The Info List - Prime Minister Of Italy

--- Advertisement ---

The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic[2] (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy
as Presidente del Consiglio and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic. The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election and must have the confidence of the Parliament of Italy
to stay in office. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called "President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy" (Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri del Regno d'Italia). From 1925 to 1943 during the Fascist regime, the position was transformed into the dictatorial position of "Head of the Government, Prime Minister, Secretary of State"[3] (Capo del Governo, Primo ministro, Segretario di Stato) held by Benito Mussolini, Duce
of Fascism, who officially governed on the behalf of the King of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
becoming Prime Minister in 1943. Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic
Italian Republic
in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers—which holds executive power. The position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems. The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office.


1 Functions 2 History

2.1 Historical Right
Historical Right
and Historical Left 2.2 Giolittian Era 2.3 Fascist regime 2.4 First years of the Italian Republic 2.5 The years of the "Second Republic"

3 Living former Prime Ministers of Italy 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Functions[edit] As the "President of the Council of Ministers" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet (the Council of Ministers). In addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands the majority in the Parliament. In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of Cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers". This power has been used to a quite variable extent in the history of the Italian state, as it is strongly influenced by the political strength of individual ministers and thus by the parties they represent. The Prime Minister's activity has often consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a Cabinet reshuffle (rimpasto), or sometimes even an 'individual vote of no confidence' on the part of Parliament, may in practice provide a surrogate measure. History[edit] Further information: List of Prime Ministers of Italy The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861 ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. Historical Right
Historical Right
and Historical Left[edit]

Count Camillo Benso of Cavour, first Italian Prime Minister

After the Unification of Italy
and the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change. In fact the candidate for office was appointed by the king, and presided over a very unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, who was appointed on 23 March 1861, but he died on the 6th of June the same year. From 1861 to 1911 Historical Right
Historical Right
and Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a left-wing patriot and statesman, the first head of the government from Southern Italy. He led the country for six years, from 1887 until 1891 and again from 1893 until 1896. Crispi was internationally famous and often mentioned along with world statesmen such as Bismarck, Gladstone and Salisbury. Originally an enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, he went on to become a bellicose authoritarian prime minister, ally, and admirer of Bismarck. His career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a major banking scandal and subsequently fell from power in 1896 after a devastating colonial defeat in Ethiopia. He is often seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini.[4] Giolittian Era[edit] In 1892 Giovanni Giolitti, a young leftist politician, was elected Prime Minister by king Umberto I; but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903 after a period of instability he was appointed again head of the government. Giolitti was the Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history, after Mussolini. Giolitti was a master in the political art of Trasformismo, the method of making a flexible, centrist coalition of government which isolated the extremes of the left and the right in Italian politics after the unification. Under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party. They were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no formal links to political constituencies.[5] The period between the start of the 20th century and the start of World War I, when he was Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior from 1901 to 1914 with only brief interruptions, is often called the Giolittian Era.[6][7] A left-wing liberal,[6] with strong ethical concerns,[8] Giolitti's periods in office were notable for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms which improved the living standards of ordinary Italians, together with the enactment of several policies of government intervention.[7][9] Besides putting in place several tariffs, subsidies, and government projects, Giolitti also nationalized the private telephone and railroad operators. Liberal proponents of free trade criticized the "Giolittian System", although Giolitti himself saw the development of the national economy as essential in the production of wealth.[10] Fascist regime[edit] Further information: Italian Fascism

Benito Mussolini, longest-serving Prime Minister of Italy
and Duce
of fascism

The Italian Prime Minister presided over a very unstable political system, in fact in its first sixty years of existence (1861-1921), Italy
changed its head of the government 37 times. Regarding this situation, the first goal of Benito Mussolini, appointed in 1922, was to abolish the Parliament's ability to put him to a vote of no confidence, thus basing his power on the will of the king and the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
alone. After destroying all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes,[11] Mussolini and his fascist followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
in 1943. A few months later, he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy; he held this post until his death in 1945. First years of the Italian Republic[edit] Further information: History of the Italian Republic With the proclamation of the Italian Republic
Italian Republic
in 1946, the office received constitutional recognition. The First Republic was dominated by the Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) political party which was the senior party in each government coalitions from 1946 to 1994, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI), the largest one in Western Europe.

