Prime Minister of Sweden
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The prime minister ( sv, statsminister ; literally translating to "Minister of State") is the
head of government The head of government is the highest or the second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presid ...
of
Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...
. The prime minister and their cabinet (the government) exercise executive authority in the
Kingdom of Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic country The ...
and are subject to the
Parliament of Sweden The Riksdag (, ; also sv, riksdagen or ''Sveriges riksdag'' ) is the legislature and the Parliamentary sovereignty, supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with List of members of th ...
. The prime minister is nominated by the Speaker of the Riksdag and elected by the chamber by simple majority, using negative parliamentarianism. The Riksdag holds elections every four years, in the even year between leap years. Unlike most prime ministers in parliamentary systems, the prime minister is both ''
de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally ...
'' and ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, whether or not they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by l ...
'' chief executive. This is because the Instrument of Government explicitly vests executive power in the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government ...
, of which the prime minister is the leader.


History

Before 1876, when the office of a single
prime minister A prime minister, premier or chief of cabinet is the head of the Cabinet (government), cabinet and the leader of the Minister (government), ministers in the Executive (government), executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary syst ...
was created, Sweden did not have a ''head of government'' separate from the
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
. Historically though, the most senior member of the
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advice (constitutional), advises the head of state of a State (polity), state, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchy, monarchic government. The word "privy" means "private" or "secret"; thus, a pr ...
(during the absolute rule this was the Lord High Chancellor) had certain similarities to the office of a head of government. This was most evident during the so-called
Age of Liberty In History of Sweden, Swedish and Finland under Swedish rule, Finnish history, the Age of Liberty ( sv, frihetstiden; fi, vapauden aika) was a period that saw Riksdag of the Estates, parliamentary governance, increasing civil rights and the de ...
from 1718 to 1772, when powers of the Monarch were greatly reduced and the President of the Privy Council became the most powerful political figure in Sweden. At the adoption of the new Instrument of Government of 1809, the two offices of Prime Minister for Justice ( sv, justitiestatsminister) and Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs ( sv, utrikesstatsminister) were created, though their roles were no more than just the heads of their respective ministries. When the office of the prime minister was created in 1876, the prime ministers for justice and foreign affairs were thus subsequently demoted to Minister for Justice and Minister for Foreign Affairs. Unlike the minister for justice, the minister for foreign affairs did however continue to be styled as "
Excellency Excellency is an honorific style (manner of address), style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder ...
", an honour shared only with the Prime Minister. After 1917, it was no longer possible for a monarch to appoint the prime minister and the councillors of state (cabinet ministers) at their own discretion, or keep them in office against the will of the Riksdag. From that time onward, while the king still formally appointed the prime minister, in practice he was required to appoint the leader of the majority party in the Riksdag, or the leader of the senior partner in the majority coalition. While the provision in the Instrument of Government stating that "the King alone shall govern the realm" remained unchanged, it was now understood that the King was required to exercise his powers through the ministers and act on their advice. Over time, the ministers came to ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, whether or not they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by l ...
'' exercise the
Royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in Civil law (legal system), civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the monarch, sovereign and whic ...
s. However, the Swedish term used for the Government during this period, still was ''Kungl. Maj:t'', an abbreviation of ''Kunglig Majestät'' ( en, Royal Majesty). Until 1974, the executive authority in Sweden had been exercised through the
King in Council The King-in-Council or the Queen-in-Council, depending on the gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to femininity and masculinity and differentiating between them. Depending on the context, this may include sex-based so ...
.
Constitution A constitution is the aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity A polity is an identifiable Politics, political entity – a group of people with a collective identity, who ...
al reform provided a new Instrument of Government which ''
de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally ...
'' established the
parliamentary system A parliamentary system, or parliamentarian democracy, is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy ...
and created a cabinet government with constitutional powers not derived from the Crown. At the same time, it stripped the monarchy of even nominal political powers, making the cabinet the country's executive authority in both name and in fact.


Duties

The Instrument of Government requires that the prime minister appoint a member of the cabinet as
Deputy Prime Minister A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a Minister (government), government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent. The position is often likened to th ...
, to perform the duties of the prime minister if the prime minister cannot. However, if a deputy prime minister is absent or has not been appointed, the senior minister in the cabinet becomes acting head of government. If more than one minister has equal tenure, the eldest assumes the position (see '' Swedish governmental line of succession'' for the present governmental line of succession). Constitutionally, the prime minister's position is stronger than that of his or her counterparts in
Denmark ) , song = ( en, "King Christian stood by the lofty mast") , song_type = National and royal anthem , image_map = EU-Denmark.svg , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark ...
and
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
. Since 1975, the prime minister has been both ''
de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally ...
'' and ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, whether or not they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by l ...
'' chief executive, with powers and duties specifically enumerated in the Instrument of Government. In the two neighboring Scandinavian monarchies, the monarch is the nominal chief executive, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the ministers. However, the so-called ''Torekov Compromise'' reached in 1971 by the major political parties, codified with the Instrument of Government that went into effect in 1975, stripped the Swedish monarch of even a nominal role in governmental affairs, thus codifying actual practices that had been in place since the definitive establishment of parliamentary government in 1917.


