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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

1991

* 24 April 1991 (passage of presidency law ) * 24 May 1991 (constitutional amendments ) * 10 July 1991 (inauguration of the first President)

Modern status is defined by the Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
, adopted on 12 December 1993

SUCCESSION Prime Minister of Russia
Prime Minister of Russia

SALARY 3.6 million rubles annually

WEBSITE (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

RUSSIA

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation

* Constitution * Law

* Mental Health Law * Russian Criminal Code * Tax Code

Presidency

* PRESIDENT: Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin

* Presidential Administration * Security Council * State Council

Executive

* PRIME MINISTER : Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev

* Government * Cabinet (45th)

Legislature

* FEDERAL ASSEMBLY

-------------------------

* FEDERATION COUNCIL * CHAIRMAN : Valentina Matviyenko
Valentina Matviyenko

-------------------------

* STATE DUMA * 7th convocation * CHAIRMAN : Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Volodin

Judiciary

* Constitutional Court
Constitutional Court
* Supreme Court * Prosecutor General * Supreme Court of Arbitration * Legal system

Elections

* Presidential elections * Legislative elections * Central Election Commission * Electoral geography * Political parties * List of presidential candidates

Federalism

* Federal subjects * Heads of federal subjects * Regional parliaments

Foreign relations

* European Union * NATO * United Nations * Arab–Israeli conflict

Related topics

* Administrative divisions * Armed forces * Civic Chamber * Accounts Chamber * E-Government * Opposition * Human rights * Political abuse of psychiatry

* Other countries * Atlas

* v * t * e

The PRESIDENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (Russian : Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiiskoi Federatsii) is the elected head of state , Supreme Commander-in-Chief , and holder of the highest office in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
. The current President of Russia
Russia
is Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
.

In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian : Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution , the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia
Russia
. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia
Russia
, which exercises executive power.

In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister , who becomes Acting President of Russia
Russia
. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.

The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council . The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation.

The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, 3 individuals have served 4 presidencies spanning 6 full terms. On May 7, 2012, Vladimir Putin became the 4th and current president.

CONTENTS

* 1 Selection process

* 1.1 Eligibility * 1.2 Election * 1.3 Inauguration * 1.4 Vacancy or disability

* 2 Insignia

* 2.1 Chain of office * 2.2 Standard (flag) * 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution * 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

* 3 Powers and duties

* 3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution * 3.2 Nominations * 3.3 Legislation * 3.4 Domestic policy * 3.5 Foreign policy * 3.6 Ceremonial duties

* 4 Residences * 5 Political affiliation * 6 Transport

* 7 Post-presidency

* 7.1 Living former Presidents * 7.2 Presidential centers

* 8 List of presidents

* 8.1 Presidential administrations

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

SELECTION PROCESS

ELIGIBILITY

A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia for at least 10 years.

The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.

ELECTION

The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).

The Federation Council calls the presidential elections. If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election. The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole.

Each faction in the State Duma
State Duma
, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.

Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev 's administration. The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation. If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes. The last presidential election was in 2012 , and the next is expected in 2018 .

INAUGURATION

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012 while placing his right hand on the Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution .

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the inauguration of the previous president. If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

VACANCY OR DISABILITY

Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office . In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office.

INSIGNIA

Chain of office

After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions.

CHAIN OF OFFICE

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is a red cross, with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms . On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions.

STANDARD (FLAG)

Presidential standard

The standard is a square version of the Russian flag , charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President.

SPECIAL COPY OF THE CONSTITUTION

The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library.

LEGAL BASIS OF THE INSIGNIA

These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996. and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000. In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency.

POWERS AND DUTIES

GUARANTOR OF THE CONSTITUTION

As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws.

NOMINATIONS

The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council , the upper house of the parliament , for judges of the Constitutional Court
Constitutional Court
, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court , as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia
Russia
. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma
State Duma
, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank , and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.

LEGISLATION

Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation , as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them.

The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court.

The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances.

Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum .

DOMESTIC POLICY

Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws.

Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state.