Alcide De Gasperi, first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic

In the first years of the Republic the governments were led by Alcide De Gasperi, a Christian Democratic politician who had been Prime Minister for seven years. De Gasperi is also considered a founding father of the European Union. After the death of the De Gasperi, Italy
returned in a period of political instability and lot of cabinets were formed in few decades. The second part of the 20th century was dominated by De Gasperi's protegé, Giulio Andreotti, who was appointed Prime Minister seven times from 1972 to 1992. From the late 1960s until the early 1980s, the country experienced the Years of Lead, a period characterised by economic crisis (especially after the 1973 oil crisis), widespread social conflicts and terrorist massacres carried out by opposing extremist groups, with the alleged involvement of U.S. and Soviet intelligence.[12][13][14] The Years of Lead culminated in the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
in 1978 and the Bologna railway station massacre in 1980, where 85 people died. In the 1980s, for the first time since 1945, two governments were led by non-Christian Democrat Prime Ministers: one Republican (Giovanni Spadolini) and one Socialist (Bettino Craxi); the Christian Democrats remained, however, the main government party. During Craxi's government, the economy recovered and Italy
became the world's fifth largest industrial nation, gaining entry into the Group of Seven. However, as a result of his spending policies, the Italian national debt skyrocketed during the Craxi era, soon passing 100% of the GDP. In the early 1990s, Italy
faced significant challenges, as voters – disenchanted with political paralysis, massive public debt and the extensive corruption system (known as Tangentopoli) uncovered by the "Clean Hands" (Mani Pulite) investigation – demanded radical reforms. The scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: the Christian Democrats, who ruled for almost 50 years, underwent a severe crisis and eventually disbanded, splitting up into several factions. Moreover, the Communist Party was reorganised as a social-democratic force, the Democratic Party of the Left. The years of the "Second Republic"[edit]

Silvio Berlusconi, longest-serving post-war Prime Minister

In 1994, in the midst of the Mani Pulite operation which shook political parties, media magnate Silvio Berlusconi, owner of three private TV channels, founded Forza Italia
Forza Italia
(English: Forward Italy) party and won the elections, becoming one of Italy's most important political and economic figures for the next decade; Berlusconi is also the longest serving Prime Minister in the history of the Italian Republic and third-longest serving in the whole history after Mussolini and Giolitti. Ousted after a few months of government, he returned to power in 2001, lost the 2006 general election five years later to Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
and his Union coalition but won the 2008 general election and was elected Prime Minister again for the third time in May 2008. In November 2011, Berlusconi lost his majority in the Chamber of Deputies, and resigned. His successor, Mario Monti
Mario Monti
formed a new government, composed by "technicians" and supported by both the center-left and the center-right. In April 2013 after the general election in February the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party Enrico Letta led a government composed by both center-left and the center-right. On 22 February 2014, after tensions in the Democratic Party, the PD's Secretary Matteo Renzi
Matteo Renzi
was sworn in as the new Prime Minister. Only 39 years old upon taking office, he became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history. Renzi proposed several reforms, including a radical overhaul of the Senate, a new electoral law, and the reduction of the costs of politics. A lot of analysts, journalists and politicians thought that these steps meant the end of the Second Republic and the beginning of the Third.[15] However, the proposed reforms were rejected on December 4, 2016 by a referendum.[16] Following the referendum's results, Matteo Renzi
Matteo Renzi
resigned and his Foreign Affairs Minister Paolo Gentiloni
Paolo Gentiloni
was appointed new Prime Minister. Living former Prime Ministers of Italy[edit]