Process


Appointment

To appoint a new prime minister, the speaker of the Riksdag holds consultations with party leaders to propose a candidate to be submitted for approval to the
Riksdag The Riksdag (, ; also sv, riksdagen or ''Sveriges riksdag'' ) is the legislature and the Parliamentary sovereignty, supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with List of members of th ...
. The speaker's proposed candidate is then elected through negative parliamentarism. In practice, this means that the prime minister nominee is confirmed if fewer than 175 MPs vote 'no', regardless of the number of 'yes' votes or abstentions. This is described as being "tolerated" by a majority of the Riksdag. After approval by the Riksdag, the new prime minister-designate must inform the Riksdag which ministers are chosen to make up the new government. The formal change of government, and thus the start of the term for the new Prime Minister takes place at a Council of State at the
Royal Palace This is a list of royal palaces, sorted by continent. Africa * Abdin Palace, Cairo * Al-Gawhara Palace, Cairo * Koubbeh Palace, Cairo * Tahra Palace, Cairo * Menelik Palace * National Palace (Ethiopia), Jubilee Palace * Guenete Leul Palace ...
. This is a government meeting chaired by the
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
, currently
Carl XVI Gustaf Carl XVI Gustaf (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is King of Sweden. He ascended the throne on the death of his grandfather, Gustaf VI Adolf, on 15 September 1973. He is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Du ...
. During this meeting, the speaker gives an account of the nomination and election process. The king then announces that a change of government has taken place, finalising the appointment of the new Prime Minister and their government.


Resignation

Whenever a prime minister resigns, dies, or is forced from office by the
Riksdag The Riksdag (, ; also sv, riksdagen or ''Sveriges riksdag'' ) is the legislature and the Parliamentary sovereignty, supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with List of members of th ...
, the speaker of the Riksdag asks the prime minister (or their deputy) to keep the government as a
caretaker government A caretaker government is a temporary ''ad hoc Ad hoc is a List of Latin phrases, Latin phrase meaning literally 'to this'. In English, it typically signifies a solution for a specific purpose, problem, or task rather than a Generalization, gen ...
until the new government takes office. With the exception of the prime minister, cabinet ministers ( sv, statsråd ) do not need the approval of the Riksdag, but they can be forced to resign by a vote of no confidence. If the prime minister is forced by a vote of no confidence to resign, the entire cabinet falls, and the process of electing a new prime minister starts. The prime minister can dissolve the Riksdag, even after receiving a vote of no confidence, except during the first three months after an election.


Amenities


Office and residences

The government offices, including the prime minister's office, are located at Rosenbad in central
Stockholm Stockholm () is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in Sweden by population, largest city of Sweden as well as the List of urban areas in the Nordic countries, largest urban area in Scandinavia. Approximately 980,000 people liv ...
, straight across the water from the Riksdag building on Helgeandsholmen. In 1991 Sager House (or the "Sager Palace" as it was previously called) was acquired, and since 1995 it has served as the private residence of the prime minister. Harpsund, a
manor house A manor house was historically the Official residence, main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a Manorialism, manor in the European feudal system; within its great hall were held the lord's manor ...
in Flen Municipality, Södermanland County, has served as a country residence for the prime minister since 1953. The manor is also frequently used for governmental conferences and informal summits between the government, industry and organisations in Sweden.


Salary

The salaries of the cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, is decided by and is the subject of annual review by the ''Statsrådsarvodesnämnden'' ("Cabinet Ministers' Salary Committee") of the
Riksdag The Riksdag (, ; also sv, riksdagen or ''Sveriges riksdag'' ) is the legislature and the Parliamentary sovereignty, supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with List of members of th ...
. Since 1 January 2022 the prime minister's monthly salary is 184,000 SEK.


List of prime ministers


Living former prime ministers

File:Ingvar Carlsson 2010.jpg,
Ingvar Carlsson Gösta Ingvar Carlsson (born 9 November 1934) is a Swedish politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Sweden The prime minister ( sv, statsminister ; literally translating to "Minister of State") is the head of government of Sweden. T ...

born
served 1986–1991 and 1994–1996 File:Carl Bildt under den politiska Almedalsveckan 2016.jpg, Carl Bildt
born
served 1991–1994 File:Goran Persson, Sveriges statsminister, under nordiskt statsministermotet i Reykjavik 2005.jpg, Göran Persson
born
served 1996–2006 File:Fredrik Reinfeldt - Sveriges statsminister 2006-2014.jpg,
Fredrik Reinfeldt John Fredrik Reinfeldt (pronounced ; born 4 August 1965) is a Swedish economist, lecturer, and former politician who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 2006 to 2014, and chairman of the liberal conservative Moderate Party from 2003 to 2015. He wa ...

born
served 2006–2014 File:Stefan Löfven (cropped).jpg, Stefan Löfven
born
served 2014–2021 File:Magdalena Andersson in 2022 (cropped).jpg, Magdalena Andersson
born
served 2021–2022


Office and residences

File:Rosenbad (24489269219).jpg, The Rosenbad building has functioned as the Prime Minister's Office (Statsrådsberedningen) since 1981. File:Sagerska palatset 2011.JPG, The Sager House is the Prime Minister's official residence since 1995. File:Harpsund - KMB - 16001000018754.jpg, Harpsund Manor has been used as the Prime Minister's country residence since 1953. File:Kanslihuset västerut.jpg, Kanslihuset was where the Prime Minister's Office was located prior to 1981. Nowadays it houses offices of the Riksdag.


See also

*
Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden The deputy prime minister of Sweden ( sv, Ställföreträdande statsminister) is the deputy head of government of Sweden. The incumbent deputy prime minister is Ebba Busch. The Basic Laws of Sweden, Swedish constitution allows the Prime Ministe ...
* Swedish governmental line of succession * List of prime ministers of Sweden * List of spouses of Swedish prime ministers


References


Bibliography

* * * *


External links


Prime Minister's Office
official website {{Prime Minister 1876 establishments in Sweden