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Pretoria
Pretoria
is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government ( Cape Town
Cape Town
is the legislative capital and Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
the judicial capital). Pretoria
Pretoria
has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) located in its eastern suburbs, the city also hosts the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria
Pretoria
is the central part of the Tshwane
Tshwane
Metropolitan Municipality which was formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria
Pretoria
itself to Tshwane, and the proposed name change has caused some controversy. Pretoria
Pretoria
is named after the Voortrekker
Voortrekker
leader Andries Pretorius,[4] and within South Africa
South Africa
is popularly known as the " Jacaranda
Jacaranda
City" due to the thousands of jacaranda trees planted in its streets, parks and gardens.[5] Being an invasive species, jacaranda trees are no longer allowed to be planted in Pretoria.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Boer Wars 1.2 Union of South Africa

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Ethnic groups

4 Cityscape

4.1 Architecture 4.2 Central business district 4.3 Parks and gardens

5 Suburbs 6 Transport

6.1 Railway 6.2 Buses 6.3 Road 6.4 Airports

7 Society and culture

7.1 Media

7.1.1 Radio 7.1.2 Television 7.1.3 Paper

7.2 Pretoria
Pretoria
Creole 7.3 Museums 7.4 Music 7.5 Performing arts and galleries 7.6 Sport 7.7 Religious buildings

7.7.1 Churches 7.7.2 Hindu temples 7.7.3 Mosques 7.7.4 Synagogues and Jewish congregations

8 Commerce and industry 9 Coat of arms 10 Academia

10.1 Secondary education 10.2 International schools 10.3 Tertiary education

10.3.1 University of South Africa 10.3.2 University of Pretoria 10.3.3 Tshwane
Tshwane
University of Technology

10.4 CSIR

11 Military

11.1 Military headquarters

11.1.1 Transito Air Force Headquarters 11.1.2 The Dequar Road Complex 11.1.3 The Sebokeng Complex

11.2 Military bases

11.2.1 The Dequar Road Base 11.2.2 Thaba Tshwane 11.2.3 Joint Support Base Wonderboom 11.2.4 Military colleges

11.3 Air force bases

12 Change of name 13 Twin towns and sister cities 14 Shopping malls 15 Notable people 16 Places of interest

16.1 Nature reserves

17 See also 18 References 19 Bibliography 20 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Pretoria

Statue of Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (27 November 1798 – 23 July 1853), Pretoria's eponym

The Union Buildings, seat of South Africa's government

The Palace of Justice

Old Counsel Chambers or the "Raadsaal" of the ZAR

Pretoria
Pretoria
was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius
Andries Pretorius
and chose a spot on the banks of the "Apies rivier" ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "Monkeys river") to be the new capital of the South African Republic (ZAR). The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
after his victory over Dingane
Dingane
and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. The elder Pretorius also negotiated the Sand River Convention (1852), in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. It became the capital of the South African Republic (ZAR) on 1 May 1860. The founding of Pretoria
Pretoria
as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek. Boer Wars[edit] Main article: Boer Wars During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881. The peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria
Pretoria
on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria
Pretoria
Convention. The Second Boer War
Second Boer War
resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic
Transvaal Republic
and start of British hegemony in South Africa. The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria
Pretoria
with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging
Peace of Vereeniging
on 31 May 1902. The Pretoria Forts
Pretoria Forts
were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War. Though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments. Union of South Africa[edit] Main article: Union of South Africa The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony
Orange River Colony
were united with the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and Natal Colony
Natal Colony
in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria
Pretoria
then became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town
Cape Town
the legislative capital and Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
served as the judicial capital. Between 1910 and 1994, the city was also the capital of the province of Transvaal. (As the capital of the ZAR, Pretoria
Pretoria
had superseded Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
in that role.) On 14 October 1931, Pretoria
Pretoria
achieved official city status.[6] When South Africa
South Africa
became a republic in 1961, Pretoria
Pretoria
remained its administrative capital. Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Pretoria.

Pretoria
Pretoria
is situated approximately 55 km (34 mi) north-northeast of Johannesburg
Johannesburg
in the northeast of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld
Highveld
to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld
Bushveld
to the north. It lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m (4,393 ft) above sea level,[7] in a warm, sheltered, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg
Magaliesberg
range.

The City is surrounded by the Magaliesberg
Magaliesberg
Mountain range.

Climate[edit] Pretoria
Pretoria
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold, dry winters. The city experiences the typical winters of South Africa
South Africa
with cold, clear nights and mild to moderately warm days. Although the average lows during winter are mild, it can get cold due to the clear skies, with nighttime low temperatures in recent years in the range of 2 to −5 °C (36 to 23 °F). The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C (65.7 °F).[8] This is rather high, considering the city's relatively high altitude of about 1,339 metres (4,393 feet), and is due mainly to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year. Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an extremely rare event; snowflakes were spotted in 1959, 1968 and 2012 in the city, but the city has never experienced an accumulation in its history. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria
Pretoria
experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C (102 °F), unusual for that time of the year. Similar record-breaking extreme heat events also occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria
Pretoria
experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C (99 °F) on several days. The year 2014 was one of the wettest on record for the city. A total of 914 mm (36 in) fell up to the end of December, with 220 mm (9 in) recorded in this month alone. In 2015 Pretoria
Pretoria
saw its worst drought since 1982; the month of November 2015 saw new records broken for high temperatures, with 43 °C (109 °F) recorded on 11 November after three weeks of temperatures between 35 °C (95 °F) and 43 °C (109 °F). January 2016 saw Pretoria
Pretoria
reach a new record high of 44 °C (111 °F) on 7 January 2016.[citation needed]

Climate data for Pretoria
Pretoria
(1961–1990. extremes 1951–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 36.2 (97.2) 36.3 (97.3) 35.0 (95) 32.5 (90.5) 29.4 (84.9) 26.0 (78.8) 26.0 (78.8) 30.0 (86) 34.0 (93.2) 36.0 (96.8) 35.7 (96.3) 36.0 (96.8) 36.3 (97.3)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 33.2 (91.8) 32.1 (89.8) 31.2 (88.2) 28.7 (83.7) 25.9 (78.6) 23.2 (73.8) 23.5 (74.3) 27.1 (80.8) 31.1 (88) 32.2 (90) 32.6 (90.7) 32.7 (90.9) 34.3 (93.7)

