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The Info List - Prijedor Ethnic Cleansing

During the Bosnian War, there was an ethnic cleansing campaign committed by the Bosnian Serb
Bosnian Serb
political and military leadership mostly against Bosniak civilians in the Prijedor
Prijedor
region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After the Srebrenica genocide, it is the second largest massacre committed during the Bosnian War.[citation needed] According to the Sarajevo-based Research and Documentation Center (IDC), around 5,200 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Croats
Croats
from Prijedor
Prijedor
are missing or were killed during the massacre period,[when?] and around 14,000 people in the wider region of Prijedor
Prijedor
(Pounje).[3] As of October 2013[update], 96 mass graves have been located and around 2,100 victims have been identified, largely by DNA analysis.[4] The crimes committed in Prijedor
Prijedor
have been subjected to 13 trials before the International Criminal
Criminal
Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Soldiers and police in the Serb SDS, Crisis Staff's, including Milomir Stakic, Milan Kovacevic, Radoslav Brdanin, ranging to the highest leaders including General Ratko Mladic, Bosnian Serb
Bosnian Serb
President
President
Radovan Karadzic, and Serbian President
President
Slobodan Milosevic
Slobodan Milosevic
have been charged with genocide, and persecution's, extermination's, murder, forced transfers, and unlawful confinement, torture as Crimes Against Humanity (widespread, systematic attacks against a civilian population) and other crimes, have been alleged to have occurred in Prijedor. The ICTY
ICTY
has characterized the Prijedor
Prijedor
events of 1992 as having met the "actus reus" (guilty act) of genocide through killing members of the group and causing serious bodily and mental harm to members of the group. However, the requirement of the specific intent to physically destroy having failed to be established beyond reasonable doubt. However the events of 1992 in Prijedor
Prijedor
were part of the larger Joint Criminal Enterprise to forcibly remove Bosnian Muslims and Croats
Croats
from large territories of Bosnia.[5] In 2014, investigators were led by two Bosnian Serb
Bosnian Serb
civilians who worked in and around the camps to a mass grave at the Tomasica mining complex, unearthing the largest mass grave in Bosnia, and the discovery of over 1,000 bodies in both the Tomasica and Jakarina Rose mass grave sites.

Contents

1 Background 2 Political
Political
developments before the takeover 3 Takeover 4 Armed attacks against the civilians

4.1 Propaganda 4.2 Strengthening of Serb forces 4.3 Marking of non-Serb houses and people 4.4 Attack on Hambarine 4.5 Attack on Kozarac

