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The position of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history. At the time of the Shah dynasty, the Mulkajis (Chief Kajis) served the function of Prime Ministers. In 1806, the position of Mukhtiyar
Mukhtiyar
was created by Rana Bahadur Shah
Rana Bahadur Shah
which carried executive powers of nation.[3] Mukhtiyar
Mukhtiyar
is formed from two words: Mukhya and Akhtiyar. Mukhya means Chief[4] and Akhtiyar means Authority.[5] Altogether it means the "Executive Head of the State". Mukhtiyar
Mukhtiyar
held the position of Executive Head till adoption of title of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
on 1843 A.D.[6] During the Rana dynasty, the position of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
was hereditary and the officeholder held additional titles — Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Nepal
Nepal
and Grand Master of the Royal Orders of Nepal. The Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Nepal
Nepal
does not have a term limit. Mukhtiyar
Mukhtiyar
Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa
was the first person to be referred to as Prime Minister
Prime Minister
by the British. However, the first Mukhtiyar
Mukhtiyar
to title himself as Prime Minister, as per the British convention, was Bhimsen's nephew, Mathabar Singh Thapa.[6] Few of Nepalese Prime Ministers have carried a democratic mandate. The first elected Prime Minister
Prime Minister
was Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, in 1959. After he was deposed and imprisoned in 1960, the King established the Panchayat system and Nepal
Nepal
did not have a democratic government until 1990, when the country became a constitutional monarchy after the Jana Andolan movement. The monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly. The current Prime Minister
Prime Minister
is Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, since 15 February 2018.[7] The residence of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Nepal
Nepal
is in Baluwatar, Kathmandu.[1][8] The seat of the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
is Singha Darbar since the time of Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana.[9] The basic monthly salary of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Nepal
Nepal
is NPR 77,280.[2]

Contents

1 Before 1799

1.1 Old Bharadari governmentship

2 Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
(1799–2008)

2.1 Mul-Kajis and Muktiyars during the Shah expansion era and before the Rana era 2.2 Prime Ministers before the Rana era (1845–1846) 2.3 Prime Ministers during the Rana era (1846–1951) 2.4 Prime Ministers during the Transition era (1951–1960) 2.5 Prime Ministers during the Panchayat era (1960–1990) 2.6 Prime Ministers during the Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
(1990–2008)

3 Prime Ministers of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008–present) 4 References

4.1 Footnotes 4.2 Notes

5 External links 6 See also

Before 1799[edit] Old Bharadari governmentship[edit] The character of government in Kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
was driven from consultative state organ of the previous Gorkha hill principality, known as Bharadar.[10][note 1] These Bharadars were drawn from high caste and politically influential families. For instance; Thar Ghar in previous Gorkha hill principality. Bharadars formed consultative body in the kingdom for the most important functions of the state as Councellors, Ministers and Diplomats.[10] There was no single successful coalition government as court politics were driven from large factional rivalries, consecutive conspiracies and ostracization of opponent Bharadar families through assassination rather than legal expulsion.[10] Another reason was the minority of the reigning King between 1777 to 1847 that led to establishment of anarchial rule.[11] The government was stated to have controlled by regents, Mukhtiyars and alliance of political faction with strong fundamental support.[11] In the end of the 18th century, the central politics was regularly dominated by two notable political factions; Thapas and Pandes.[11] Per historians and contemporary writer Francis Hamilton, the government of Nepal[note 2] comprised

1 Chautariya 4 Kajis 4 Sirdar/Sardars 2 Subedars 1 Khazanchi 1 Kapardar.[10]

Per historian Dilli Raman Regmi, the states the government of Nepal were

4 Chautariyas 4 Kajis 4 Sirdar/Sardars.[10] Later, the number varied after King Rana Bahadur Shah abdicated his throne to minor son on 1799.[10]