Average high °C (°F) 28.5 (83.3) 28.0 (82.4) 26.9 (80.4) 24.1 (75.4) 21.8 (71.2) 18.9 (66) 19.5 (67.1) 22.1 (71.8) 25.5 (77.9) 26.6 (79.9) 27.0 (80.6) 28.0 (82.4) 24.7 (76.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 22.6 (72.7) 22.1 (71.8) 21.0 (69.8) 17.9 (64.2) 14.7 (58.5) 11.5 (52.7) 11.9 (53.4) 14.7 (58.5) 18.6 (65.5) 20.1 (68.2) 21.0 (69.8) 21.9 (71.4) 18.2 (64.8)

Average low °C (°F) 17.8 (64) 17.3 (63.1) 16.1 (61) 12.6 (54.7) 8.2 (46.8) 4.8 (40.6) 4.8 (40.6) 7.6 (45.7) 11.9 (53.4) 14.4 (57.9) 15.8 (60.4) 16.8 (62.2) 12.3 (54.1)

Mean minimum °C (°F) 14.1 (57.4) 13.7 (56.7) 11.8 (53.2) 7.6 (45.7) 3.7 (38.7) 0.7 (33.3) 0.9 (33.6) 2.7 (36.9) 5.8 (42.4) 8.9 (48) 10.9 (51.6) 12.9 (55.2) 0.1 (32.2)

Record low °C (°F) 7.5 (45.5) 10.4 (50.7) 5.5 (41.9) 3.3 (37.9) −1.5 (29.3) −4.5 (23.9) −4.5 (23.9) −4.0 (24.8) −0.5 (31.1) 3.0 (37.4) 6.6 (43.9) 6.5 (43.7) −4.5 (23.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 135 (5.31) 76 (2.99) 79 (3.11) 54 (2.13) 13 (0.51) 7 (0.28) 3 (0.12) 5 (0.2) 20 (0.79) 73 (2.87) 100 (3.94) 108 (4.25) 673 (26.5)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.9 7.8 7.6 5.2 1.8 0.6 0.7 1.4 2.0 6.0 9.5 10.8 64.3

Average relative humidity (%) 62 63 63 63 56 54 50 45 44 52 59 61 56

Mean monthly sunshine hours 260.8 235.3 253.9 245.8 282.6 270.8 289.1 295.5 284.3 275.2 253.6 271.9 3,218.8

Source #1: NOAA,[9] Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(extremes)[10]

Source #2: South African Weather Service[11]

Demographics[edit]

Population density in and around Pretoria

  <1 /km²   1–3 /km²   3–10 /km²   10–30 /km²   30–100 /km²

  100–300 /km²   300–1000 /km²   1000–3000 /km²   >3000 /km²

Geographical distribution of home languages in Pretoria

  Afrikaans   English   Ndebele   Zulu

  Northern Sotho   Tswana   Tsonga   None dominant

Depending on the extent of the area understood to constitute "Pretoria", the population ranges from 700,000[12] to 2.95 million.[13] The main languages spoken in Pretoria
Pretoria
are Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, Xitsonga, isiZulu, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and English. The city of Pretoria
Pretoria
has the largest white population in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since its founding it has been a major Afrikaner
Afrikaner
population centre, and currently there are roughly 1 million Afrikaners living in or around the city. Ethnic groups[edit] Even since the end of Apartheid, Pretoria
Pretoria
itself has a white majority, albeit an ever-increasing black middle-class. However, in the townships of Soshanguve
Soshanguve
and Atteridgeville
Atteridgeville
black people make up close to all of the population. The largest white ethnic group are the Afrikaners and the largest black ethnic group are the Northern Sothos. The lower estimate for the population of Pretoria
Pretoria
includes largely former white-designated areas and there is therefore a white majority. However, including the geographically separate townships increases Pretoria's population beyond a million and makes whites a minority. Pretoria's Indians were ordered to move from Pretoria
Pretoria
to Laudium
Laudium
on 6 June 1958.[14]

Ethnic group 2001 population 2001% 2011 population 2011%

White 355,631 67.7% 389,022 52.5%

Black African 128,791 24.5% 311,149 42.0%

Coloured 32,727 6.2% 18,514 2.5%

Indian or Asian 8,238 1.6% 14,298 1.9%

Other - - 8,667 1.2%

Total 525,387 100% 741,651 100%

Cityscape[edit] Pretoria
Pretoria
is known as the "Jakaranda City" due to the approximately 50 000 Jacarandas that line its streets. Purple is a colour often associated with the city and is often included on local council logos and services such as the A Re Yeng rapid bus system and the logo of the local Jacaranda
Jacaranda
FM radio station. Architecture[edit] See also: Pretoria
Pretoria
Forts

Media related to Buildings in Pretoria
Pretoria
at Wikimedia Commons

Pretoria
Pretoria
has over the years had very diverse cultural influences and this is reflected in the architectural styles that can be found in the city. It ranges from 19th century Dutch, German and British Colonial Architecture to modern, postmodern, neomodern, and art deco architecture styles with a good mix of a uniquely South African style. Some of the notable structures in Pretoria
Pretoria
include the late 19th century Palace of Justice, the early 20th century Union Buildings, the post-war Voortrekker
Voortrekker
Monument, the diverse buildings dotting the main campuses of both the University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria
and the University of South Africa, traditional Cape Dutch style Mahlamba Ndlopfu
Mahlamba Ndlopfu
(the President's House), the more modern Reserve Bank of South Africa (Office skyscraper) and the Telkom Lukas Rand Transmission Tower. Other well-known structures and buildings include the Loftus Versfeld Stadium, The South African State Theatre and the Oliver Tambo building which is the Headquarters of the Department of International Relations and Cooperation (which is a good example of neomodern architecture in South Africa).The Lukasrand Tower
Lukasrand Tower
is located on Muckleneuk Hill in the Lukasrand
Lukasrand
suburb on the outskitrts of the central city and is a prominent landmark in the skyline.