Living former Prime Ministers of Italy

Arnaldo Forlani 1980–1981 (1925-12-08) 8 December 1925 (age 92)

Ciriaco De Mita 1988–1989 (1928-02-02) 2 February 1928 (age 90)

Giuliano Amato 1992–1993 2000–2001 (1938-05-13) 13 May 1938 (age 79)

Silvio Berlusconi 1994–1995 2001–2006 2008–2011 (1936-09-29) 29 September 1936 (age 81)

Lamberto Dini 1995–1996 (1931-03-01) 1 March 1931 (age 87)

Romano Prodi 1996–1998 2006–2008 (1939-08-09) 9 August 1939 (age 78)

Massimo D'Alema 1998–2000 (1949-04-20) 20 April 1949 (age 68)

Mario Monti 2011–2013 (1943-03-19) 19 March 1943 (age 75)

Enrico Letta 2013–2014 (1966-08-20) 20 August 1966 (age 51)

Matteo Renzi 2014–2016 (1975-01-11) 11 January 1975 (age 43)

See also[edit]

List of Prime Ministers of Italy List of Prime Ministers of Italy
List of Prime Ministers of Italy
by time in office List of Presidents of the Italian Republic Italian Minister of the Interior Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Italian Minister of Defense Italian Minister of Justice Italian Minister of Public Instruction Italian Minister of Health Italian Minister of Economy and Finance Italian Minister of Public Works Italian Minister of Transports Italian Minister of Economic Development Politics of Italy Lists of incumbents


This article was translated from the equivalent article in Italian Wikipedia, retrieved 16 April 2006.

^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012. , Protocol and Liaison Service, United Nations ^ "Interoffice memorandum: Change of name of country" (PDF). United Nations Secretariat. Retrieved 28 March 2012.  ^ Law of 24 December 1925, No. 2263 - Attribuzioni e prerogative del capo del governo, primo ministro segretario di Stato ^ The Randolph Churchill of Italy, www.accessmylibrary.com. ^ Amoore, The Global Resistance Reader, p. 39 ^ a b Barański & West, The Cambridge companion to modern Italian culture, p. 44 ^ a b Killinger, The history of Italy, p. 127–28 ^ Coppa 1970 ^ Sarti, Italy: a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present, pp. 46–48 ^ Coppa 1971 ^ Haugen, pp. 9, 71. ^ "Commissione parlamentare d'inchiesta sul terrorismo in Italia e sulle cause della mancata individuazione dei responsabili delle stragi (Parliamentary investigative commission on terrorism in Italy
and the failure to identify the perpetrators)" (PDF) (in Italian). 1995. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2006.  ^ (in English) / (in Italian) / (in French) /(in German) "Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay-Behind Armies". Swiss Federal Institute of Technology / International Relation and Security Network. Archived from the original on 25 April 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2006.  ^ "Clarion: Philip Willan, Guardian, 24 June 2000, page 19". Cambridgeclarion.org. 24 June 2000. Retrieved 24 April 2010.  ^ Una buona riforma, in attesa della Riforma Europa Quotidiano ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-italy-politics-idUSKCN0X9217

External links[edit]

Website of the Prime Minister of Italy List of Italian Prime Ministers, with information on length of term and party membership

v t e

Prime Ministers of Italy

Kingdom of Italy

Cavour Ricasoli Rattazzi Farini Minghetti La Marmora Ricasoli Rattazzi Menabrea Lanza Minghetti Depretis Cairoli Depretis Cairoli Depretis Crispi Starabba Giolitti Crispi Starabba Pelloux Saracco Zanardelli Giolitti Tittoni Fortis Sonnino Giolitti Sonnino Luzzatti Giolitti Salandra Boselli Orlando Nitti Giolitti Bonomi Facta Mussolini Badoglio Bonomi Parri De Gasperi