5 Camps

5.1 Keraterm camp 5.2 Omarska camp 5.3 Trnopolje camp 5.4 Other detention facilities

6 Killings in the camps 7 Memorials 8 See also 9 References 10 Books 11 External links

Background[edit] Following Slovenia’s and Croatia’s declarations of independence in June 1991, the situation in the Prijedor
Prijedor
municipality rapidly deteriorated. During the war in Croatia, the tension increased between the Serbs and the communities of Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Croats. Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Croats
Croats
began to leave the municipality because of a growing sense of insecurity and fear amongst the population which was caused by Serb propaganda
Serb propaganda
which became increasingly visible. The municipal newspaper Kozarski Vjesnik started publishing allegations against the non-Serbs. The Serb media propagandised the idea that the Serbs had to arm themselves. Terms like Ustasha
Ustasha
(Ustaše), Mujahideen (Mudžahedini) and Green Berets (Zelene beretke) were used widely in the press as synonyms for the non-Serb population. Radio
Radio
Prijedor disseminated propaganda insulting Croats
Croats
and Bosnian Muslims. As one result of the takeover of the transmitter station on Mount Kozara
Kozara
in August 1991 by the Serbian paramilitary unit the Wolves of Vučjak, TV Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was cut off. It was replaced by broadcasts from Belgrade
Belgrade
and Banja Luka
Banja Luka
with interviews of Serb radical politicians and renditions of Serb nationalistic songs which would previously have been banned.[6] Political
Political
developments before the takeover[edit] On 7 January 1992, the Serb members of the Prijedor
Prijedor
Municipal Assembly and the presidents of the local Municipal Boards of the Serbian Democratic Party proclaimed the Assembly of the Serbian People of the Municipality
Municipality
of Prijedor
Prijedor
and implemented secret instructions that were issued earlier on 19 December 1991. The "Organisation and Activity of Organs of the Serbian People in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in Extraordinary Circumstances" provided a plan for the SDS take-over of municipalities in BiH, it also included plans for the creation of Crisis Staffs.[7] Milomir Stakić, later convicted by ICTY
ICTY
of mass crimes against humanity against Bosniak and Croat civilians, was elected President
President
of this Assembly. Ten days later, on 17 January 1992, the Assembly endorsed joining the Serbian territories of the Municipality
Municipality
of Prijedor
Prijedor
to the Autonomous Region of Bosnian Krajina in order to implement creation of a separate Serbian state on ethnic Serbian territories.[6] On 23 April 1992, the Serbian Democratic Party decided inter alia that all Serb units immediately start working on the takeover of the municipality in co-ordination with the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
and units of the future Army
Army
of the Republika Srpska). By the end of April 1992, a number of clandestine Serb police stations were created in the municipality and more than 1,500 armed Serbs were ready to take part in the takeover.[6] Takeover[edit] A declaration on the takeover prepared by the Serb politicians from the Serbian Democratic Party was read out on Radio
Radio
Prijedor
Prijedor
the day after the takeover and was repeated throughout the day. When planning the anticipated takeover, it was decided that the 400 Serb policemen who would be involved in the takeover would be sufficient for the task. The objective of the takeover was to take over the functions of the president of the municipality, the vice-president of the municipality, the director of the post office, the chief of the police etc. In the night of the 29/30 April 1992, the takeover of power took place. Employees of the public security station and reserve police gathered in Cirkin Polje, part of the town of Prijedor. Only Serbs were present and some of them were wearing military uniforms. The people there were given the task of taking over power in the municipality and were broadly divided into five groups. Each group of about twenty had a leader and each was ordered to gain control of certain buildings. One group was responsible for the Assembly building, one for the main police building, one for the courts, one for the bank and the last for the post-office.[6] The ICTY
ICTY
concluded that the takeover by the Serb politicians was as an illegal coup d'état, which was planned and coordinated a long time in advance with the ultimate aim of creating a pure Serbian municipality. These plans were never hidden and they were implemented in a coordinated action by the Serb police, army and politicians. One of the leading figures was Milomir Stakić, who came to play the dominant role in the political life of the Municipality.[6] Armed attacks against the civilians[edit] After the takeover, civilian life was transformed in a myriad of ways. Tension and fear increased significantly among the non-Serb population in Prijedor
Prijedor
municipality. There was a marked increase in the military presence of Serb formations in the town of Prijedor. Armed soldiers were placed on top of all the high rise buildings in Prijedor