The Eastern Wing of the Union Buildings

Fort Klapperkop

Neomodern
Neomodern
architecture in Pretoria

The Palace of Justice

Central business district[edit]

The Central Business District

Despite the many corporate offices, small businesses, shops and government departments that are situated in Pretoria's sprawling suburbs, its Central Business District still retains its status as the traditional centre of government and commerce. Many banks, businesses, large corporations, shops, shopping centres and other businesses are situated in the city centre which is towered by several large skyscrapers, the tallest of which is the Poyntons Building (110 m (360 ft) tall), the ABSA Building (132 m (433 ft) tall) and the Reserve Bank of South Africa
South Africa
building (150 m (490 ft) tall).[15] The area contains a large amount of historical buildings, monuments and museums that include the Pretoria
Pretoria
City Hall, Pretorius Square, Church Square (Along with its many historical buildings and statues) and the Ou Raadsaal. There is also the Transvaal Museum
Transvaal Museum
(the country's leading natural history museum, which although it has changed venues a number of times, has been around since 1892), the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
South Africa
(or more colloquially known as the Pretoria Zoo), Melrose House
Melrose House
Museum in Jacob Maré Street, the Pretoria
Pretoria
Art Museum and the African Window
African Window
Cultural History Museum. Several National Departments also have Head Offices in the Central Business district such as the Department of Health, Basic Education, Transport, Higher Education and Training, Sport and Recreation, Justice and Constitutional Development, Public Service and Administration, Water and Environmental Affairs and the National Treasury. The district also has a high number of residential buildings which house people who primarily work in the district. Parks and gardens[edit] Pretoria
Pretoria
is home to the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
South Africa
as well as the Pretoria
Pretoria
National Botanical Garden.[16] There are also a number of smaller parks and gardens located throughout the city, including the Austin Roberts Bird Sanctuary, Pretorius Square gardens, the Pretoria
Pretoria
Rosarium, Church Square, Pretoria
Church Square, Pretoria
Showgrounds, Springbok Park, Freedom Park, and Burgers Park, the oldest park in the city and now a national monument. In the suburbs there are also several parks that are notable: Rietondale Park, "Die Proefplaas" in the Queenswood suburb, Nelson Mandel Park and Mandela Park Peace Garden and Belgrave Square Park. Suburbs[edit] Main article: List of Pretoria
Pretoria
suburbs Transport[edit]

Street signs in Pretoria

Gautrain

The Blue Train

Railway[edit] Commuter rail
Commuter rail
services around Pretoria
Pretoria
are operated by Metrorail. The routes, originating from the city centre, extend south to Germiston and Johannesburg, west to Atteridgeville, northwest to Ga-Rankuwa, north to Soshanguve
Soshanguve
and east to Mamelodi. The Gautrain
Gautrain
high-speed railway line runs from the eastern suburb of Hatfield to Pretoria
Pretoria
Station and then southwards to Centurion, Midrand, Marlboro, Sandton, OR Tambo International Airport, Rosebank and Johannesburg. Pretoria
Pretoria
Station is a departure point for the Blue Train luxury train. Rovos Rail,[17] a luxury mainline train safari service operates from the colonial-style railway station at Capital Park.[18] The South African Friends of the Rail have recently moved their vintage train trip operations from the Capital Park station to the Hercules station.[19] Buses[edit] Various bus companies exist in Pretoria, of which Putco is one of the oldest and most recognised. Tshwane(Pretoria) municipality provides for the rest of the bus transport and to view the time table please visit them at Tshwane
Tshwane
Bus Booklet.[20] Road[edit] The N1 is the major freeway that runs through Pretoria. It enters the city from the south as the Ben Schoeman Highway. At the Brakfontein Interchange with the N14 it continues as The N1 Eastern Bypass bisects the large expanse of the eastern suburbs, routing traffic from Johannesburg
Johannesburg
to Polokwane
Polokwane
and the north of the country. The R101 is the original N1, and served the same function before the construction of the highway. It runs through the centre of town rather than the eastern suburbs. The N4 enters the town as a highway from Witbank
Witbank
in the east, merging with the N1 at the Proefplaas Interchange. It begins again north of the city, branching west from the N1 as the Platinum Highway, forming the Northern Bypass, and heading to Rustenburg. The N4 runs east–west through South Africa, connecting Maputo
Maputo
to Gaborone. Before the Platinum Highway was built, the N4 continued passed the Proefplaas Interchange to the city centre, where it became a regular road, before again becoming a highway west of the city. These roads are now designated the M2 and M4. There is a third, original east–west road: the R104, previously named Church Street. Church Street has been renamed Helen Joseph from Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
Church Square, WF Nkomo from Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
to R511, Stanza Bopape from Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
to the East and Elias Motswaledi from R511 to the West. The N14 starts in the centre of town from the M4 (former N4). It is a normal road heading south through the centre before becoming the Ben Schoeman highway. At the Brakfontein interchange, the Ben Schoeman highway becomes the N1, but the N14 continues as the intersecting west-south-western highway towards Krugersdorp. The R114 parallels the N14 in its westward journey running just to the north of the highway. The R21 provides a second north–south highway, further east. It starts from the Fountains Interchange south of the city centre, but is still a road until Monument Park, when it becomes a true highway. It crosses the N1 east of the Brakfontein Interchange at the Flying Saucer Interchange and runs north–south towards Ekurhuleni (specifically Kempton Park and Boksburg). Importantly it links Pretoria
Pretoria
with the OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park. A proposed third north–south highway, in the west of the city, the R80 is partially built. At present the highway begins in Soshanguve. It terminates just north of the city centre at an intersection with the M1. Plans have been in place for some time to extend this all the way past the M4 and N14 highways to the N1 in Randburg. Pretoria
Pretoria
is also served by many regional roads. The R55 starts at an interchange with the R80, and runs north–south west of the city to Sandton. The R50 starts from the N1 just after the Flying Saucer Interchange in the south-east of the city, and continues south-east towards Delmas. The R511 runs north–south from Randburg
Randburg
towards Brits and barely by-passes Pretoria
Pretoria
to the west. The R514 starts from the M1, north of the city centre, and terminates at the R511. The R513 crosses Pretoria's northern suburbs from east to west. It links Pretoria
Pretoria
to Cullinan and Bronkhorstspruit
Bronkhorstspruit
in the east and Hartbeespoort
Hartbeespoort
in the west. The R566 takes origin in Pretoria's northern suburbs, and exits the town to the west just north of the R513. It connects Pretoria
Pretoria
to Brits. Finally the R573 starts from the R513, just east of the town and heads north-east to Siyabuswa. Pretoria
Pretoria
is also served internally by metropolitan routes. Airports[edit] For scheduled air services, Pretoria
Pretoria
is served by Johannesburg's airports: OR Tambo International, 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of central Pretoria; and Lanseria, 35 kilometres (22 mi) south-west of the city. Wonderboom Airport
Wonderboom Airport
in the suburb of Wonderboom in the north of Pretoria
Pretoria
primarily services light commercial and private aircraft. However, as from August 2015, scheduled flights from Wonderboom Airport
Wonderboom Airport
to Cape Town
Cape Town
International Airport were made available by SA Airlink. There are two military air bases to the south of the city, Swartkop and Waterkloof. Society and culture[edit] Media[edit] Since Pretoria
Pretoria
forms part the Tshwane
Tshwane
Metropolitan Municipality, most radio, television and paper media is the same as the rest of the metro area. Radio[edit] Main article: Media in Pretoria There are many radio stations in the greater Pretoria
Pretoria
region, some of note are: Impact Radio, is a Christian Community Radio Station based in Pretoria, and broadcasting on 103FM in the Greater Tshwane
Tshwane
Area. Jacaranda
Jacaranda
FM, previously known as Jacaranda
Jacaranda
94.2, is a commercial South African radio station, broadcasting in English and Afrikaans, with a footprint that covers Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and the North West Province and boasts a listening audience of 2 million people a week, and a digital community of more than 1,1 million people a month. The station's format is mainstream adult contemporary with programming constructed around a playlist of hit music from the 80's, 90's and now. Tuks FM
Tuks FM
is the radio station of the University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria
and one of South Africa's community broadcasters. It was one of the first community broadcasters in South Africa
South Africa
to be given an FM licence. It is known for contemporary music and is operated by UP's student base. Radio Pretoria
Radio Pretoria
is a community-based radio station in Pretoria, South Africa, whose programmes are aimed at Afrikaners. It broadcasts 24 hours a day in stereo on 104.2 FM in the greater Pretoria
Pretoria
area. Various other transmitters (with their own frequencies) in South Africa broadcast the station's content further afield, while the station is also available on Sentech's digital satellite platform. Radio Kuber Kontrei is a community-based Internet (streaming) radio station in Pretoria, South Africa, whose programmes are aimed at Afrikaans-speaking Christians worldwide. Television[edit] Pretoria
Pretoria
is serviced by eTV, SABC
SABC
and MNET. Paper[edit] The city is serviced by a variety of printed publications namely; Pretoria News
Pretoria News
is a daily newspaper established in Pretoria
Pretoria
in 1898. It publishes a daily edition from Monday to Friday and a Weekend edition on Saturday and Sunday. It is an independent newspaper in the English language that serves the city and its direct environs. It is available online via the Independent online website. Beeld
Beeld
is an Afrikaans-language daily newspaper that was launched on 16 September 1974. Beeld
Beeld
is distributed in four provinces of South Africa: Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West. Die Beeld
Beeld
(English: The Image) was an Afrikaans-language Sunday newspaper in the late 1960s. Wrapped is an alternative lifestyle magazine from Africa that caters for the entire LGBT community and is not gender-dominated. Pretoria
Pretoria
Creole[edit] Main article: Pretoria
Pretoria
Sotho Pretoria Sotho (called Sepitori by its speakers)[21] is the urban lingua franca of Pretoria
Pretoria
and the Tshwane
Tshwane
metropolitan area in South Africa. It is a combination of Tswana and Northern Sotho (Pedi), with influences from Tsotsitaal and other black South African languages. It is a creole language that developed in the city during the years of Apartheid. Museums[edit]

