The Info List - Prime Meridian

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A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, a prime meridian and its antimeridian (the 180th meridian
180th meridian
in a 360°-system) form a great circle. This great circle divides the sphere, e.g., Earth, into two hemispheres. If one uses directions of East and West from a defined prime meridian, then they can be called the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
and the Western Hemisphere.

Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator
in his Atlas Cosmographicae
Atlas Cosmographicae
(1595) uses a prime meridian somewhere close to 25°W, passing just to the west of Santa Maria Island in the Atlantic. His 180th meridian
180th meridian
runs along the Strait of Anián (Bering Strait)

A prime meridian is ultimately arbitrary, unlike an equator, which is determined by the axis of rotation—and various conventions have been used or advocated in different regions and throughout history.[1] The most widely used modern meridian is the IERS Reference Meridian. It is derived but deviates slightly from the Greenwich
Meridian, which was selected as an international standard in 1884.


1 History 2 List of prime meridians on Earth 3 International prime meridian

3.1 Prime meridian
Prime meridian
at Greenwich 3.2 IERS Reference Meridian

3.2.1 List of places

4 Prime meridian
Prime meridian
on other planetary bodies 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Citations 8 Works cited 9 External links

History[edit] See also: History of longitude

Ptolemy's 1st projection, redrawn under Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
around 1300, using a prime meridian east of Africa

The notion of longitude was developed by the Greek Eratosthenes
(c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC) in Alexandria, and Hipparchus
(c. 190 BC – c. 120 BC) in Rhodes, and applied to a large number of cities by the geographer Strabo
(64/63 BC – c. 24 AD). But it was Ptolemy
(c. AD 90 – c. AD 168) who first used a consistent meridian for a world map in his Geographia. Ptolemy
used as his basis the "Fortunate Isles", a group of islands in the Atlantic
which are usually associated with the Canary Islands (13° to 18°W), although his maps correspond more closely to the Cape Verde islands (22° to 25° W). The main point is to be comfortably west of the western tip of Africa
(17.5° W) as negative numbers were not yet in use. His prime meridian corresponds to 18° 40' west of Winchester
(about 20°W) today.[2] At that time the chief method of determining longitude was by using the reported times of lunar eclipses in different countries.

Diogo Ribeiro's map of 1529, now in the Vatican library

Ptolemy's Geographia
was first printed with maps at Bologna
in 1477, and many early globes in the 16th century followed his lead. But there was still a hope that a "natural" basis for a prime meridian existed. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
reported (1493) that the compass pointed due north somewhere in mid-Atlantic, and this fact was used in the important Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
of 1494 which settled the territorial dispute between Spain
and Portugal
over newly discovered lands. The Tordesillas line was eventually settled at 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. This is shown in Diogo Ribeiro's 1529 map. São Miguel Island (25.5°W) in the Azores
was still used for the same reason as late as 1594 by Christopher Saxton, although by then it had been shown that the zero magnetic deviation line did not follow a line of longitude.[3]

1571 Africa
map by Abraham Ortelius, with Cabo Verde prime meridian

In 1541, Mercator produced his famous 41 cm terrestrial globe and drew his prime meridian precisely through Fuertaventura
(14°1'W) in the Canaries. His later maps used the Azores, following the magnetic hypothesis. But by the time that Ortelius produced the first modern atlas in 1570, other islands such as Cape Verde
Cape Verde
were coming into use. In his atlas longitudes were counted from 0° to 360°, not 180°W to 180°E as is usual today. This practice was followed by navigators well into the 18th century.[4] In 1634, Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
used the westernmost island of the Canaries, Ferro, 19° 55' west of Paris, as the choice of meridian. The geographer Delisle decided to round this off to 20°, so that it simply became the meridian of Paris disguised.[5] In the early 18th century the battle was on to improve the determination of longitude at sea, leading to the development of the marine chronometer by John Harrison. But it was the development of accurate star charts, principally by the first British Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed
John Flamsteed
between 1680 and 1719 and disseminated by his successor Edmund Halley, that enabled navigators to use the lunar method of determining longitude more accurately using the octant developed by Thomas Godfrey and John Hadley.[6] Between 1765 and 1811, Nevil Maskelyne
Nevil Maskelyne
published 49 issues of the Nautical Almanac
Nautical Almanac
based on the meridian of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. "Maskelyne's tables not only made the lunar method practicable, they also made the Greenwich
meridian the universal reference point. Even the French translations of the Nautical Almanac
Nautical Almanac
retained Maskelyne's calculations from Greenwich—in spite of the fact that every other table in the Connaissance des Temps considered the Paris meridian
Paris meridian
as the prime." [7] In 1884, at the International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference
in Washington, D.C., 22 countries voted to adopt the Greenwich[8] meridian as the prime meridian of the world. The French argued for a neutral line, mentioning the Azores
and the Bering Strait, but eventually abstained and continued to use the Paris meridian
Paris meridian
until 1911. List of prime meridians on Earth[edit]