Prijedor
town and the Serb police established checkpoints throughout the town of Prijedor. In the Stakić case, the ICTY
ICTY
concluded that many people were killed during the attacks by the Serb army on predominantly Bosnian Muslim villages and towns throughout the Prijedor
Prijedor
municipality and several massacres of Bosnian Muslims took place and that a comprehensive pattern of atrocities against Bosnian Muslims in Prijedor
Prijedor
municipality in 1992 had been proved beyond reasonable doubt.[8] Propaganda[edit] After the takeover, Radio
Radio
Prijedor
Prijedor
propagated Serb nationalistic ideas characterising prominent non-Serbs as criminals and extremists who should be punished for their behaviour. One example of such propaganda was the derogatory language used for referring to non-Serbs such as Mujahideen, Ustaše
Ustaše
or Green Berets. Both the printed and broadcast media also spread what can be only considered as blatant lies according to the ICTY
ICTY
conclusion about non-Serb doctors: Dr. Mirsad Mujadžić of the Bosniak ethnic group was accused of injecting drugs into Serb women making them incapable of giving birth to male children and Dr. Željko Sikora, a Croat, referred to as the Monster Doctor, was accused of making Serb women abort if they were pregnant with male children and of castrating the male babies of Serbian parents. Moreover, in a "Kozarski Vjesnik" article dated 10 June 1992, Dr. Osman Mahmuljin was accused of deliberately having provided incorrect medical care to his Serb colleague Dr. Živko Dukić, who had a heart attack. Dr. Dukić’s life was saved only because Dr. Radojka Elenkov discontinued the therapy allegedly initiated by Dr. Mahmuljin. The appeals were broadcast aimed at the Serbs to lynch the non-Serbs. Moreover, forged biographies of prominent non-Serbs, including Prof. Muhamed Ćehajić, Mr. Crnalić, Dr. Eso Sadiković and Dr. Osman Mahmuljin, were broadcast. According to ICTY
ICTY
conclusion in Stakić verdict Mile Mutić, the director of Kozarski Vjesnik and the journalist Rade Mutić regularly attended meetings of Serb politicians (local authorities) in order to get informed about next steps of spreading propaganda.[6][9] Strengthening of Serb forces[edit] In the weeks following the takeover, the Serb authorities in Prijedor worked to strengthen their position militarily in accordance with decisions adopted on the highest levels. On May 12, 1992, the self-appointed Assembly of the Serbian People established the Serbian Army
Army
under Ratko Mladić’s command by bringing together former JNA (later Army
Army
of Serbia and Montenegro and Army
Army
of Republika Srpska) units.[6] Major
Major
Radmilo Željaja issued an ultimatum calling for all Bosniak citizens to hand over their weapons to the Serbian Army
Army
and to declare their loyalty to the Serbian Republic and to respond to the mobilisation call-ups. The ultimatum issued also contained a threat that any resistance would be punished. For the most part, the civilian population complied with these requests turning in their hunting rifles and pistols as well as their permits and in the belief that if they handed in their weapons they would be safe. House searches performed by soldiers of the homes of the non-Serb population were common and any weapons found were confiscated.[6] Marking of non-Serb houses and people[edit] Many non-Serbs were dismissed from their jobs in the period after the takeover. The general tendency is reflected in a decision of the Serb regional authorities i.e. Crisis Staff of the Autonomous Region of Krajina (ARK) dated 22 June 1992, which provides that all socially-owned enterprises, joint-stock companies, state institutions, public utilities, Ministries of the Interior, and the Army
Army
of the Serbian Republic may only be held by personnel of Serbian nationality.[6] The announcements broadcast on the radio, from 31 May 1992 onward, also obliged non-Serbs to hang a white bed sheets outside their homes and wear white armbands[10], as a demonstration of their loyalty to the Serbian authorities. Charles McLeod, who was with the ECMM and visited Prijedor
Prijedor
municipality in the last days of August 1992, testified that while visiting a mixed Serb/Bosnian Muslim village he saw that the Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) houses were identified by a white flag on the roof. This is corroborated by the testimony of Barnabas Mayhew (ECMM), who testified that the Bosnian Muslim houses were marked with white flags in order to distinguish them from the Serb houses.[6] Attack on Hambarine[edit] Hambarine was predominantly Bosniak village in Prijedor
Prijedor