The Voortrekker
Voortrekker
Monument

The Transvaal Museum

Ditsong National Museum of Cultural History
Ditsong National Museum of Cultural History
a.k.a. African Window Freedom Park Hapo Museum Kruger House (Residence of the president of the ZAR, Paul Kruger) Mapungubwe Museum Melrose House
Melrose House
(The Treaty of Vereeniging
Treaty of Vereeniging
which ended the Anglo-Boer War was signed here in 1902) National Library of South Africa[22] Pioneer Museum Pretoria
Pretoria
Art Museum Pretoria
Pretoria
Forts South African Air Force
South African Air Force
Museum Transvaal Museum Van Tilburg Collection Van Wouw Museum Voortrekker
Voortrekker
Monument Willem Prinsloo Agricultural Museum Sammy Marks
Sammy Marks
House[23] Smuts House Museum

Freedom Park's amphitheatre

African Window

Paul Kruger's House

Melrose House

Music[edit] A number of popular South African bands and musicians are originally from Pretoria. These include Desmond and the Tutus, Bittereinder, The Black Cat Bones, Seether, popular mostwako rapper JR, Joshua na die Reën and DJ Mujava who was raised in the town of Attridgeville. The song "Marching to Pretoria" refers to this city. Pretoria
Pretoria
was the capital of the South African Republic
South African Republic
(a.k.a. Republic of the Transvaal; 1852-1881 and 1884-1902) the principal battleground for the First and Second Boer War, the latter which brought both the Transvaal and the Orange Free State republic under British rule. "Marching to Pretoria" was one of the songs that British soldiers sang as they marched from the Cape Colony, under British Rule since 1814, to the capital of the Southern African Republic (or in Dutch, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek). As the song's refrain puts it: "We are marching to Pretoria, Pretoria, Pretoria/We are marching to Pretoria, Pretoria, Hurrah."[24] The opening line of John Lennon's Beatles' song I Am the Walrus, "I am he as you are he as you are me and we are all together," is often believed to be based on the lyric "I'm with you and you're with me and so we are all together"[25] in "Marching to Pretoria." Lennon denied this, insisting his lyrics came from "nothing."[26] Performing arts and galleries[edit] Pretoria
Pretoria
is home to an extensive portfolio of public art. A diverse and evolving city, Pretoria
Pretoria
boasts a vibrant art scene and a variety of works that range from sculptures to murals to pieces by internationally and locally renowned artists. The Pretoria
Pretoria
Art Museum is home to a vast collection of local artworks. After a bequest of 17th century Dutch artworks by Lady Michaelis in 1932 the art collection of Pretoria
Pretoria
City Council expanded quickly to include South African works by Henk Pierneef, Pieter Wenning, Frans Oerder, Anton van Wouw and Irma Stern.[27] And according to the museum: "As South African museums in Cape Town
Cape Town
and Johannesburg
Johannesburg
already had good collections of 17th, 18th and 19th century European art, it was decided to focus on compiling a representative collection of South African art" making it somewhat unusual compared to its contemporaries.[27] Pretoria
Pretoria
houses several performing arts venues including:[28] the South African State Theatre which houses the arts of Opera, musicals, plays and comedic performances. A 9 metre tall statue of former president Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
was unveiled in front of the Union Buildings
Union Buildings
on 16 December 2013.[29] Since Nelson Mandela's inauguration as South Africa's first majority elected president the Union Buildings
Union Buildings
have come to represent the new 'Rainbow Nation'.[30] Public art in Pretoria
Pretoria
has flourished since the 2010 FIFA World Cup with many areas receiving new public artworks.[31] Sport[edit]