Locality Modern longitude Meridian name Comment

Bering Strait 168°30′ W

Offered in 1884 as possibility for a "neutral prime meridian" by Pierre Janssen
Pierre Janssen
at the International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference

Washington, D.C. 77°03′56.07″ W (1897) or 77°04′02.24″ W (NAD 27)[clarification needed] or 77°04′01.16″ W (NAD 83) New Naval Observatory meridian

Washington, D.C. 77°02′48.0″ W, 77°03′02.3″, 77°03′06.119″ W or 77°03′06.276″ W (both presumably NAD 27). If NAD27, the latter would be 77°03′05.194″ W (NAD 83) Old Naval Observatory meridian

Washington, D.C. 77°02′11.56299″ W (NAD 83),[10] 77°02′11.55811″ W (NAD 83),[11] 77°02′11.58325″ W (NAD 83)[12] (three different monuments originally intended to be on the White House meridian) White House meridian

Washington, D.C. 77°00′32.6″ W (NAD 83) Capitol meridian

Philadelphia 75° 10′ 12″ W


Rio de Janeiro 43° 10′ 19″ W


Fortunate Isles
Fortunate Isles
/ Azores 25° 40′ 32″ W

Used until the Middle Ages, proposed as one possible neutral meridian by Pierre Janssen
Pierre Janssen
at the International Meridian Conference[16]

El Hierro
El Hierro
(Ferro), Canary Islands 18° 03′ W, later redefined as 17° 39′ 46″ W Ferro meridian [17]

Tenerife 16° 38' 22" W Tenerife
meridian Rose to prominence with Dutch cartographers and navigators after they abandoned the idea of a magnetic meridian[18]

Cadiz 6° 17' 40" W San Fernando meridian [19]

Lisbon 9° 07′ 54.862″ W


Madrid 3° 41′ 16.58″ W


Greenwich 0° 00′ 05.3101″ W Greenwich
meridian Airy Meridian[21]

Greenwich 0° 00′ 05.33″ W United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Ordnance Survey Zero Meridian Bradley Meridian[21]

Greenwich 0° 00′ 00.00″ IERS Reference Meridian

Paris 2° 20′ 14.025″ E Paris

Brussels 4° 22′ 4.71″ E


Antwerp 4° 24′ E Antwerp

Amsterdam 4° 53′ E

through the Westerkerk
in Amsterdam; used to define the legal time in the Netherlands from 1909 to 1937[22]

Bern 7° 26′ 22.5″ E

[citation needed]

Pisa 10° 24′ E


(Kristiania) 10° 43′ 22.5″ E


Florence 11°15′ E Florence
meridian used in the Peters projection, 180° from a meridian running through the Bering Strait

Rome 12° 27′ 08.4″ E meridian of Monte Mario Used in Roma 40 Datum [23]

Copenhagen 12° 34′ 32.25″ E


Naples 14° 15′ E


Bratislava 17° 06′ 03″ E Meridianus Posoniensis Used by Sámuel Mikoviny

Stockholm 18° 03′ 29.8″ E

at the Stockholm

Kraków 19° 57′ 21.43″ E Kraków
meridian at the Old Kraków
Observatory at the Śniadecki' College; mentioned also in Nicolaus Copernicus's work On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.

