The PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC
(Italian : Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica
Italiana), commonly referred to in
Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was
called "President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy"
(Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri del Regno d'Italia). From 1925
to 1943 during the Fascist regime, the position was transformed into
the dictatorial position of "Head of the Government, Prime Minister,
Secretary of State" (Capo del Governo, Primo ministro, Segretario di
Stato) held by
The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers —which holds executive power. The position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems . The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office.
* 1 Functions
* 2 History
* 3 Living former prime ministers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
As the "President of the Council of Ministers" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet (the Council of Ministers ). In addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands the majority in the Parliament .
In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of Cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic.
Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers". This power has been used to a quite variable extent in the history of the Italian state , as it is strongly influenced by the political strength of individual ministers and thus by the parties they represent.
The Prime Minister's activity has often consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a Cabinet reshuffle (rimpasto), or sometimes even an 'individual vote of no confidence ' on the part of Parliament, may in practice provide a surrogate measure.
Further information: List of Prime Ministers of Italy
The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor
Kingdom of Sardinia
HISTORICAL RIGHT AND HISTORICAL LEFT
Count Camillo Benso of Cavour , first Italian Prime Minister.
After the Unification of
One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period
Francesco Crispi , a left-wing patriot and statesman, the first
head of the government from Southern
In 1892 Giovanni Giolitti , a young leftist politician, was elected Prime Minister by king Umberto I ; but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903 after a period of instability he was appointed again head of the government. Giolitti was the Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history, after Mussolini.
Giolitti was a master in the political art of
Trasformismo , the
method of making a flexible, centrist coalition of government which
isolated the extremes of the left and the right in Italian politics
after the unification. Under his influence, the Italian Liberals did
not develop as a structured party. They were instead a series of
informal personal groupings with no formal links to political
constituencies. The period between the start of the 20th century and
the start of
World War I
A left-wing liberal, with strong ethical concerns, Giolitti's periods in office were notable for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms which improved the living standards of ordinary Italians, together with the enactment of several policies of government intervention. Besides putting in place several tariffs , subsidies, and government projects, Giolitti also nationalized the private telephone and railroad operators. Liberal proponents of free trade criticized the "Giolittian System", although Giolitti himself saw the development of the national economy as essential in the production of wealth.
The Italian Prime Minister presided over a very unstable political
system, in fact in its first sixty years of existence (1861-1921),
After destroying all political opposition through his secret police
and outlawing labor strikes, Mussolini and his fascist followers
consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the
nation into a one-party dictatorship . Within five years he had
established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary
means, aspiring to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in
power until he was deposed by King
Victor Emmanuel III
Further information: History of the
With the proclamation of the
In the first years of the republic the governments were led by Alcide
De Gasperi , a Christian Democratic politician who had been Prime
Minister for seven years. De Gasperi is also considered a founding
father of the
After the death of the De Gasperi,
From the late 1960s until the early 1980s, the country experienced
the Years of Lead , a period characterised by economic crisis
(especially after the
1973 oil crisis
In the 1980s, for the first time since 1945, two governments were led
by non-Christian-Democrat premiers: one republican (Giovanni Spadolini
) and one socialist (
In the early 1990s,
Further information: History of the
In 1994, in the midst of the Mani Pulite operation which shook
political parties, media magnate
In November 2011, Berlusconi lost his majority in the Chamber of Deputies, and resigned. His successor, Mario Monti formed a new government, composed by "technicians" and supported by both the center-left and the center-right. In April 2013 after the general election in February the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party Enrico Letta led a government composed by both center-left and the center-right.
On 22 February 2014, after tensions in the Democratic Party, the PD's
LIVING FORMER PRIME MINISTERS
* Living former prime ministers
Arnaldo Forlani served 1980–1981 (1925-12-08) 8 December 1925 (age 91) *
Ciriaco De Mita served 1988–1989 (1928-02-02) 2 February 1928 (age 89) *
Giuliano Amato served 1992–1993; 2000–2001 (1938-05-13) 13 May 1938 (age 79) *
Lamberto Dini served 1995–1996 (1931-03-01) 1 March 1931 (age 86) *
Romano Prodi served 1996–1998; 2006–2008 (1939-08-09) 9 August 1939 (age 78) *
Massimo D\'Alema served 1998–2000 (1949-04-20) 20 April 1949 (age 68) *
Mario Monti served 2011–2013 (1943-03-19) 19 March 1943 (age 74) *
Enrico Letta served 2013–2014 (1966-08-20) 20 August 1966 (age 50) *
List of Prime Ministers of Italy
List of Prime Ministers of Italy by time in office
* List of Presidents of the
* This article was translated from the equivalent article in Italian Wikipedia, retrieved 16 April 2006.
* ^ , Protocol and Liaison Service,
* Website of the Prime