In 1794, King Rana Bahadur Shah
Rana Bahadur Shah
came of age and his first act was to re-constitute the government such that his uncle, Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal, had no official part to play.[12][13] Rana Bahadur appointed Kirtiman Singh Basnyat
Kirtiman Singh Basnyat
as Chief (Mul) Kaji among the newly appointed four Kajis though Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji.[13] Kirtiman had succeeded Abhiman Singh Basnyat
Abhiman Singh Basnyat
as Chief Kaji[14] while Prince Bahadur Shah was succeeded as Chief (Mul) Chautariya by Prince Ranodyot Shah, then heir apparent of King Rana Bahadur Shah
Rana Bahadur Shah
by a Chhetri
Chhetri
Queen Subarna Prabha Devi.[13] Kajis had held the administrative and executive powers of nation after the fall of Chief Chautariya Prince Bahadur Shah in 1794. Later, Kirtiman Singh was secretly assassinated on 28 September 1801, by the supporters of Raj Rajeshwari Devi[15] and his brother Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, was then given the post of Chief (Mul) Kaji.[16] Later Damodar Pande was appointed by Queen Rajrajeshwari as Chief Kaji.[17] Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
(1799–2008)[edit] Mul-Kajis and Muktiyars during the Shah expansion era and before the Rana era[edit]

No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal (Reign)

Took Office Left Office

1

Damodar Pande (1752–1804) 1799 1804 Independent Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah

(8 March 1799-20 November 1816)

Rana Bahadur Shah (1775–1806) 26 February 1806 26 April 1806 Independent

2

Bhimsen Thapa (1775–1839) 1806 1837 Independent Rajendra Bikram Shah

(20 November 1816-12 May 1847)

3

Rana Jang Pande (1789–1843) 1st time 1837 1837 Independent

4

Ranga Nath Poudyal (1773–?) 1st time 1837 1838 Independent

5

Chautariya Puskhar Shah (1784–1846) 1838 1839 Independent

(3)

Rana Jang Pande (1789–1843) 2nd time 1839 1840 Independent

(4)

Ranga Nath Poudyal (1773–?) 2nd time 1840 1840 Independent

6

Fateh Jung Shah (1805–1846) 1st time November 1840 January 1843 Independent

7

Mathabar Singh Thapa (1798–1845) November 1843 25 December 1843 Independent

Prime Ministers before the Rana era (1845–1846)[edit]

No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal (Reign)

Took Office Left Office

7

Mathabar Singh Thapa (1798–1845) 25 December 1843 17 May 1845 Independent Rajendra Bikram Shah

(20 November 1816-12 May 1847)

(6)

Fateh Jung Shah (1805–1846) 2nd time September 1845 14 September 1846 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Rana era (1846–1951)[edit]

No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal (Reign)

Took Office Left Office

8

Jung Bahadur Rana (1816–1877) 1st time 15 September 1846 1 August 1856 Independent Surendra Bikram Shah

(12 May 1847-17 May 1881)

9

Bam Bahadur Kunwar (1818–1857) 1 August 1856 25 May 1857 Independent

Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana (1823–1863) Acting Prime Minister 25 May 1857 28 June 1857 Independent

(8)

Jung Bahadur Rana (1816–1877) 2nd time 28 June 1857 25 February 1877 Independent

10

Ranodip Singh Kunwar (1825–1885) 27 February 1877 22 November 1885 Independent

11

Bir Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana (1852–1901) 22 November 1885 5 March 1901 Independent Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah

(17 May 1881-11 December 1911)

12

Dev Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana (1862–1914) 5 March 1901 27 June 1901 Independent

13

Chandra Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana (1863–1929) 27 June 1901 26 November 1929 Independent Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah

(11 December 1911-13 March 1955)

14

Bhim Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana (1865–1932) 26 November 1929 1 September 1932 Independent

15

Juddha Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana (1875–1952) 1 September 1932 29 November 1945 Independent

16

Padma Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana (1882–1961) 29 November 1945 30 April 1948 Independent