municipality. On 22 May 1992, Serb controlled Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) issued an ultimatum to the residents of Hambarine. The residents were to surrender several individuals alleged involved in attack on JNA. The ultimatum was not complied with and around noon the next day the shelling of Hambarine began. The shelling came from three directions from the north-west in the Karane area, from the area of Urije and from the area of Topic Hill. There were two or three Serb tanks and approximately a thousand soldiers during the attack. The bombardment of Hambarine continued until about 15:00. The Bosniak residents tried to defend the village, but they were forced to flee to other villages or to the Kurevo woods to escape the shelling. There were approximately 400 refugees, mostly women, children and elderly people, who fled Hambarine as a result of the attack that saw the Serb soldiers kill, rape and torch houses. A military operation was consequently concentrated on the Kurevo forest.[6] Attack on Kozarac[edit] The area of Kozarac, surrounding Kozarac
Kozarac
town, comprises several villages, including Kamičani, Kozaruša, Susici, Brđani, Babići. After the Serb takeover of Prijedor, the population of Kozarac
Kozarac
tried to control the perimeter of their town and organized patrols. After the attack on Hambarine, another ultimatum was issued for the town of Kozarac. Radmilo Željaja delivered the ultimatum on Radio
Radio
Prijedor, threatening to raze Kozarac
Kozarac
to the ground if residents failed to comply. Following the ultimatum, negotiations took place between the Bosniak and the Serb sides which were unsuccessful. Stojan Župljanin, later accused of war crimes by ICTY
ICTY
and one of the most wanted fugitive besides Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
and Ratko Mladić, who led the Serb delegation, said that, unless his conditions were met, the army would take Kozarac
Kozarac
by force. As of May 21, 1992, the Serb inhabitants of Kozarac
Kozarac
started to leave the town. Kozarac
Kozarac
was subsequently surrounded and the phone lines were disconnected. On the night of 22 and 23 May 1992, detonations could be heard in the direction of Prijedor
Prijedor
and fires could be seen in the area of Hambarine.[6] The attack started on 25 May 1992 and ended on 27 May at 13:00 hrs. A military convoy comprising two columns approached Kozarac, and its soldiers opened fire on the houses and checkpoints and, at the same time, shells were fired from the hills. The shooting was aimed at people fleeing from the area. The shelling was intense and unrelenting. Over 5,000 Serb soldiers and combatants participated in the attack. Serb forces included the 343rd Motorised Brigade (an enlarged motorized battalion) supported by two 105 mm howitzer batteries and one M-84 tank squadron. After the shelling, Serb forces shot people in their homes and that those who surrendered were taken to a soccer stadium of Kozarac
Kozarac
where some men were randomly shot. After the people had been killed or fled their homes, the soldiers set fire to the houses. There was extensive destruction of property in Kozarac
Kozarac
as a result of the attack. The houses had been not only destroyed, but leveled to the ground using heavy machinery. The medical centre in Kozarac
Kozarac
was damaged during the attack. The attack continued until May 26, 1992 when it was agreed that the people should leave the territory of Kozarac. A large number of people in Kozarac surrendered that day. The Serb authorities explained that all those who wished to surrender should form a convoy and that a ceasefire would be in effect during this period. It was later learned that when the convoy, which left that day, reached the Banja Luka- Prijedor
Prijedor
road the women and men were separated. The women were taken to Trnopolje and the men to Omarska and Keraterm concentration camps, which shocked the world when BBC
BBC
reporters discovered them. A large number of women and children arrived in Prijedor
Prijedor
on the day of the attack. The Prijedor
Prijedor
intervention platoon, led by Dado Mrđa, Zoran Babić and others intervened and began to mistreat the women and children. Some time later in that day, buses arrived, and they ordered women and children to board these buses for Trnopolje camp.[6] No wounded had been allowed out of Kozarac. For example, according to Dr. Merdžanić's testimony before ICTY
ICTY
he had not been given permission to arrange the evacuation of two injured children, one of whom had her legs completely shattered, and he had instead been told that all the "dirty Muslims" (in Serbian language: balija) should die there, as they would be killed in any event. In the attack at least 100 people were killed, and 1,500 deported to concentration camps. A report sent by colonel Dragan Marčetić to the Serb Army
Army
Main Staff dated May 27, 1992 states that the wider area of Kozarac
Kozarac
village, i.e. the area of the village of Kozaruša, Trnopolje, Donji Jakupovići, Gornji Jakupovići, Benkovac, Rakovic has been entirely freed of Bosniaks
Bosniaks
(80–100 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
were killed, about 1,500 captured and around 100–200 persons were at large on Mt. Kozara).[6] The Report of the Commission of Experts in Bosnia v. Serbia Genocide Case before the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
states that the attack on Kozarac
Kozarac