Loftus Versfeld Stadium

One of the most popular sports in Pretoria
Pretoria
is rugby union. Loftus Versfeld is home to the Blue Bulls, who compete in the domestic Currie Cup, and also to the Bulls in the international Super Rugby competition. The Bulls Super Rugby
Super Rugby
team, which is operated by the Blue Bulls, won the competition in 2007, 2009 and 2010. Loftus Versfeld also hosts the soccer side Mamelodi
Mamelodi
Sundowns. Pretoria
Pretoria
also hosted matches during the 1995 Rugby World Cup. Loftus Versfeld was used for matches of soccer in the 2010 FIFA World Cup. There are three soccer teams in the city playing in South Africa's top flight football League, the Premier Soccer League. They are Mamelodi Sundowns and Supersport United. Supersport United
Supersport United
were the 2008–09 PSL Champions. Following the 2011/2012 season the University of Pretoria
Pretoria
F.C. gained promotion to the South African Premier Soccer League (PSL), the top domestic league.[32][33] Cricket
Cricket
is also a popular game in the city. As there is no international cricket stadium in the city, it does not host any top-class cricket tournaments, although the nearby situated Centurion has Supersport Park
Supersport Park
which is an international cricket stadium and has hosted many important tournaments such as 2003 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup, 2007 ICC World Twenty20, 2009 IPL
2009 IPL
and 2009 ICC Champions Trophy. The most local franchise team to Pretoria
Pretoria
is the Titans, although Northerns occasionally play in the city in South Africa's provincial competitions. Many Pretoria
Pretoria
born cricketers have gone on to play for South Africa, including current captain AB de Villiers
AB de Villiers
and T20 captain Faf du Plessis. The Pretoria
Pretoria
Transnet Blind Cricket
Cricket
Club is situated in Pretoria
Pretoria
and is currently the biggest Blind Cricket
Cricket
club in South Africa. Their field is at the Transnet Engineering campus on Lynette Street, home of differently disabled cricket. PTBCC has played many successful blind cricket matches with abled body team such as the South African Indoor Cricket
Cricket
Team and Tuks Cricket
Cricket
Junior Academy. Northerns Blind Cricket is the Provincial body that governs PTBCC and Filefelfia Secondary School. The Northern Blind Cricket
Cricket
team won the 40 over National Blind Cricket
Cricket
tournament that was held in Cape Town
Cape Town
in April 2014.[34] Religious buildings[edit]

Paul Kruger's Church Building in the City

Ooskerk building in Pretoria

The Old Synagogue Building in Pretoria. It is now no longer used as a Synagogue but is now a Grade II Provincial Heritage Resource and protected under the National Heritage Resources Act (25 of 1999).[35]

Churches[edit]

Anglican Diocese of Pretoria Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa Central Baptist Church Christian Revival Church Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa Full Gospel Church of God / Volle Evangelie Kerk van God Hatfield Christian Church Hillsong Church Methodist Church of Southern Africa Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pretoria Seventh-day Adventist Church Shofar Christian Church The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Praise Tabernacle Greek Orthodox Cathedral

Hindu temples[edit]

Mariammen Temple (Marabastad)

Mosques[edit]

Masjid Al-Noor (Arcadia) The Central Mosque ( Pretoria
Pretoria
Central)

Synagogues and Jewish congregations[edit]

Old Synagogue Building Adath Israel Bet Menorah Pretoria
Pretoria
Progressive Jewish Congregation Temple Menorah[36]

Commerce and industry[edit] The city is a major commercial centre and an important industrial centre. Its main industries are iron and steel works, copper casting, and the manufacture of automobiles, railway carriages and heavy machinery. Pretoria
Pretoria
has a number of industrial areas, business districts and small home businesses. A number of chambers of commerce exist for Pretoria
Pretoria
and its business community including Pretoriaweb a business networking group that meets once a month to discuss the issues of doing business in Pretoria. The members of Pretoriaweb also discuss issues in various social media environments and on the website. Coat of arms[edit]

Pretoria
Pretoria
civic coat of arms (1907)

The Pretoria
Pretoria
civic arms, designed by Dr. Frans Engelenburg,[37] were granted by the College of Arms
College of Arms
on 7 February 1907. They were registered with the Transvaal Provincial Administration in March 1953[38] and at the Bureau of Heraldry
Bureau of Heraldry
in May 1968.[39] The Bureau provided new artwork, in a more modern style, in 1989.[40] The arms were : Gules, on an mimosa tree eradicated proper within an orle of eight bees volant, Or, an inescutcheon Or and thereon a Roman praetor seated proper. In layman's terms : a red shield displaying an uprooted mimosa tree surrounded by a border of eight golden bees, superimposed on the tree is a golden shield depicting a Roman praetor. The tree represented growth, the bees industry, and the praetor (judge) was an heraldic pun on the name. The crest was a three-towered golden castle; the supporters were an eland and a kudu; and the motto Praestantia praevaleat Pretoria. The coat of arms have gone out of favour after the City Council amalgamated with its surrounding councils to form the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. Academia[edit] Secondary education[edit]

List of Secondary Schools

Afrikaanse Hoër Meisieskool Afrikaanse Hoër Seunskool Christian Brothers' College, Mount Edmund Christian Progressive College Clapham High School Cornwall Hill
Cornwall Hill
College Crawford College, Pretoria Deutsche Schule Pretoria The Glen High School Hillview High School Hoërskool Akasia Hoërskool C.R. Swart Hoërskool Centurion Hoërskool Die Wilgers Hoërskool Eldoraigne Hoërskool Garsfontein Hoërskool Gerrit Maritz Hoerskool Hendrik Verwoerd Hoërskool Hercules Hoërskool Langenhoven Hoërskool Menlopark Hoërskool Montana Hoërskool F.H. Odenaal Hoërskool Oos-Moot Hoërskool Overkruin Hoërskool Pretoria
Pretoria
Noord Hoërskool Silverton Hoërskool Tuine Hoërskool Voortrekkerhoogte Hoërskool Waterkloof Hoërskool Wonderboom HTS John Vorster HTS Tuine Pretoria
Pretoria
Boys High School Pretoria
Pretoria
High School for Girls Pretoria
Pretoria
Muslim School Pretoria
Pretoria
Secondary School Pretoria
Pretoria
Technical High School Pretoria
Pretoria
West High School Pro Arte Alphen Park St. Mary's Diocesan School for Girls, Pretoria Willowridge High School (Pretoria) Woodhill College

