed by the bestowal of the princely title by Emperor Charles IV in 1356.

ARMS NAME RANK LOCAL NAME(S) TERRITORY Modern nation NOTES

Courland Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Kurland Latvian : Kurzemes bīskapija Low German : Bisdom Curland Terra Mariana Latvia
Latvia
Established about 1234, the smallest of the Livonian dioceses. Secularized in 1559 and occupied by Prince
Prince
Magnus of Denmark . From 1585 under the suzerainty of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
, part of the Duchy
Duchy
of Livonia
Livonia
. To Russia in the 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Poland
.

Dorpat Bishopric Estonian : Tartu piiskopkond German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Dorpat Low German : Bisdom Dorpat Terra Mariana Estonia
Estonia
Bishop
Bishop
Hermann , appointed by his brother Bishop
Bishop
Albert of Riga , received the title of a prince-bishop by King Henry VII of Germany
Germany
in 1225. Dorpat (Estonian : Tartu) remained a suffragan diocese of Riga . Dissolved in the course of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in 1558.

Ösel-Wiek Bishopric Estonian : Saare-Lääne piiskopkond German : Bistum Ösel-Wiek Low German : Bisdom Ösel-Wiek Terra Mariana Estonia
Estonia
Established on Saaremaa
Saaremaa
island in 1228 under Bishop
Bishop
Gottfried, appointed by Bishop
Bishop
Albert of Riga , vested with the title of a prince-bishop by King Henry VII of Germany
Germany
. It remained a suffragan diocese of Riga . Dissolved in the course of the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
in 1559.

Riga Archbishopric German : Erzbistum Riga Latvian : Rīgas arhibīskapija Low German : Erzbisdom Riga Terra Mariana Latvia
Latvia
Episcopal see at Üxküll 1186–1202. In 1225 Albert of Riga received the title of a Prince-bishop
Prince-bishop
of Livonia
Livonia
by Emperor Frederick II . Last Archbishop
Archbishop
William of Brandenburg resigned in 1561 during the Livonian War , territory fell to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, to Sweden in 1621.

Warmia Bishopric German : Hochstift
Hochstift
Ermland Polish : Biskupie Księstwo Warmińskie Prussia Poland
Poland
Established by Papal legate
Papal legate
William of Modena in 1243, princely title documented in the Golden Bull of 1356
Golden Bull of 1356
. Incorporated into the Jagiellon kingdom of Poland
Poland
in 1466 and re-established as an autonomous prince-bishopric under the Polish crown in 1479. Abolished in the course of the Prussian annexation in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland
Poland
.

ELSEWHERE

IN MONTENEGRO

Further information: Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro

The bishops of Cetinje , Montenegro
Montenegro
, who took the place of the earlier secular (Grand) Voivodes in 1516 had a unique position of Slavonic , Orthodox prince-bishops of Montenegro
Montenegro
under Ottoman suzerainty. They actually became the secularized, hereditary princes and ultimately Kings of Montenegro
Montenegro
in 1852, as reflected in their styles:

* first Vladika i upravitelj Crne Gore i Brda (" Bishop
Bishop
and Ruler of Montenegro
Montenegro
and the Highlands") * from 13 March 1852 (New Style): Po milosti Božjoj knjaz i gospodar Crne Gore i Brda (" By the grace of God Prince
Prince
and Sovereign of Montenegro
Montenegro
and the Highlands") * from 28 August 1910 (New Style): Po milosti Božjoj kralj i gospodar Crne Gore ("By the grace of God, King and Sovereign of Montenegro")

IN ENGLAND

The Bishops of Durham were also territorial prince-bishops, with the extraordinary secular rank of Earl palatine , for it was their duty not only to be head of the large diocese, but also to help protect the Kingdom against the Scottish threat from the north. The title survived the union of England and Scotland
Scotland
into the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
in 1707 until 1836.

IN FRANCE

Apart from territories formerly within the Holy Roman Empire, no French diocese had a principality of political significance linked to its see.

However, a number of French bishops did hold a noble title, with a tiny territory usually about their seat; it was often a princely title, especially Count. Indeed, six of the original Pairies (the royal vassals awarded with the highest precedence at Court) were episcopal: the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Reims and five other bishops (suffragans to Reims, except the Bishop
Bishop
of Langres ); the three highest ones held a ducal title and the others a comital title.

They were later joined by the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Paris , with a ducal title, but with precedence over the others. See also Peerage of France .

IN PORTUGAL

From 1472 to 1967, the bishop of Coimbra
Coimbra
held the comital title of Count
Count
of Arganil , being thus called "bishop-count" (Bispo-Conde, in Portuguese ). The comital title is still held de jure, but since Portugal
Portugal
is a republic and nobility privileges are abolished, its use declined during the 20th century.

BEYOND CATHOLIC FEUDALISM

While one might expect that the Protestant Schism , Counter- Reformation
Reformation
and more modern regimes than the traditional feudal principality would have eradicated the prince-bishopric, this was not quite the case. Even when the true prince-(arch)bishoprics disappeared from the map of Europe as it was redrawn by Napoleon I Bonaparte (who caused the end of the Holy Roman Empire) and the Congress of Vienna after his defeat, the title found a new, titular use.

In the Habsburg dynasty's "new" empire, the Danubian double monarchy of Austria-Hungary , reduced to the parts south of Prussia's (German) sphere of dominance that would become the (largely Protestant) German Empire, actual territorial power was no longer held by the bishops, but the status of Fürst(erz)bischof was maintained, and could be given a similar political role in the more modern, almost standardized Cisleithanian provincial level, the Kronland (crown land ), as ex officio members of its Landtag
Landtag
, the representative and legislative assembly, often with Virilstimme, while other bishops could collectively be represented as a "prelate's bench" (an elected Kurie).

The Emperors of Austria
Austria
now bestowed the title upon bishops even without any feudal principality, but as a princely style and rank (as had been usual for centuries with secular noble titles of peerage ranks) awarded to episcopal sees, carrying the privilege of a seat in the estates, e.g., for the bishop of Laibach (as a consolation prize for the see's loss of metropolitan rank to Görz ), the archbishop of Vienna (probably due to Vienna's rank as Imperial residence) and for the archbishop of Esztergom (here reflecting his longstanding role as the first magnate of Hungary).

SPECIAL CASES

The ultimate prince-bishop is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome , i.e. the Pope
Pope
, universal head ( Supreme Pontiff ) of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. His claims to territorial power were bolstered by the forged early-medieval document Donation of Constantine , and the authentic Donation of Pepin , establishing the Patrimonium Petri which was further extended as the powerful Papal States
Papal States
. Pope
Pope
Pius IX was the last of the true, sovereign prince-bishops, divested of territorial powers when the Papacy was forced to surrender the rule of Rome in 1870 to the united Kingdom of Italy
Italy
, which was supported by liberal-nationalists. The pope however re-gained sovereign power over Vatican City
City
in 1929 after successful negotiations with the Italian government under Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
, leading to the Lateran Treaties .

The Catalan Bishop
Bishop
of Urgell , who no longer has any secular rights in Spain
Spain
, remains one of two co-princes of Andorra , along with the French head of state (currently its President ).

SEE ALSO

* Crown-cardinal * Lord Bishop
Bishop
* Political Catholicism * Prince-abbot * Prince-Provost * Prince
Prince
of the Church * Temporal power

SOURCES, REFERENCES AND EXTERNAL LINKS

*