lasted three days and caused many villagers to flee to the forest while the soldiers were shooting at ‘every moving thing’. Survivors calculated that at least 2,000 villagers were killed in that period. The villagers’ defence fell on May 26. Serbs then reportedly announced that the villagers had 10 minutes to reach the town’s soccer stadium. However, many people were shot in their homes before given a chance to leave. One witness reported that several thousand people tried to surrender by carrying white flags, but three Serb tanks opened fire on them, killing many.[11] Camps[edit] During and after Kozarac
Kozarac
and Hambarine massacres, Serb authorities set up concentration camps and determined who should be responsible for the running of those camps.[6] Keraterm camp[edit] Main article: Keraterm camp Keraterm factory was set up as a camp on or around 23/24 May 1992. There were four rooms in the camp, Room
Room
2 being the largest and Room
Room
3 the smallest. By late June 1992, there were about 1,200 people in the camp. Every day people were brought in or taken away from the camp. The numbers increased considerably by late July. The detainees were mostly Bosnian Muslims and to a lesser extent Croats. The detainees slept on wooden pallets used for the transport of goods or on bare concrete in a big storage room. The conditions were cramped and people often had to sleep on top of each other. In June 1992, Room
Room
1 held 320 people and the number continued to grow. The detainees were given one meal a day, made up of two small slices of bread and some sort of stew. The rations were insufficient for the detainees.[6] Omarska camp[edit] Main article: Omarska camp The Omarska mines complex was located about 20 km from the town of Prijedor. The first detainees were taken to the camp sometime in late May 1992 (between 26 and 30 May). The camp buildings were almost completely full and some of the detainees had to be held on the area between the two main buildings. That area was lit up by specially installed spot-lights after the detainees arrived. Female detainees were held separately in the administrative building. According to the Serb authorities documents from Prijedor, there were a total of 3,334 persons held in the camp from 27 May to 16 August 1992. 3,197 of them were Bosniaks
Bosniaks
(i.e. Bosnian Muslims), 125 were Croats.[6] With the arrival of the first detainees, permanent guard posts were established around the camp, and anti-personnel landmines were set up around the camp. The conditions in the camp were horrible. In the building known as the " White
White
House", the rooms were crowded with 45 people in a room no larger than 20 square meters. The faces of the detainees were distorted and bloodstained and the walls were covered with blood. From the beginning, the detainees were beaten, with fists, rifle butts and wooden and metal sticks. The guards mostly hit the heart and kidneys, when they had decided to beat someone to death. In the "garage", between 150-160 people were "packed like sardines" and the heat was unbearable. For the first few days, the detainees were not allowed out and were given only a jerry can of water and some bread. Men would suffocate during the night and their bodies would be taken out the following morning. The room behind the restaurant was known as "Mujo’s Room". The dimensions of this room were about 12 by 15 metres and the average number of people detained there was 500, most of whom were Bosniaks. The women in the camp slept in the interrogations rooms, which they would have to clean each day as the rooms were covered in blood and pieces of skin and hair. In the camp one could hear the moaning and wailing of people who were being beaten up.[6] The detainees at Omarska had one meal a day. The food was usually spoiled and the process of getting the food, eating and returning the plate usually lasted around three minutes. Meals were often accompanied by beatings. The toilets were blocked and there was human waste everywhere. Ed Vulliamy, a British journalist, testified that when he visited the camp, the detainees were in a very poor physical condition. He witnessed them eating a bowl of soup and some bread and said that he had the impression they had not eaten in a long time. They appeared to be terrified. The detainees drank water from a river that was polluted with industrial waste and many suffered from constipation or dysentery. No criminal report was ever filed against persons detained in the Omarska camp, nor were the detainees apprised of any concrete charges against them. Apparently, there was no objective reason justifying these people’s detention.[6] The Omarska camp was closed immediately after a visit by foreign journalists in early August.On 6 or 7 August 1992, the detainees at Omarska were divided into groups and transported in buses to different destinations. About 1,500 people were transported on 20 buses.[6] Trnopolje camp[edit] Main article: Trnopolje camp The Trnoplje camp was set up in the village of Trnoplje on 24 May 1992. The camp was guarded on all sides by the Serb army. There were machine-gun nests and well-armed posts pointing their guns towards the camp. There were several thousand people detained in the camp, the vast majority of whom were Bosnian Muslim and some of them were Croats. According to approximation, on 7 August 1992 there were around 5,000 people detained there. Women
Women
