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In Greek mythology, Priam
Priam
(/ˈpraɪ.əm/; Greek: Πρίαμος, Príamos, pronounced [prí.amos]) was the king of Troy
Troy
during the Trojan War
Trojan War
and youngest son of Laomedon. In the Post-Homeric History of the Fall of Troy, he was described as provided with "a handsome face and a pleasant voice", "large and swarthy".[1] According to Jenny March, his original name was Podarkes, before it was changed to Priam on his ascendancy to the Trojan throne.[2]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Life 3 Priam, the Slave 4 Marriage and issue 5 Family tree 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

Etymology[edit] Although there is no firm evidence that Troy
Troy
was ever a Luwian settlement, or Luwian
Luwian
was the dominant local language, some scholars derive Priam's name from the Luwian
Luwian
name Pariya-muwas, which meant “exceptionally courageous”[3][4] and was attested as the name of a man from Zazlippa, in Kizzuwatna. A similar form is attested transcribed in Greek as Paramoas near Kaisareia in Cappadocia.[5] Jenny March suggests the name comes from the Greek verb priamai, meaning to buy. This relates to the choice given to one of Laomedon's surviving daughters, Hesione, to allow one of the captive Trojans to be set free. Hesione
Hesione
chooses her brother Podarkes, thereby 'buying' his freedom, and Podarkes is consequently renamed Priam.[6] Life[edit] Priam
Priam
was originally called Podarces – the established epithet of Achilles
Achilles
in the Iliad – and he kept himself from being killed by Heracles
Heracles
by giving him a golden veil embroidered by his sister, Hesione. After this, Podarces changed his name to Priam. This is a folk etymology based on πριατός priatós, "ransomed" from πρίασθαι príasthai, "to buy". In Iliad, Book 3, Priam
Priam
tells Helen of Troy
Troy
that he once helped King Mygdon of Phrygia to defend against the Amazons. When Hector
Hector
is killed by Achilles, the Greek warrior treats the body with disrespect and refuses to give it back. According to Homer in book XXIV of the Iliad, Zeus
Zeus
sends the god Hermes
Hermes
to escort King Priam, Hector's father and the ruler of Troy, into the Greek camp. Priam
Priam
tearfully pleads with Achilles
Achilles
to take pity on a father bereft of his son and return Hector's body. He invokes the memory of Achilles' own father, Peleus. Priam
Priam
begs Achilles
Achilles
to pity him, saying "I have endured what no one on earth has ever done before – I put my lips to the hands of the man who killed my son."[7] Deeply moved, Achilles
Achilles
relents and returns Hector's corpse to the Trojans. Both sides agree to a temporary truce, and Achilles
Achilles
gives Priam
Priam
leave to hold a proper funeral for Hector, complete with funeral games. He promises that no Greek will engage in combat for nine days, but on the twelfth day of peace, the mighty war between the Greeks and the Trojans would resume. Priam
Priam
is killed during the Sack of Troy
Troy
by Achilles' son Neoptolemus (also known as Pyrrhus). His death is graphically related in Book II of Virgil's Aeneid. In Virgil's description, Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
first kills Priam's son Polites in front of his father as he seeks sanctuary on the altar of Zeus. Priam
Priam
rebukes Neoptolemus, throwing a spear at him, harmlessly hitting his shield. Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
then drags Priam
Priam
to the altar and there kills him too. It has been suggested by Hittite sources, specifically the Manapa-Tarhunta letter, that there is historical basis for the archetype of King Priam. The letter describes one Piyama-Radu as a troublesome rebel who overthrew a Hittite client king and thereafter established his own rule over the city of Troy
Troy
(mentioned as Wilusa in Hittite). There is also mention of an Alaksandu, suggested to be Paris Alexander (King Priam's son from the Iliad), a later ruler of the city of Wilusa who established peace between Wilusa and Hatti (see the Alaksandu treaty). Priam, the Slave[edit] In Apollodorus' Library, Telamon
Telamon
was almost killed during the siege of Troy. Telamon
Telamon
was the first one to break through the Trojan wall, which enraged Heracles
Heracles
as he was coveting that glory for himself. Heracles
Heracles
was about to cut him down with his sword when Telamon
Telamon
began to quickly assemble an altar out of nearby stones in honor of Heracles. Heracles
Heracles
was so pleased, after the sack of Troy
Troy
he gave Telamon
Telamon
Hesione
Hesione
as a wife. Hesione
Hesione
requested that she be able to bring her brother Podarces with her. Heracles
Heracles
would not allow it unless Hesione
Hesione
bought Podarces as a slave. Hesione
Hesione
paid for her brother with a veil. Podarces name was then changed to Priam
Priam
– which, according to Greek author Apollodorus, is a pun on the Greek phrase "to buy". Marriage and issue[edit]