International schools[edit] Schools for foreign students:

École Miriam Makeba (French school) Deutsche Schule Pretoria
Deutsche Schule Pretoria
(German school) Russian Embassy School in Pretoria AISJ-Pretoria North American International School Star College Pretoria

Tertiary education[edit] See also: List of universities in South Africa Pretoria
Pretoria
is one of South Africa's leading academic cities and is home to both the largest residential university in South Africa, largest distance education university in South Africa
South Africa
and a research intensive university. The three Universities in the city in order of the year founded are as follows: University of South Africa[edit]

The Muckleneuk Campus
Campus
of UNISA.

The University of South Africa
South Africa
(commonly referred to as Unisa), founded in 1873 as the University of the Cape of Good Hope, is the largest university on the African continent and attracts a third of all higher education students in South Africa. It spent most of its early history as an examining agency for Oxford and Cambridge universities and as an incubator from which most other universities in South Africa
South Africa
are descended. In 1946 it was given a new role as a distance education university and in 2012 it had a student headcount of over 300 000 students, including African and international students in 130 countries worldwide, making it one of the world's mega universities. Unisa is a dedicated open distance education institution and offers both vocational and academic programmes. University of Pretoria[edit]

Old Arts Building (Ou Lettere Gebou) of the University of Pretoria.

The University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria
(commonly referred to as UP, Tuks, or Tukkies) is a multi campus public research university.[41] The university was established in 1908 as the Pretoria
Pretoria
campus of the Johannesburg
Johannesburg
based Transvaal University College
Transvaal University College
and is the fourth South African institution in continuous operation to be awarded university status. Established in 1920, the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science is the second oldest veterinary school in Africa and the only veterinary school in South Africa.[42] In 1949 the university launched the first MBA programme outside of North America.[43][44] Since 1997, the university has produced more research outputs every year than any other institution of higher learning in South Africa, as measured by the Department of Education's accreditation benchmark.[45] Tshwane
Tshwane
University of Technology[edit]

Tshwane
Tshwane
University of Technology.

The Tshwane
Tshwane
University of Technology (commonly referred to as TUT) is a higher education institution, offering vocational oriented diplomas and degrees, and came into being through a merger of Technikon Northern Gauteng, Technikon North-West and Technikon Pretoria. TUT caters for approximately 60,000 students and it has become the largest residential higher education institution in South Africa. CSIR[edit] The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is South Africa's central scientific research and development organisation. It was established by an act of parliament in 1945 and is situated on its own campus in the city.[46] It is the largest research and development organisation in Africa and accounts for about 10% of the entire African R&D budget. It has a staff of approximately 3,000 technical and scientific researchers, often working in multi-disciplinary teams. In 2002, Dr. Sibusiso Sibisi was appointed as the president and CEO of the CSIR

Military[edit]

A statue commemorating all South African Defence Force
South African Defence Force
personnel who had lost their lives in service of the Republic of South Africa
South Africa
in Fort Klapperkop, Pretoria

Pretoria
Pretoria
has earned a reputation as being the centre of South Africa's Military and is home to several military facilities of the South African National Defence Force: Military headquarters[edit] Transito Air Force Headquarters[edit] This complex is the headquarters to the South African Air Force. The Dequar Road Complex[edit] A military complex that houses the following:

South African Army's Headquarters South African Infantry Formation HQ A General Support Base Support Formation HQ Training Formation HQ The 102 Field Workshop unit The 17 Maintenance Unit The S.A.M.S Military Health Department.[47]

The Sebokeng Complex[edit] A military complex located on the corner of Patriot Street and Koraalboom Road[48] that houses the following military headquarters:

South African Army
South African Army
Armour Formation HQ South African Army
South African Army
Artillery Formation HQ South African Army
South African Army
Intelligence Corps HQ South African Army
South African Army
Air Defence Artillery Formation HQ[47]

Military bases[edit] The Dequar Road Base[edit] This base is situated in the suburb of Salvokop and is divided into two parts:

The Green Magazine (Groen Magazyn) which is the Headquarters to the Transvaalse Staatsartillerie, A reserve artillery regiment of the South African Army[49] Magazine Hill which is the regimental Headquarters to the Pretoria Regiment, A reserve tank regiment of the South African Army.[47][50]

Thaba Tshwane[edit] Thaba Tshwane
Tshwane
is a large military area South-West of the Pretoria Central Business District and North of Air Force Base Swartkop. It is the Headquarters of several Army units-

The Tshwane
Tshwane
Regiment, A reserve motorised infantry regiment of the South African Army.[51] The 18 Light Regiment, A reserve artillery regiment of the South African Army.[49] The National Ceremonial Guard and Band.

The military base also houses the 1 Military Hospital and the Military Police School. Within Thaba Tshwane
Tshwane
a facility known as "TEK Base" exists which houses its own units-

The SA Army Engineer Formation 2 Parachute Battalion 44 Parachute Engineer Regiment 1 Military Printing Regiment 4 Survey and Map Regiment[47]

Joint Support Base Wonderboom[edit] The Wonderboom Military Base is located adjacent to the Wonderboom Airport and is the headquarters of the South African Army
South African Army
Signals Formation. It also houses the School of Signals, 1 Signal Regiment, 2 Signal Regiment, 3 Electronic Workshop, 4 Signal Regiment and 5 Signal Regiment.[52] Military colleges[edit]

