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The Info List - Prince Edward Viaduct



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The PRINCE EDWARD VIADUCT SYSTEM, commonly referred to as the BLOOR VIADUCT, is the name of a truss arch bridge system in Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada, that connects Bloor Street
Bloor Street
East, on the west side of the system, with Danforth Avenue on the east. The system includes the Rosedale Valley phase (a smaller structure, referred to as the Rosedale Valley Bridge, carrying Bloor Street
Bloor Street
over the Rosedale Ravine) and the Sherbourne Phase, an embankment built to extend Bloor Street East to the Rosedale Ravine from Sherbourne Street . The Don Valley phase of the system, the most recognizable, spans the Don River Valley , crossing over (from west to east) the Bayview Avenue Extension, the Don River, and the Don Valley Parkway .

The roadway has five lanes (three eastbound and two westbound) with a bicycle lane in each direction. The subway level connects Broadview Station in the east with Castle Frank and Sherbourne Stations to the west.

CONTENTS

* 1 Design * 2 History * 3 Luminous Veil

* 4 Appearance in popular culture

* 4.1 In film * 4.2 In literature, plays, and publications * 4.3 In music * 4.4 In television

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

DESIGN

Original plans, as published in December 1912

Designed by Edmund W. Burke , the Prince Edward Viaduct
Prince Edward Viaduct
is a three hinged concrete-steel arch bridge with a total span of 494 metres (1,620 feet), at 40 metres (131 feet) above the Don Valley. The bridge consists of a deck made of transverse beams and I-girders, which transfer load to column supports. The column supports then transfer the load to the trusses within the arches, which transfer the load to the arches themselves. Finally, the arches transfer their load through large hinges to a concrete pier and eventually to the ground. Steel was provided by Dominion Bridge Company
Dominion Bridge Company
.

In addition to the Don River , the Don Valley Parkway , and Bayview Avenue , two railway lines, an electrical transmission line and a bicycle trail all pass under the bridge spans.

HISTORY

Construction of the Prince Edward Viaduct, 1916

Referenda on the construction of the Prince Edward Viaduct
Prince Edward Viaduct
were held in Toronto
Toronto
in every year from 1910 to 1913, with residents voting against its construction in 1912 by 59 votes and in favour in 1913 by 9236 votes. The projected cost of its construction increased from CDN$ 759,000 in 1910 to CDN$2.5 million in 1913; its final cost was CDN$2,480,349.05 ($35.8 million in 2016 dollars ). Upon its completion in 1918, it was named for Prince Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII
Edward VIII
).

The viaduct was designed to facilitate mass transit ; its upper deck accommodated trams, while both the Don Valley phase and the Rosedale Valley phase included a lower deck for rail transport, controversial at the time because of its high additional cost. The bridge's designer and the commissioner of public works, R.C. Harris , were able to have their way and the lower deck eventually proved to save millions of dollars when the Toronto
Toronto
Transit Commission 's Bloor–Danforth subway opened in 1966. The Rosedale Valley phase was not used for the subway, as the curve between each phase, as well as the curve to the west at Parliament Street, was considered too sharp for the subway. A separate bridge was built over Rosedale Valley, west of the Castle Frank Subway Station . This covered subway bridge was designed by John B. Parkin and Associates with De Leuw Cather Canada
Canada
(now Delcan) and completed in 1966. The Rosedale Valley phase (at left) and the Don Valley phase (at right) of the Prince Edward Viaduct
Prince Edward Viaduct
system

The Prince Edward Viaduct
Prince Edward Viaduct
resulted in more rapid development of those portions of Toronto
Toronto
lying on the east side of the Don Valley.

LUMINOUS VEIL

Over time, the Prince Edward Viaduct
Prince Edward Viaduct
became a magnet for suicide , falling bodies posing risk to the traffic underneath. With nearly 500 suicides by 2003, the viaduct ranked as the second most fatal standing structure in North America, after the Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge
in San Francisco . At its peak in 1997, the suicide rate averaged one person every 22 days. In 1957, a child also climbed onto the railing and fell accidentally while walking along it.