FOREIGN POLICY

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia\'s position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations . These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly . The President signs international treaties .

CEREMONIAL DUTIES

An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients.

RESIDENCES

Kremlin Senate
Kremlin Senate
, is the working residence of the President of Russia
Russia
Cabinet of the President of Russia
Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex. Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.

Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo (Russian : Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian : Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian : Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement.

Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.

* Rus' (Russian : Русь), Zavidovo , Tver Oblast
Tver Oblast
* Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian : Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna
Strelna
, Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
anniversary * Bocharov Ruchey (Russian : Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek ), Sochi
Sochi
* Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian : Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk
, Karelia
Karelia
* Uzhin (Russian : Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday , Novgorod Oblast
Novgorod Oblast
* Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian : Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff
Cliff
-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore * Tantal tourist centre (Russian : Танта́л, lit. Tantalum
Tantalum
) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov
Saratov
* Sosny (Russian : Со́сны, lit. pines ) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
* Angarskie hutora (Russian : Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk
Angarsk
) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk
Irkutsk
* Maly istok (Russian : Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg forestry

POLITICAL AFFILIATION

None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".

TRANSPORT

National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG). The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service .

* Limousines

ZIL-41047 Presidential executive car .

*

* ZiL * Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz

* Escort cars

* Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) * Chevrolet
Chevrolet

* Honorary escort (motorcycles)

* Ural * BMW
BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines
Rossiya Airlines
. Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

* Airplanes for long-distance travel

* Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft * Ilyushin Il-62 M (long-range) * Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) * Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) * Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) * Tupolev Tu-214PU

* Helicopters

* Mil Mi-8
Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia
Russia
.

In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin . According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.

POST-PRESIDENCY

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999.

On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001.

This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

* President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. * In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. * President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection.

LIVING FORMER PRESIDENTS

As of August 2017, there is only one living former president (if you except Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008, and became president again in 2012). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

*

Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
(2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 51)

PRESIDENTIAL CENTERS

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted. According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of Presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former President of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.

LIST OF PRESIDENTS

Main article: List of presidents of Russia
Russia

NAME TERM OF OFFICE LENGTH OF TERM

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
1991–1999 7003309600000000000♠8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st tenure) 1999–2008 7003305000000000000♠8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
2008–2012 7003146100000000000♠4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2nd tenure) 2012–present 7003192000000000000♠5 years, 94 days

PRESIDENTIAL ADMINISTRATIONS

* Presidency of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
* Presidency of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
* Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev

SEE ALSO

* List of Presidents of Russia
Russia
* List of Russian presidential candidates
List of Russian presidential candidates
* Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia
Russia
* Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation * First Lady of Russia
Russia
* Prime Minister of Russia
Prime Minister of Russia
* Acting President of Russia
Russia
* List of heads of state of Russia
Russia
* List of leaders of Russia
Russia
* President of the Soviet Union
President of the Soviet Union
* Russian presidential administration
Russian presidential administration
* Security Council of Russia
Security Council of Russia

REFERENCES

* ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR * ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR * ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 * ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014. * ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство.". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014. * ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014. * ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
: A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane * ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22. * ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2 . * ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 * ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. * ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti . 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012. * ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN
CNN
. * ^ A B Gueorguieva & Simon 2009 , p. 79. * ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012. * ^ Constitution of Russia. Chapter 4. Article 82. * ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 * ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 * ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. * ^ A B The Presidential Residences (in English) * ^ Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля * ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 * ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. * ^ President\'s transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "President\'s transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23. (in Russian) * ^ "Putin’s Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti . Retrieved 18 May 2013. * ^ Федеральный закон от 13 мая 2008 г. N 68-ФЗ "О центрах исторического наследия президентов Российской Федерации, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий" * ^ В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PRESIDENTS OF RUSSIA .

* Official site of the President of Russia * ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

* v * t * e

Russia
Russia
articles

HISTORY

TIMELINE

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Proto-Indo-Europeans
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Scythians
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East Slavs
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Moscow
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Caspian Sea
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West Siberian Plain

.