See List of children of Priam

Priam
Priam
had many wives; his first was Arisbe, who had given birth to his son Aesacus, who met his death before the Trojan War. Priam
Priam
later divorced her in favor of Hecuba
Hecuba
(or Hecebe), daughter of the Phrygian king Dymas. By his various wives and concubines Priam
Priam
was the father of fifty sons and many daughters. Hector
Hector
was Priam's eldest son by Hecuba, and heir to the Trojan throne. Paris (also known as Alexander), another son, was the cause of the Trojan War. Other children of Priam
Priam
and Hecuba
Hecuba
include the prophetic Helenus and Cassandra; eldest daughter Ilione; Deiphobus; Troilus; Polites; Creusa, wife of Aeneas; Laodice, wife of Helicaon; Polyxena, who was slaughtered on the grave of Achilles; and Polydorus, his youngest son. Family tree[edit]

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Trojan race

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oceanus

 

Tethys

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atlas

 

Pleione

 

Scamander

 

Idaea

 

Simoeis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zeus/Jupiter

 

Electra

 

 

Teucer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dardanus

 

 

 

 

Batea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Idaea

 

Ilus

 

Erichthonius

 

Astyoche

 

 

Hieromneme

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Callirrhoe

 

 

 

 

 

Tros

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ilus

 

 

 

Assaracus

 

 

 

 

Ganymede

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laomedon

 

Themiste

 

Capys

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Priam

 

 

 

Anchises

 

Aphrodite/Venus

 

Latinus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creusa

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aeneas

 

 

 

Lavinia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ascanius

 

 

 

 

 

Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

Aeneas
Aeneas
Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brutus of Britain

 

 

 

 

 

Latinus
Latinus
Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alba

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atys

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capys

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capetus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tiberinus Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agrippa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romulus
Romulus
Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aventinus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Procas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Numitor

 

Amulius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rhea Silvia

 

Ares/Mars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hersilia

 

Romulus

 

Remus

 

See also[edit]

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal

Doryclus

Notes[edit]

^ Pseudo-Dares of Phrygia, History of the Fall of Troy
Troy
(12.A), a short prose work which purports to be a first hand account of the Trojan War by Dares, a Trojan priest of Hephaestus in the Iliad. ^ Jenny March, The Penguin Book of Classical Myths (London: Penguin Books, 2008), p.300 ^ Frank Starke, “Troia im Kontext des historisch-politischen und sprachlichen Umfeldes Kleinasiens im 2. Jahrtausend”, Studia Troica 7 (1997), 458, n. 114, referring to the author's previous work, Untersuchungen zur Stammbildung des keilschrift-luwischen Nomens (1990), 455, n. 1645: “Priya-muwa- ‘der hervorragenden, vortrefflichen Mut hat’”. ^ Haas, Die hethitische Literatur: Texte, Stilistik, Motive (2006), 5. ^ Calvert Watkins, “The Language of the Trojans”, Troy
Troy
and the Trojan War: A Symposium Held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984, ed. Machteld Johanna Mellink (Bryn Mawr, Penn: Bryn Mawr Commentaries, 1986), 57, citing L. Zgusta, Kleinasiatische Personennamen (Prague 1964), 417:1203-1 and Anatolische Personennamensippen I (Prague 1964), 157. ^ Jenny March, The Penguin Book of Classical Myths (London: Penguin Books, 2008), p.300 ^ The Iliad, Fagles translation. Penguin Books, 1991, p. 605.

References[edit]

Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Priamus"

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Characters in the Iliad

Achaeans

Acamas Achilles Agamemnon Agapenor Ajax the Greater Ajax the Lesser Alcimus Anticlus Antilochus Arcesilaus Ascalaphus Automedon Balius and Xanthus Bias Calchas Diomedes Elephenor Epeius Eudoros Euryalus Eurybates Eurydamas Eurypylus Guneus Helen Ialmenus Idomeneus Leitus Leonteus Lycomedes Machaon Medon Meges Menelaus Menestheus Meriones Neoptolemus Nestor Nireus Odysseus Palamedes Patroclus Peneleos Philoctetes Phoenix Podalirius Podarces Polites Polypoetes Promachus Protesilaus Prothoenor Schedius Stentor Sthenelus Talthybius Teucer Thersites Thoas Thrasymedes Tlepolemus

Trojans

Aeneas Aesepus Agenor Alcathous Amphimachus Anchises Andromache Antenor Antiphates Antiphus Archelochus Asius Asteropaios Astyanax Atymnius Axylus Briseis Calesius Caletor Cassandra Chryseis Chryses Clytius Coön Dares Phrygius Deiphobus Dolon Epistrophus Euphemus Euphorbus Glaucus Gorgythion Hector Hecuba Helenus Hyperenor Hypsenor Ilioneus Imbrius Iphidamas Kebriones Laocoön Lycaon Melanippus Mentes Mydon Mygdon of Phrygia Othryoneus Pandarus Panthous Paris Pedasus Peirous Phorcys Polites Polydamas Polybus Polydorus Priam Pylaemenes Pylaeus Pyraechmes Rhesus of Thrace Sarpedon Theano Ucalegon

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 170032012 GN

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