Warsaw 21° 00′ 42″ E Warsaw
meridian [20]

Oradea 21° 55′ 16″ E

[25] Between 1464 and 1667, a prime meridian was set in the Fortress of Oradea (Varadinum at the time) by Georg von Peuerbach.[26]

Alexandria 29° 53′ E


Saint Petersburg 30° 19′ 42.09″ E Pulkovo meridian

Great Pyramid of Giza 31° 08′ 03.69″ E

1884 [28]

Jerusalem 35° 13′ 47.1″ E


Mecca 39° 49′ 34″ E

see also Mecca

Ujjain 75° 47′ E

Used from 4th century CE Indian astronomy and calendars(see also Time in India).[30]

Kyoto 136° 14′ E

Used in 18th and 19th (officially 1779–1871) century Japanese maps. Exact place unknown, but in "Kairekisyo" in Nishigekkoutyou-town in Kyoto, then the capital.[citation needed]

~ 180

Opposite of Greenwich, proposed 13 October 1884 on the International Meridian Conference by Sandford Fleming
Sandford Fleming

International prime meridian[edit] In October 1884 the Greenwich
Meridian was selected by delegates (forty-one delegates representing twenty-five nations) to the International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference
held in Washington, D.C., United States to be the common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the world.[31][note 1] The modern prime meridian, the IERS Reference Meridian, is placed very near this meridian and is the prime meridian that currently has the widest use. Prime meridian
Prime meridian
at Greenwich[edit]

Markings of the prime meridian at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

Main article: Prime meridian
Prime meridian
(Greenwich) The modern prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.[33] The position of the Greenwich
Meridian has been defined by the location of the Airy Transit Circle
Transit Circle
ever since the first observation was taken with it by Sir George Airy in 1851.[33] Prior to that, it was defined by a succession of earlier transit instruments, the first of which was acquired by the second Astronomer Royal, Edmond Halley
Edmond Halley
in 1721. It was set up in the extreme north-west corner of the Observatory between Flamsteed House and the Western Summer House. This spot, now subsumed into Flamsteed House, is roughly 43 metres to the west of the Airy Transit Circle, a distance equivalent to roughly 0.15 seconds of time.[21] It was Airy's transit circle that was adopted in principle (with French delegates, who pressed for adoption of the Paris meridian
Paris meridian
abstaining) as the Prime Meridian of the world at the 1884 International Meridian Conference.[34][35] All of these Greenwich
meridians were located via an astronomic observation from the surface of the Earth, oriented via a plumb line along the direction of gravity at the surface. This astronomic Greenwich
meridian was disseminated around the world, first via the lunar distance method, then by chronometers carried on ships, then via telegraph lines carried by submarine communications cables, then via radio time signals. One remote longitude ultimately based on the Greenwich
meridian using these methods was that of the North American Datum 1927 or NAD27, an ellipsoid whose surface best matches mean sea level under the United States. IERS Reference Meridian[edit] Main article: IERS Reference Meridian Satellites changed the reference from the surface of the Earth
to its centre of mass around which all satellites orbit regardless of surface irregularities. The requirement that satellite-based geodetic reference systems be centred on the centre of mass of the earth caused the modern prime meridian to be 5.3" east of the astronomic Greenwich prime meridian through the Airy Transit Circle. At the latitude of Greenwich, this amounts to 102 metres.[36] This was officially accepted by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) in 1984 via its BTS84 (BIH Terrestrial System) that later became WGS84
(World Geodetic System 1984) and the various ITRFs (International Terrestrial Reference Systems). Due to the movement of Earth's tectonic plates, the line of 0° longitude along the surface of the Earth
has slowly moved toward the west from this shifted position by a few centimetres; that is, towards the Airy Transit Circle
Transit Circle
(or the Airy Transit Circle
Transit Circle
has moved toward the east, depending on your point of view) since 1984 (or the 1960s). With the introduction of satellite technology, it became possible to create a more accurate and detailed global map. With these advances there also arose the necessity to define a reference meridian that, whilst being derived from the Airy Transit Circle, would also take into account the effects of plate movement and variations in the way that the Earth
was spinning.[37] As a result, the International Reference Meridian was established and is commonly used to denote Earth's prime meridian (0° longitude) by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, which defines and maintains the link between longitude and time. Based on observations to satellites and celestial compact radio sources (quasars) from various coordinated stations around the globe, Airy's transit circle drifts northeast about 2.5 centimetres per year relative to this Earth-centred 0° longitude. Circa 1999 the international reference meridian (IRM) passed 5.31 arcseconds east of Airy's meridian or 102.5 metres (336.3 feet) at the latitude of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London.[38][39][40][41] It is also the reference meridian of the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
operated by the United States Department of Defense, and of WGS84
and its two formal versions, the ideal International Terrestrial Reference System
International Terrestrial Reference System
(ITRS) and its realization, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF).[38][39][40] A current convention on the Earth
uses the opposite of the IRM as the basis for the International Date Line. List of places[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