The suicides and safety risks prompted the construction of a barrier in 2003, though it was first approved by Toronto
Toronto
City Council in 1998 and delayed because of concerns about funding; during that time, the viaduct was the site of an estimated 48 to 60 suicides. The council originally approved a C$ 2.5 million budget. However, the minimum bid for construction was C$5.5 million . Council eventually endorsed a fundraising campaign to raise the remainder of the money. Construction was completed in 2003 at the cost of $5.5 million, with $2.5 million coming from taxpayers.

The barrier was called the Luminous Veil. Designed by architect Dereck Revington and engineers at Halcrow Yolles and completed in 2003, the Luminous Veil consists of over 9,000 steel rods, 12.7 cm apart and 5 m high, stretched to cantilevered girders. The tensile structure was difficult to analyze and required several tests at the University of Toronto. Initially, cost prohibited the planned lighting to be installed on the top horizontal member. The lighting installation was completed in July 2015. The Luminous Veil received in 1999 a Canadian Architect Award of Excellence. Luminous Veil, view from on bridge Viaduct at night

A 2010 study found that though the barrier prevented suicide attempts from the Viaduct, overall rates of suicide by jumping for the city of Toronto
Toronto
have not changed since its construction.

APPEARANCE IN POPULAR CULTURE

IN FILM

* Saint Monica * Resident Evil: Apocalypse * Room (2015 film)
Room (2015 film)

IN LITERATURE, PLAYS, AND PUBLICATIONS

(Alphabetical by author)

* In Gabriel\'s Kitchen * In the Skin of a Lion
In the Skin of a Lion
* Flashforward

IN MUSIC

* "War on Drugs" by the Barenaked Ladies * "Anything could happen" by Bruce Cockburn
Bruce Cockburn
* "National Hum" by The Constantines

IN TELEVISION

* Degrassi Junior High
Degrassi Junior High
episode titled "Dog Days"

SEE ALSO

* Royal eponyms in Canada
Canada
* Suicide bridge

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/l84-105 * ^ Photo of westbound traffic * ^ http://spacing.ca/toronto/2010/04/09/building-storeys-the-canada-linseed-oil-mills-buildings-sorauren-park/ * ^ " Toronto
Toronto
Prepares For A Million People, Carries All Bylaws, Bloor Street
Bloor Street
Viaduct Will Be Built". Toronto
Toronto
World. January 2, 1913. p. 1. * ^ Canadian inflation numbers based on Statistics Canada. "Consumer Price Index, historical summary". CANSIM, table (for fee) 326-0021 and Catalogue nos. 62-001-X, 62-010-X and 62-557-X. And Consumer Price Index, by province (monthly) (Canada) Last modified 2017-07-21. Retrieved July 28, 2017 * ^ A B Ritter, John (January 31, 2005). "Suicides tarnish the Golden Gate". usatoday30.usatoday.com. Tysons Corner, VA : Gannett . ISSN 0734-7456 . Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014. North America's No. 2 suicide draw, Toronto's Prince Edward Viaduct, built a multimillion-dollar barrier in 2003 after more than 400 suicides. * ^ Rivera, John (January 13, 2003). "A barrier to hopeless souls". The Baltimore Sun
The Baltimore Sun
. Baltimore, Maryland : Tribune Company
Tribune Company
. p. 1. ISSN 1930-8965 . Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014. "We look at this bridge and know there are at least 480 souls at the bottom who spent the last moment of their life on the way down. This is where they spent their last day before they went to eternity" says Al Birney * ^ "Tumbles From Viaduct, Boy Hits Mud, Unhurt". Globe and Mail. June 3, 1957. p. 1. * ^ A B Mental Health Promotion: Overcoming the challenges to \'focusing upstream\' * ^ Do barriers around bridges prevent suicides? * ^ NOW: Where spirits live, May 8 - 14, 2003 Archived Dec