and children were detained at the camp as well as men of military age. The camp population had a high turnover with many people staying for less than a week in the camp before joining one of the many convoys to another destination or concentration camps. The quantity of food available was insufficient and people often went hungry. Moreover, the water supply was insufficient and the toilet facilities inadequate. The majority of the detainees slept in the open air. The Serb soldiers used baseball bats, iron bars, rifle butts and their hands and feet or whatever they had at their disposal to beat the detainees. Individuals were who taken out for questioning would often return bruised or injured. Many women who were detained at the Trnopolje camp
Trnopolje camp
were taken out of the camp at night by Serb soldiers and raped or sexually assaulted.[6] Slobodan Kuruzović, the commander of the Trnopolje camp, estimated that between 6,000 and 7,000 people passed through the camp in 1992. Those who passed through the camp were not guilty of any crime. The International Red Cross
International Red Cross
arrived in the camp in mid-August 1992. A few days later the detainees were registered and received a registration booklet. The camp was officially closed down on September 30, although there is evidence to suggest that some 3,500 remained for a longer period, until they were transferred to Travnik
Travnik
in Central Bosnia.[6] Other detention facilities[edit] There were also other facilities in Prijedor
Prijedor
which were used to detain Bosniak and other non-Serb people. Such detention facilities included Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
barracks, Miška Glava Community Centre and police building in Prijedor
Prijedor
known as SUP building.[12] The JNA barracks in Prijedor
Prijedor
were known as the Žarko Zgonjanin barracks. They were used as a transition detention center. Some people who were fleeing the cleansing of Bišćani were trapped by Serb soldiers and taken to a command post at Miška Glava. The next morning they were called out, interrogated and beaten. This pattern continued for four or five days. Several men from the village of Rizvanovići were taken out by soldiers and have not been seen since. Around 100 men were arrested in the woods near Kalajevo by JNA soldiers and reserve police and taken to the Miška Glava cultural club. The detention cells were located behind the main SUP building (police building). There was also a courtyard where people were called out at night and beaten up. Prisoners detained in this building were also regularly threatened and insulted. Guards would curse them by calling them "balija", a derogative term for Muslim peasants of low origin.[6] Killings in the camps[edit] Numerous killings, both inside and outside the camps were committed during the Prijedor
Prijedor
ethnic cleansing. On the basis of the evidence presented at the Stakić trial, the Trial Chamber finds that over a hundred people were killed in late July 1992 in the Omarska camp. Around 200 people from Hambarine arrived in the Omarska camp
Omarska camp
sometime in July 1992. They were initially accommodated in the structure known as the White
White
House. Early in the morning, around 01:00 or 02:00 on 17 July 1992, gunshots were heard that continued until dawn. Dead bodies were seen in front of the White House. The camp guards, one of whom was recognised as Živko Marmat, were shooting rounds into the bodies. Everyone was given an extra bullet that was shot in their heads. The bodies were then loaded onto a truck and taken away. There were about 180 bodies in total.[6] On 24 July 1992, the massacre at the Keraterm camp, known as the Room 3 massacre was committed as one of the first larger massacres committed inside the camp. New Bosniak detainees from the earlier-cleansed Brdo area were incarcerated in Room
Room
3. For the first few days, the detainees were denied food as well as being subjected to beatings and abuse. On the day of the massacre, a large number of Serb soldiers arrived in the camp, wearing military uniforms and red berets. A machine-gun was placed in front of Room
Room
3. That night, bursts of shooting and moans could be heard coming from Room
Room
3. A machine gun started firing. The next morning there was blood on the walls in Room
Room
3. There were piles of bodies and wounded people. The guards opened the door and said: "Look at these foolish dirty Muslims – they have killed each other". The area outside Room
Room
3 was covered with blood. A truck arrived and one man from Room
Room
1 volunteered to assist with loading the bodies onto the truck. Soon after, the truck with all the bodies left the compound. The volunteer from Room
Room
1 reported that there were 128 dead bodies on the truck. As the truck left, blood could be seen dripping from it. Later that day, a fire engine arrived to clean Room
Room
3 and the surrounding area.[6] Memorials[edit] In 2010, a memorial was opened in Kozarac
Kozarac
in remembrance of the Bosniak civilian victims who died in the concentration camps run by Serbian authorities during the war.[13] However, according to The Economist, authorities in Prijedor
Prijedor
refuse to allow a memorial to the mostly Bosniak children killed in the city during the war.[14] See also[edit]