17

Mohan Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana (1885–1967) 30 April 1948 12 November 1951 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Transition era (1951–1960)[edit]

No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal (Reign)

Took Office Left Office

18

Matrika Prasad Koirala (1912–1997) 1st time 16 November 1951 14 August 1952 Nepali Congress Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah

(11 December 1911–13 March 1955)

Direct rule by King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah (1906–1955) 14 August 1952 15 June 1953 —

(18)

Matrika Prasad Koirala (1912–1997) 2nd time 15 June 1953 14 April 1955 Rastriya Praja Party

Direct rule by King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah (1920–1972) 14 April 1955 27 January 1956 — Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah

(14 March 1955–31 January 1972)

19

Tanka Prasad Acharya (1912–1992) 27 January 1956 26 July 1957 Nepal
Nepal
Praja Parishad

20

Kunwar Inderjit Singh (1906–1982) 26 July 1957 15 May 1958 United Democratic Party

21

Subarna Shamsher Rana (1910–1977) 15 May 1958 27 May 1959 Nepali Congress

22

Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala (1914–1982) 27 May 1959 26 December 1960 Nepali Congress

Prime Ministers during the Panchayat era (1960–1990)[edit]

No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal (Reign)

Took Office Left Office

Direct rule by King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah (1920–1972) 26 December 1960 2 April 1963 — Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah

(14 March 1955–31 January 1972)

23

Tulsi Giri (1926–) 1st time 2 April 1963 23 December 1963 Independent

24

Surya Bahadur Thapa (1928–2015) 1st time 23 December 1963 26 February 1964 Independent

(23)

Tulsi Giri (1926–) 2nd time 26 February 1964 26 January 1965 Independent

(24)

Surya Bahadur Thapa (1928–2015) 2nd time 26 January 1965 7 April 1969 Independent

25

Kirti Nidhi Bista (1927–2017) 1st time 7 April 1969 13 April 1970 Independent

Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari (1923–1994) Acting Prime Minister 13 April 1970 14 April 1971 Independent

(25)

Kirti Nidhi Bista (1927–2017) 2nd time 14 April 1971 16 July 1973 Independent Birendra Bir Bikram Shah

(31 January 1972–1 June 2001)

26

Nagendra Prasad Rijal (1927–1994) 1st time 16 July 1973 1 December 1975 Independent

(23)

Tulsi Giri (1926–) 3rd time 1 December 1975 12 September 1977 Independent

(25)

Kirti Nidhi Bista (1927–2017) 3rd time 12 September 1977 30 May 1979 Independent

(24)

Surya Bahadur Thapa (1928–2015) 3rd time 30 May 1979 12 July 1983 Independent

27

Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1940–) 1st time 12 July 1983 21 March 1986 Independent

(26)

Nagendra Prasad Rijal (1927–1994) 2nd time 21 March 1986 15 June 1986 Independent

28

Marich Man Singh Shrestha (1942–2013) 15 June 1986 6 April 1990 Independent

(27)

Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1940–) 2nd time 6 April 1990 19 April 1990 Independent

Prime Ministers during the Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
(1990–2008)[edit]

No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of Office Political Party King of Kingdom of Nepal (Reign)

Took Office Left Office Days

29

Krishna Prasad Bhattarai (1924–2011) 1st time 19 April 1990 26 May 1991 402 Nepali Congress Birendra Bir Bikram Shah

(31 January 1972–1 June 2001)

30

Girija Prasad Koirala (1925–2010) 1st time 26 May 1991 30 November 1994 1284 Nepali Congress

31

Man Mohan Adhikari (1920–1999) 30 November 1994 12 September 1995 286 Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Unified Marxist–Leninist)

32

Sher Bahadur Deuba (1946–) 1st time 12 September 1995 12 March 1997 547 Nepali Congress

(27)

Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1940–) 3rd time 12 March 1997 7 October 1997 209 Rastriya Prajatantra Party
Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(Chand)

(24)