Italian Republic

De Gasperi Pella Fanfani Scelba Segni Zoli Fanfani Segni Tambroni Fanfani Leone Moro Leone Rumor Colombo Andreotti Rumor Moro Andreotti Cossiga Forlani Spadolini Fanfani Craxi Fanfani Goria De Mita Andreotti Amato Ciampi Berlusconi Dini Prodi D'Alema Amato Berlusconi Prodi Berlusconi Monti Letta Renzi Gentiloni

v t e

Italy articles




Italic peoples Ancient Italian peoples Pre-Nuragic Sardinia Nuragic peoples

Etruscan Civilization Nuragic Civilization Phoenician / Carthaginian colonies Magna Graecia Ancient Rome

Kingdom Republic Empire

Middle Ages

under Odoacer Ostrogoths Byzantine Italy Lombards Regnum Italiae Sardinian Judgedoms Arabs Normans Guelphs and Ghibellines Italian city-states Maritime republics


Italian Wars

Early Modern period Unification

Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848 Sicilian revolution of 1848 First War of Independence Crimean War Second War of Independence Expedition of the Thousand Third War of Independence Capture of Rome

Monarchy and the World Wars

Kingdom of Italy Colonial Empire World War I Fascist Italy World War II Resistance Civil War


Economic Boom Years of Lead Years of Mud Mani pulite

By topic

Citizenship Currency Economy Fashion Flags Genetic Historic states Military Music Postal Railways


Peninsula Northern

Northwest Northeast

Central Southern

South Insular

Climate Fauna Flora Mountains

Prealps Alps Apennines



Beaches Canals Caves Earthquakes Islands Lakes National parks Rivers Valleys


Constitution Elections Referendums Foreign relations


Judiciary Law enforcement Military Parliament

Chamber of Deputies Senate

Political parties President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Regions Provinces Metropolitan cities Comune Municipalities Cities


Economic history

Milan Naples Rome Turin

Regions by GDP Automotive industry Banking

Central Bank

Companies Energy Government debt Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications


Tourism Trade unions Transportation Welfare


Abortion Adoption Billionaires Capital punishment Corruption Crime Demographics Education

Secondary Higher Universities

Emigration Fathers' rights movement Feminism Gambling Health Healthcare Immigration LGBT rights Nobility Prostitution Racism Religion Smoking Social class Terrorism Women


Duecento Trecento Quattrocento Cinquecento Seicento Settecento

Architecture Art Castles Cinema Cuisine

Beer Wine

Decorations Design Fashion Festivals Folklore Italian language

Regional Italian Italian literature

Italophilia Italophobia Languages Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Monuments Music

Classical Folk Opera Popular

Mythology National symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag


National monument Personification

People Philosophy Public holidays

Festa della Repubblica

Sculpture Sport Traditions World Heritage Sites

portal Category Commons News Quotes Travel WikiProject

v t e

European Council

List of meetings

'98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 (Jan–Apr) '04 (May–Dec) '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 (Jan–Jun) '13 (Jul–Dec) '14 '15

Tusk (President of the European Council) Juncker (President of the European Commission)

Kurz Michel Borisov Plenković Anastasiades Babiš Løkke Rasmussen Ratas Sipilä Macron Merkel Tsipras Orbán Varadkar Gentiloni Kučinskis Grybauskaitė Bettel Muscat Rutte Morawiecki Costa Iohannis Pellegrini Cerar Rajoy Löfven May

European Union
European Union

v t e

Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations
United Nations
member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations
United Nations

v t e

Prime minister

Prime Ministers by country

Abkhazia Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Armenia Artsakh Aruba Australia Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Bermuda Bhutan Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Croatia Cuba Curaçao Northern Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica East Timor Egypt Equatorial Guinea Estonia Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France Ghana Georgia Greece Greenland Grenada Guinea Guyana Haiti Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya North Korea South Korea Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Myanmar (Burma) Nagorno-Karabakh Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Niue Norway Pakistan Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa São Tomé and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Singapore Sint Maarten Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Ossetia Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Syria Taiwan (Republic of China) Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam Yemen Western Sahara Zambia Zimbabwe

Authority control