On Earth, starting at the North Pole
North Pole
and heading south to the South Pole, the IERS Reference Meridian
IERS Reference Meridian
(as of 2016) passes through:

Co-ordinates (approximate) Country, territory or sea Notes

90°0′N 0°0′E / 90.000°N 0.000°E / 90.000; 0.000 (North Pole) Arctic Ocean

81°39′N 0°0′E / 81.650°N 0.000°E / 81.650; 0.000 (Greenland Sea) Greenland Sea

72°53′N 0°0′E / 72.883°N 0.000°E / 72.883; 0.000 (Norwegian Sea) Norwegian Sea

61°0′N 0°0′E / 61.000°N 0.000°E / 61.000; 0.000 (North Sea) North Sea

53°45′N 0°0′E / 53.750°N 0.000°E / 53.750; 0.000 (United Kingdom)  United Kingdom From Tunstall in East Riding to Peacehaven, passing through Greenwich

50°47′N 0°0′E / 50.783°N 0.000°E / 50.783; 0.000 (English Channel) English Channel

49°19′N 0°0′E / 49.317°N 0.000°E / 49.317; 0.000 (France)  France From Villers-sur-Mer
to Gavarnie

42°41′N 0°0′E / 42.683°N 0.000°E / 42.683; 0.000 (Spain)  Spain From Cilindro de Marboré
Cilindro de Marboré
to Castellón de la Plana

39°56′N 0°0′E / 39.933°N 0.000°E / 39.933; 0.000 (Mediterranean Sea) Mediterranean Sea Gulf of Valencia

38°52′N 0°0′E / 38.867°N 0.000°E / 38.867; 0.000 (Spain)  Spain From El Verger
El Verger
to Calpe

38°38′N 0°0′E / 38.633°N 0.000°E / 38.633; 0.000 (Mediterranean Sea) Mediterranean Sea

35°50′N 0°0′E / 35.833°N 0.000°E / 35.833; 0.000 (Algeria)  Algeria From Stidia
to Algeria- Mali
border near Bordj Mokhtar

21°50′N 0°0′E / 21.833°N 0.000°E / 21.833; 0.000 (Mali)  Mali

14°59′N 0°0′E / 14.983°N 0.000°E / 14.983; 0.000 (Burkina Faso)  Burkina Faso

11°6′N 0°0′E / 11.100°N 0.000°E / 11.100; 0.000 (Togo)  Togo For about 600 m

11°6′N 0°0′E / 11.100°N 0.000°E / 11.100; 0.000 (Ghana)  Ghana For about 16 km

10°57′N 0°0′E / 10.950°N 0.000°E / 10.950; 0.000 (Togo)  Togo For about 39 km

10°36′N 0°0′E / 10.600°N 0.000°E / 10.600; 0.000 (Ghana)  Ghana From the Togo- Ghana
border near Bunkpurugu
to Tema Passing through Lake Volta
Lake Volta
at 7°48′N 0°0′E / 7.800°N 0.000°E / 7.800; 0.000 (Lake Volta)

5°37′N 0°0′E / 5.617°N 0.000°E / 5.617; 0.000 ( Atlantic
Ocean) Atlantic
Ocean Passing through the Equator
at 0°0′N 0°0′E / 0.000°N 0.000°E / 0.000; 0.000 (Equator) ("Null Island")

60°0′S 0°0′E / 60.000°S 0.000°E / -60.000; 0.000 (Southern Ocean) Southern Ocean

68°54′S 0°0′E / 68.900°S 0.000°E / -68.900; 0.000 (Antarctica) Antarctica Queen Maud Land, claimed by  Norway

Prime meridian
Prime meridian
on other planetary bodies[edit] See also: Longitude
(planets) " Prime meridian
Prime meridian
(planets)" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Central meridian (planets). As on the Earth, prime meridians must be arbitrarily defined. Often a landmark such as a crater is used; other times a prime meridian is defined by reference to another celestial object, or by magnetic fields. The prime meridians of the following planetographic systems have been defined:

Two different heliographic coordinate systems are used on the Sun. The first is the Carrington heliographic coordinate system. In this system, the prime meridian passes through the center of the solar disk as seen from the Earth
on 9 November 1853, which is when Richard Christopher Carrington started his observations of sunspots.[42] The second is the Stonyhurst heliographic coordinates system. The prime meridian of Mercury is defined to be 20° east of the crater Hun Kal.[43] The prime meridian of Venus
passes through the central peak in the crater Ariadne.[44] The prime meridian of the Moon
lies directly in the middle of the face of the moon visible from Earth
and passes near the crater Bruce. The prime meridian of Mars
passes through the center of the crater Airy-0, although it is fixed by the longitude of the Viking 1 lander, which is defined to be 47°.95137 west.[45]. Jupiter
has several coordinate systems because its cloud tops—the only part of the planet visible from space—rotate at different rates depending on latitude.[46] It is unknown whether Jupiter
has any internal solid surface that would enable a more Earth-like coordinate system. System I and System II coordinates are based on atmospheric rotation, and System III coordinates use Jupiter's magnetic field. Titan, like the Earth's moon, always has the same face towards Saturn, and so the middle of that face is 0 longitude. Pluto's prime meridian is defined as the center of the face that is always pointed towards Charon, its largest moon, as the two are tidally locked towards each other.

See also[edit]

Geography portal

1st meridian east 1st meridian west


^ Voting took place on 13 October and the resolutions were adopted on 22 October 1884.[32]


^ Prime Meridian, geog.port.ac.uk ^ Norgate & Norgate 2006 ^ Hooker 2006 ^ e.g. Jacob Roggeveen
Jacob Roggeveen
in 1722 reported the longitude of Easter Island as 268° 45' (starting from Fuertaventura) in the Extract from the Official log of Jacob Roggeveen
Jacob Roggeveen
reproduced in Bolton Glanville Corney, ed. (1908), The voyage of Don Felipe Gonzalez to Easter Island
Easter Island
in 1770-1, Hakluyt Society, p. 3, retrieved 13 January 2013  ^ Speech by Pierre Janssen, director of the Paris
observatory, at the first session of the Meridian Conference. ^ Sobel & Andrewes 1998, pp. 110–115 ^ Sobel & Andrewes 1998, pp. 197–199 ^ "The Prime Meridian at Greenwich". Royal Museums Greenwich. n.d. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ International Conference Held at Washington for the Purpose of Fixing a Prime Meridian and a Universal Day. October, 1884. Project Gutenberg ^ NGS 2016, PID: HV1847. ^ NGS 2016, PID: HV1846. ^ NGS 2016, PID: AH7372. ^ a b c Hooker (2006), introduction. ^ a b c Oct. 13, 1884: Greenwich
Resolves Subprime Meridian Crisis, WIRED, 13 October 2010. ^ Atlas do Brazil, 1909, by Barão Homem de Mello e Francisco Homem de Mello, published in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
by F. Briguiet & Cia. ^ a b c "The Project Gutenberg eBook of International Conference Held at Washington for the Purpose of Fixing a Prime Meridian and a Universal Day". Gutenberg.org. 12 February 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ Ancient, used in Ptolemy's Geographia. Later redefined 17° 39′ 46″ W of Greenwich
to be exactly 20° W of Paris. French "submarin" at Washington 1884. ^ A.R.T. Jonkers; Parallel meridians: Diffusion and change in early modern oceanic reckoning, in Noord-Zuid in Oostindisch perspectief, The Hague, 2005, p. 7. Retrieved 2 February 2015. ^ , [1], in El País, 2016, retrieved 23 December 2016. ^ a b c d e Bartky, Ian R. (2007), One Time
Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity, p. 98, retrieved through GoogleBooks, 6 May 2014. ^ a b c Dolan 2013a. ^ (in Dutch)Eenheid van tijd in Nederland (Unity of time in the Netherlands), Utrecht University website, retrieved 28 August 2013. ^ Grids & Datums – Italian Republic, asprs.org, Retrieved 10 December 2013. ^ meridian, article from Den Store Danske Encyklopædi ^ Oradea, Tourism office website, retrieved 3 February 2015. ^ "Romanian astronaut makrsk 10th anniversary of Prime Meridian Astronomy Club". NineO'Clock.ro. 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ The meridian of Ptolemy's Almagest. ^ Wilcomb E. Washburn, "The Canary Islands
Canary Islands
and the Question of the Prime Meridian: The Search for Precision in the Measurement of the Earth
Archived 29 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine." ^ Maimonides, Hilchot Kiddush Hachodesh 11:17, calls this point אמצע היישוב, "the middle of the habitation", i.e. the habitable hemisphere. Evidently this was a convention accepted by Arab geographers of his day. ^ Burgess 1860 ^ "International Conference Held at Washington for the Purpose of Fixing a Prime Meridian and a Universal Day. October, 1884. Protocols of the proceedings". Project Gutenberg. 1884. Retrieved 30 November 2012.  ^ Howse 1997, pp. 12, 137 ^ a b Greenwich
Observatory ... the story of Britain's oldest scientific institution, the Royal Observatory at Greenwich
and Herstmonceux, 1675–1975 p.10. Taylor & Francis, 1975 ^ McCarthy, Dennis; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (2009). TIME from Earth Rotation to Atomic Physics. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 244–5.  ^ ROG Learning Team (23 August 2002). "The Prime Meridian at Greenwich". Royal Museums Greenwich. Royal Museums Greenwich. Retrieved 14 June 2012.  ^ Malys, Stephen; Seago, John H.; Palvis, Nikolaos K.; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Kaplan, George H. (1 August 2015). "Why the Greenwich meridian moved". Journal of Geodesy. 89 (12): 1263. Bibcode:2015JGeod..89.1263M. doi:10.1007/s00190-015-0844-y.  ^ Dolan 2013b. ^ a b History of the Prime Meridian -Past and Present ^ a b IRM on grounds of Royal Observatory from Google Earth
Accessed 30 March 2012 ^ a b The astronomic latitude of the Royal Observatory is 51°28'38"N whereas its latitude on the European Terrestrial Reference Frame (1989) datum is 51°28'40.1247"N. ^ Guinot, B., 2011. Solar time, legal time, time in use. Metrologica 48, S181–S185. ^ "Carrington heliographic coordinates".  ^ Archinal, B. A.; A’Hearn, M. F.; Bowell, E.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G. J.; Courtin, R.; Fukushima, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J. L.; Krasinsky, G. A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Stooke, P.; Tholen, D. J.; Thomas, P. C.; Williams, I. P. (23 October 2010). "Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2009" (PDF). Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 109 (2): 15. Bibcode:2011CeMDA.109..101A. doi:10.1007/s10569-010-9320-4.  ^ "USGS Astrogeology: Rotation and pole position for the Sun and planets (IAU WGCCRE)". Retrieved 22 October 2009.  ^ Archinal, B.A.; Acton, C.H.; A’Hearn, M.F.; Conrad, A.; et al. (2018), "Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2015", Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 130 (22), doi:10.1007/s10569-017-9805-5 CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ "Planetographic Coordinates". Retrieved 24 May 2017. 