Surya Bahadur Thapa (1928–2015) 4th time 7 October 1997 15 April 1998 190 Rastriya Prajatantra Party

(30)

Girija Prasad Koirala (1925–2010) 2nd time 15 April 1998 31 May 1999 411 Nepali Congress

(29)

Krishna Prasad Bhattarai (1924–2011) 2nd time 31 May 1999 22 March 2000 296 Nepali Congress

(30)

Girija Prasad Koirala (1925–2010) 3rd time 22 March 2000 26 July 2001 491 Nepali Congress

(32)

Sher Bahadur Deuba (1946–) 2nd time 26 July 2001 4 October 2002 435 Nepali Congress Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah

(4 June 2001–28 May 2008)

Direct rule by King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah (1947–) 4 October 2002 11 October 2002 7 —

(27)

Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1940–) 4th time 11 October 2002 5 June 2003 237 Rastriya Prajatantra Party

(24)

Surya Bahadur Thapa (1928–2015) 5th time 5 June 2003 3 June 2004 364 Rastriya Prajatantra Party

(32)

Sher Bahadur Deuba (1946–) 3rd time 3 June 2004 1 February 2005 243 Nepali Congress
Nepali Congress
(Democratic)

Direct rule by King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah (1947–) 1 February 2005 25 April 2006 448 —

(30)

Girija Prasad Koirala (1925–2010) 4th time 25 April 2006 28 may 2008 764 Nepali Congress

Prime Ministers of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of Office Political Party Cabinet President of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (1. Term of Office) (2. Political Party)

Took Office Left Office Days

(30)

Girija Prasad Koirala (1925–2010) 5th time 28 May 2008[18][19][20] 18 August 2008[19][20] 82 Nepali Congress

Girija Prasad Koirala

Head of state of Nepal (1. 15 January 2007-23 July 2008 (2. Nepali Congress)

33

Pushpa Kamal Dahal (1954–) 1st time 18 August 2008 25 May 2009 280 Unified Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Maoist) 2008 Dahal Cabinet Ram Baran Yadav

(1. 23 July 2008-29 October 2015) (2. Nepali Congress)

34

Madhav Kumar Nepal (1953–) 25 May 2009 6 February 2011 622 Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2009 Madhav Nepal
Nepal
Cabinet

35

Jhala Nath Khanal (1950–) 6 February 2011 29 August 2011 204 Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2011 Khanal Cabinet

36

Baburam Bhattarai (1954–) 29 August 2011 14 March 2013 563 Unified Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Maoist) 2011 Bhattarai Cabinet

Khil Raj Regmi (1949–) Acting Prime Minister 14 March 2013 11 February 2014 334 Independent 2013 Regmi Interim Cabinet

37

Sushil Koirala (1939–2016) 11 February 2014 12 October 2015 608 Nepali Congress 2013 Koirala Cabinet

38

Khadga Prasad Oli (1952–) 1st time 12 October 2015 4 August 2016 297 Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2015 Oli Cabinet Bidhya Devi Bhandari

(1. 29 October 2015-) (2. Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Unified Marxist–Leninist))

(33)

Pushpa Kamal Dahal (1954–) 2nd time 4 August 2016[21] 7 June 2017 307 Unified Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Maoist) 2016 Dahal Cabinet

(32)

Sher Bahadur Deuba (1946–) 4th time 7 June 2017[22] 15 February 2018[23][24] 253 Nepali Congress 2017 Deuba Cabinet

(38)

Khadga Prasad Oli (1952–) 2nd time 15 February 2018[25] Incumbent 50 Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Unified Marxist–Leninist) 2018 Oli Cabinet

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Bharadar translates as 'bearers of burden of state'. ^ Here the government of Nepal
Nepal
can simply be called Bharadari Sabha or Council of Bharadars.