List of massacres in Bosnia and Herzegovina Role of the media in the Yugoslav wars Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars

References[edit]

^ Trahan (2006), p. 178 ^ Daria Sito-Sučić (6 August 2012). "Bosnia camp survivors protest for memorial at ArcelorMittal mine". Reuters. Retrieved 6 March 2013.  ^ "IDC:IDC: Victim statistics in Pounje region". Archived from the original on 2009-04-18.  ^ "Remains of Bosnia's war victims exhumed". Sky News. 6 October 2013.  ^ http://www.icty.org/x/cases/karadzic/tjug/en/160324_judgement_summary.pdf ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement" (PDF).  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2009-03-12.  ^ "ICJ: Bosnia v. Serbia Genocide Case verdict - Kozarac
Kozarac
and Hambarine (Paragraph 261)" (PDF).  ^ "ICTY: Duško Tadić judgement - Greater Serbia" (PDF).  ^ http://vijesti.ba//clanak/311676/puhalo-danas-je-dan-kada-smo-ponizavajuci-bosnjake-u-prijedoru-ponizili-sebe ^ "ICJ: Bosnia v. Serbia Genocide Case verdict - Kozarac
Kozarac
and Hambarine (Paragraph 257)" (PDF).  ^ "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement".  ^ "Memorial a Memory in Open Sight". Balkan Investigative Reporting Network. 2 August 2010. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012.  ^ "Bosnia 20 years on". The Economist. 5 December 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2015. 

Books[edit]

Trahan, Jennifer (2006). Genocide, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 

External links[edit]

IWPR - Prijedor
Prijedor
Genocide Trial

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1992

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column incident Siege of Goražde Graz agreement Glogova massacre Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Tuzla column incident Zaklopača massacre Vilina Vlas Siege of Doboj Bijeli Potok massacre Pionirska Street fire Operation Jackal Višegrad massacres

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Čemerno massacre Siege of Bihać Ahatovići massacre Croat–Bosniak War Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Corridor 92  Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Korićani Cliffs massacre

1993

Kravica attack Duša killings Skelani massacre Štrpci Siege of Mostar Srebrenica shelling Ahmići massacre Trusina killings Sovići and Doljani massacres Vranica case Dobrinja mortar attack Battle of Žepče

Operation Irma Operation Neretva '93 Grabovica massacre Mokronoge massacre Stupni Do massacre Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Operation Deny Flight Križančevo Selo killings

1994

Operation Tvigi 94 First Markale massacre Banja Luka
Banja Luka
incident Washington Agreement  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Bøllebank Attack on Spin magazine journalists Operation Tiger Battle of Kupres Operation Amanda Operation Spider Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Battle of Orašje Operation Leap 2 Split Agreement Operation Summer '95 Pale air strikes Tuzla shelling Battle of Vrbanja Bridge Srebrenica massacre

Kravica

Battle for Vozuća Operation Miracle Operation Storm Second Markale massacre NATO bombing campaign Operation Mistral 2 Operation Sana Operation Una Operation Southern Move Exodus of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Serbs Dayton Agreement  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internment camps

Silos Manjača Liplje Luka Omarska Keraterm Trnopolje Sušica Čelebići Batković Dretelj Uzamnica Heliodrom Gabela Vojno

Aspects

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
and massacres

Bosnian genocide

Internment camps Rape Peace plans NATO intervention Foreign support Foreign fighters

Timeline of the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(Timeline of the Croat–Bosniak War)

Categ