Works cited[edit]

Burgess, Ebenezer (1860), "Translation of the Surya-Siddhanta", Journal of the American Oriental Society (e book), 6, Google (published c. 2013), p. 185  Dolan, Graham (2013a). "The Greenwich
Meridian before the Airy Transit Circle". The Greenwich
Meridian.  Dolan, Graham (2013b). " WGS84
and the Greenwich
Meridian". The Greenwich
Meridian.  Hooker, Brian (2006), A multitude of prime meridians, retrieved 13 January 2013  Howse, Derek (1997), Greenwich
and the Longitude, Phillip Wilson, ISBN 0-85667-468-0  Norgate, Jean; Norgate, Martin (2006), Prime meridian, retrieved 13 January 2013  NGS datasheet station name form, National Geodetic Survey, 2016, retrieved 11 December 2016  Sobel, Dava; Andrewes, William J. H. (1998), The Illustrated Longitude, Fourth Estate, London 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prime meridian.

"Where the Earth's surface begins—and ends", Popular Mechanics, December 1930 scanned TIFFs of the conference proceedings Prime meridians in use in the 1880s, by country

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Equator Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic Circle Antarctic Circle Equator Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic Circle Antarctic Circle Equator Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic Circle Antarctic Circle W 0° E 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 5° 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105° 115° 125° 135° 145° 155° 165° 175° 5° 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105° 115° 125° 135° 145° 155° 165° 175° 10° 20° 40° 50° 70° 80° 100° 110° 130° 140° 160° 170° 10° 20° 40° 50° 70° 80° 100° 110° 130° 140° 160° 170° 0° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 5° N 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 5° S 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 45x90