The South African Army
South African Army
College in Pretoria

The South African Air Force
South African Air Force
College, the South African Military Health Service School for Military Health Training and the South African Army College are situated in the Thaba Tshwane
Tshwane
Military Base and are used to train Commissioned and Non-commissioned Officers to perform effectively in combat/command roles in the various branches of the South African National Defence Force. The South African Defence Intelligence College is also located in the Sterrewag Suburb north of Air Force Base Waterkloof.[47][53] Air force bases[edit] While technically not within the city limits of Pretoria, Air Force Base Swartkop and Air Force Base Waterkloof
Air Force Base Waterkloof
are often used for defence related matters within the city. These may include aerial military transport duties within the city, aerospace monitoring and defence as well as VIP transport to and from the city. Change of name[edit] On 26 May 2005 the South African Geographical Names Council (SAGNC), which is linked to the Directorate of Heritage in the Department of Arts and Culture, approved changing the name of Pretoria
Pretoria
to Tshwane, which is already the name of the Metropolitan Municipality[54] in which Pretoria, and a number of surrounding towns are located. Although the name change was approved by the SAGNC, it has not yet been approved by the Minister of Arts and Culture. The matter is currently under consideration while he has requested further research on the matter. Should the Minister approve the name change, the name will be published in the Government Gazette, giving the public opportunity to comment on the matter. The Minister can then refer that public response back to the SAGNC, before presenting his recommendation before parliament, who will vote on the change. Various public interest groups have warned that the name change will be challenged in court, should the minister approve the renaming. The long process involved made it unlikely the name would change anytime soon, if ever, even assuming the Minister had approved the change in early 2006. The Tshwane
Tshwane
Metro Council has advertised Tshwane
Tshwane
as "Africa's leading capital city" since the name change was approved by the SAGNC in 2005. This has led to further controversy, however, as the name of the city had not yet been changed officially, and the council was, at best, acting prematurely. Following a complaint lodged with the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), it was ruled that such advertisements are deliberately misleading and should be withdrawn from all media.[55] Despite the rulings of the ASA, Tshwane
Tshwane
Metro Council failed to discontinue their "City of Tshwane" advertisements. As a result, the ASA requested that Tshwane
Tshwane
Metro pay for advertisements in which it admits that it has misled the public. Refusing to abide by the ASA's request, the Metro Council was banned consequently from placing any advertisements in the South African media that refer to Tshwane
Tshwane
as the capital. ASA may still place additional sanctions on the Metro Council that would prevent it from placing any advertisements in the South African media, including council notices and employment vacancies.[56][57] After the ruling, the Metro Council continued to place Tshwane advertisements, but placed them on council-owned advertising boards and busstops throughout the municipal area. In August 2007, an internal memo was leaked to the media in which the Tshwane
Tshwane
mayor sought advice from the premier of Gauteng
Gauteng
on whether the municipality could be called the "City of Tshwane" instead of just "Tshwane".[58] This could increase confusion about the distinction between the city of Pretoria
Pretoria
and the municipality of Tshwane. In early 2010 it was again rumoured that the South African government would make a decision regarding the name, however, a media briefing regarding name changes, where it may have been discussed, was cancelled shortly before taking place.[59] Rumours of the name change provoked outrage from Afrikaner
Afrikaner
civil rights and political groups.[60] It later emerged that the registration of the municipality as a geographic place had been published in the government gazette as it had been too late to withdraw the name from the publication,[61] but it was announced that the name had been withdrawn, pending "further work" by officials.[62][63] The following week, the registration of "Tshwane" was officially withdrawn in the Government Gazette.[64][65] The retraction had reportedly been ordered at the behest of the Deputy President of South Africa
South Africa
Kgalema Motlanthe, acting on behalf of President Jacob Zuma, as minister of Arts and Culture Lulu Xingwana had acted contrary to the position of the ANC, which is that Pretoria and the municipality are separate entities, which was subsequently articulated by ANC secretary general Gwede Mantashe.[66] In March 2010, the " Tshwane
Tshwane
Royal House Committee", claiming to be descendents of Chief Tshwane, called for the name to be changed, and for the descendents of Chief Tshwane
Tshwane
to be recognised, and to be made part of the administration of the municipality.[67] According to comments made by Mayor Kgosientso Ramokgopa in late 2011, the change would occur in 2012.[68][69] However, there remained considerable uncertainty about the issue.[70] As of 2017[update], the proposed name change has not occurred and is now unlikely to happen.[citation needed] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Africa

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Pretoria
Pretoria
is twinned with:

Amman,  Jordan Baku,  Azerbaijan Delft,  Netherlands Kiev,  Ukraine Taipei,  Taiwan Tehran,  Iran Washington, D.C.,  United States

Shopping malls[edit]

Sammy Marks
Sammy Marks
Square, Pretoria

Atterbury Boulevard Atterbury Value Mart Brooklyn Mall* Brooklyn Design Square (attached to Brooklyn Mall) Bloed Street Mall Centurion Mall (upon Hennops River)* Hatfield Plaza* Irene Village Mall* Jacaranda
Jacaranda
Mall Kolonnade Centre* Mall of Africa* Mall @ Reds* Menlyn Retail Park Menlyn Park* Parkview Centre Sammy Marks
Sammy Marks
Shopping Centre Sancardia Shopping Centre Sterland Mall* Soshanguve
Soshanguve
Crossing Sunny Park The Grove Shopping Centre* Woodlands Boulevard* Wonderboom Junction Shopping Centre Wonderpark Shopping Centre*

Note: Malls marked with an asterisk are malls with at least a 4-screen cinema complex. Kolonnade Centre was the only mall in the city with a public ice-skating rink. It closed due to high levels of rent and the management of the mall deciding to build shops in its place. In 2014, The Grove Shopping Centre as well as Forest Hill Mall both opened ice-skating rinks.[71] Currently the Menlyn Park
Menlyn Park
Mall is undergoing a substantial refurbishment and expansion which will, upon completion, make it one of the largest malls in South Africa. Notable people[edit]