Notes[edit]

^ a b "PM Deuba shifts to official residence in Baluwatar". thehimalayantimes.com. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ a b "How much are VIPs, including President and PM, paid monthly?". thehimalayantimes.com. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ Nepal, Gyanmani (2007). Nepal
Nepal
ko Mahabharat (in Nepali) (3rd ed.). Kathmandu: Sajha. p. 314. ISBN 9789993325857.  ^ "English Translation of "मुख्य" - Collins Hindi-English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ "English Translation of "अख़्तियार" - Collins Hindi-English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ a b Kandel, Devi Prasad (2011). Pre-Rana Administrative System. Chitwan: Siddhababa Offset Press. p. 95.  ^ "Left alliance urges President to appoint UML Chair Oli as prime minister". thehimalayantimes.com. 15 February 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ "Baluwatar vacated - The Himalayan Times". thehimalayantimes.com. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ "PM's Office - Heritage Tale - ECSNEPAL - The Nepali Way". ecs.com.np. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ a b c d e f Pradhan 2012, p. 8. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 9. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 14. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 12. ^ Karmacharya 2005, p. 56. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 34. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 35. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 14. ^ "Girija Prasad koirla prime minister". nepalnews. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ a b "Girija prasad, acting head of state of nepal". cnn. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ a b bbc http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7475112.stm. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ " Pushpa Kamal Dahal
Pushpa Kamal Dahal
Prachanda
Prachanda
sworn in as new Nepal
Nepal
PM". Hindustan Times. 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2017-07-08.  ^ " Sher Bahadur Deuba
Sher Bahadur Deuba
sworns in as Prime Minister". thehimalayantimes.com. Retrieved 2017-07-08.  ^ "PM Deuba announces resignation". The Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15.  ^ " Sher Bahadur Deuba
Sher Bahadur Deuba
resigns, KP Oli to take over as Nepal
Nepal
PM". The Indian Express. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15.  ^ "Newly appointed PM KP Sharma Oli takes oath of office". The Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Post. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 

External links[edit]

Office of the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
and Council of Ministers

See also[edit]

King of Nepal President of Nepal Government of Nepal

v t e

Prime Ministers of Nepal

Kingdom of Nepal (19th century–1990)

Damodar Pande Bhimsen Thapa Ranga Nath Poudyal Chautariya Puskhar Shah Rana Jang Pande Ranga Nath Poudyal Fateh Jung Shah Mathabarsingh Thapa Fateh Jung Shah Jung Bahadur Rana Bam Bahadur Kunwar Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana Jung Bahadur Rana Renaudip Singh Bahadur Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana Dev Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana Bhim Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana Juddha Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana Padma Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana Matrika Prasad Koirala vacant (1952–1953) Matrika Prasad Koirala vacant (1955–1956) Tanka Prasad Acharya Kunwar Inderjit Singh Subarna Shamsher Rana Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala Tulsi Giri Surya Bahadur Thapa Tulsi Giri Surya Bahadur Thapa Kirti Nidhi Bista vacant (1970–1971) Kirti Nidhi Bista Nagendra Prasad Rijal Tulsi Giri Kirti Nidhi Bista Surya Bahadur Thapa Lokendra Bahadur Chand Nagendra Prasad Rijal Marich Man Singh Shrestha Lokendra Bahadur Chand

Kingdom of Nepal (1990–2008)

Krishna Prasad Bhattarai Girija Prasad Koirala Man Mohan Adhikari Sher Bahadur Deuba Lokendra Bahadur Chand Surya Bahadur Thapa Girija Prasad Koirala Krishna Prasad Bhattarai Sher Bahadur Deuba vacant (2002) Lokendra Bahadur Chand Surya Bahadur Thapa Sher Bahadur Deuba vacant (2005–2006) Girija Prasad Koirala

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008–present)

Girija Prasad Koirala Pushpa Kamal Dahal Madhav Kumar Nepal Jhala Nath Khanal Baburam Bhattarai Khil Raj Regmi Sushil Koirala Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli Pushpa Kamal Dahal Sher Bahadur Deuba Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli

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