Anel Alexander, actress Frances Ames, neurologist, psychiatrist, and human rights activist. Melinda Bam, Miss South Africa
South Africa
2011 Johan Barkhuizen, cricketer Margaret Becklake, academic and epidemiologist. Daniel Bekker, athlete. Deanne Bergsma, ballerina. Conrad Bo, artist Roelof Botha, venture capitalist. Wim Botha, artist Rory Byrne, chief designer at the Benetton and Scuderia Ferrari Formula One teams. Nigel Green,actor George Gristock, VC award receiver. Steve Hofmeyr, singer, songwriter and actor. Glynis Johns, actress Gé Korsten, opera tenor and actor. Paul Kruger, president of the South African Republic Thomas Madigage, soccer player Tony Maggs, Formula 1
Formula 1
driver Vusi Mahlasela, singer-songwriter Ismail Mahomed, lawyer who served as the Chief Justice of South Africa and the Supreme Court of Namibia
Namibia
and co-authored the constitution of Namibia Magnus Malan, Minister of Defence in the cabinet of President P. W. Botha, Chief of the South African Defence Force
South African Defence Force
(SADF) and Chief of the South African Army. Eugène Marais, lawyer, naturalist, poet and writer. Sammy Marks, entrepreneur Thulasizwe Mbuyane, soccer player. Karin Melis Mey, athlete Tim Modise, journalist, TV and radio presenter. Chris Morris (cricketer) Es'kia Mphahlele, writer, educationist, artist and activist celebrated as the Father of African Humanism. Helene Muller, athlete Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, CEO and product architect of Tesla Motors, and chairman of SolarCity. Kimbal Musk, entrepreneur Wim Naudé, Dean-Director of Maastricht School of Management Micki Pistorius, profiler and author. Oscar Pistorius, athlete Louis Hendrik Potgieter, member of Dschinghis Khan
Dschinghis Khan
pop band. Austin Stevens, herpetologist, wildlife photographer, film maker and author Arnold Vosloo, actor Casper de Vries, comedian Joost van der Westhuizen, rugby union player Anton van Wouw, sculptor and artist Ronald Bright Makuwaza - toolmaker

Places of interest[edit]

Statue of Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
on Church Square, Pretoria

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Pretoria
Pretoria
National Botanical Garden, a botanical garden containing a massive collection of native flora. Scottish country dancing, open to everyone Thursday evenings in Hatfield at St. Columba's Presbyterian Church hall The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, the premier zoological gardens of South Africa. Church Square, the historical governamental centre of the South African Republic. Union Buildings, the executive branch of the South African government. Mahlamba Ndlopfu, the official residence of the President of South Africa. Marabastad, a historical shopping district for non-whites during Apartheid. Menlyn Park, shopping area Voortrekker
Voortrekker
Monument, a historical complex dedicated to the Great Trek. Hatfield Square, the main student relaxation district. Pretoria
Pretoria
railway station, a historical landmark and departure point for metrorail and Gautrain
Gautrain
trains. Freedom Park, a historical complex dedicated to the end of Apartheid and the fallen soldiers of South Africa
South Africa
after 1994. Pretoria
Pretoria
Forts, historical bastions designed to protect the city against the British, including a museum on the Boer Wars. State Theatre, South Africa, the premier national performing arts complex. Government House, Pretoria

Nature reserves[edit]

Groenkloof
Groenkloof
Nature Reserve Rietvlei Nature Reserve Moreletaspruit Nature Reserve Faerie Glen
Faerie Glen
Nature Reserve Wonderboom Nature Reserve Roodeplaat Dam Provincial Nature Reserve Chamberlain Bird Sanctuary

See also[edit]

South Africa
South Africa
portal

Pretoria
Pretoria
Wireless Users Group—a free, non-profit, community wireless network in Pretoria Union Buildings Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa Houses of Parliament, Cape Town Mahlamba Ndlopfu, the Presidential residence in Pretoria. Sir Herbert Baker

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Worldwide". Rnw.nl. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ " Pretoria
Pretoria
of Tshwane? Minister weet self nie". Beeld. 27 January 2012. Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ "The Grove Ice rink". Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Pretoria

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Pretoria.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pretoria.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pretoria.

City of Tshwane; Metropolitan Municipality official website

v t e

Pretoria, Tshwane, South Africa

Education History

Timeline

Media People Sport Transport

Buildings

Pretoria
Pretoria
City Hall Union Buildings Voortrekker
Voortrekker
Monument Pretoria
Pretoria
Forts State Theatre Palace of Justice Ou Raadsaal Sacred Heart Cathedral

Museums

Ditsong Museums

National Museum of Natural History (Transvaal Museum) National Museum of Cultural History (African Window) Pionier Museum Sammy Marks
Sammy Marks
Museum Tswaing Meteorite Crater Museum Kruger House Willem Prinsloo Agricultural Museum

Freedom Park Mapungubwe Collection Melrose House Van Tilburg Collection Van Wouw Museum Air Force Museum Police Transport Museum Pretoria
Pretoria
Art Museum Fort Klapperkop
Fort Klapperkop
Military Museum

Streets and squares

Church Square Sammy Marks
Sammy Marks
Square Pretorius Square Solomon Mahlangu Freedom Square Time Square

Parks and gardens

Pretoria
Pretoria
National Botanical Garden Burgers Park Magnolia Dal National Zoological Gardens of South Africa Heroe's Acre Springbok Park Pretoria
Pretoria
Rosarium

Nature reserves

Groenkloof Fountains Valley Klapperkop Wonderboom Faerie Glen

Other

Statue of Paul Kruger Statue of Nelson Mandela

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

Communities of City of Tshwane
Tshwane
Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng

Seat: Pretoria

Cities and towns

Akasia Bronkhorstspruit Centurion Cullinan Ekangala Ga-Rankuwa Hammanskraal Kleinfontein Mabopane Mamelodi Nuwe Eersterus Onderstepoort Onverwacht Pretoria Rayton Refilwe Rosslyn Saulsville Soshanguve Temba Zithobeni

Suburbs of Centurion

Clubview Cornwall Hill Doringkloof Eldoraigne Erasmia Heuweloord Irene Kloofsig Laudium Lyttelton Olievenhoutbosch Pierre van Ryneveld Park Rooihuiskraal Sunderland Ridge The Reeds Zwartkop

Suburbs of Pretoria

Arcadia Atteridgeville Booysens Brooklyn Capital Park Chantelle Constantia Park Danville Die Wilgers Eastwood Eersterust Elardus Park Equestria Faerie Glen Garsfontein Groenkloof Hatfield Hazelwood Kameeldrift Lotus Gardens Lukasrand Lynnwood Lynnwood Glen Lynnwood Manor Lynnwood Ridge Marabastad Mayville Menlo Park Montana Park Monument Park Moreleta Park Murrayfield Newlands Orchards Pretoria
Pretoria
North Prinshof Roseville Shere Silver Lakes Silverton Sinoville Sunnyside Wapadrand Waterkloof Waterkloof
Waterkloof
Glen Waterkloof
Waterkloof
Park Waterkloof
Waterkloof
Ridge Waverley Wingate Park Wonderboom South

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 167343013 LCCN: n79023

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