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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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Presidents of the Russian Federation

Presidents

Boris Yeltsin Vladimir Putin Dmitry Medvedev Vladimir Putin

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Alexander Rutskoy Viktor Chernomyrdin Vladimir Putin

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Russian Presidential Administrations

1 Yeltsin (1991–1999) 2 & 4 Putin (2000–2008 & 2012–present) 3 Medvedev (2008–2012)

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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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v t e

The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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President Of The Russian Federation
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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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Federal Migratory Service Federal Antimonopoly Service Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Service for Hydrometeorology and the Monitoring of the Environment Federal Customs Service Service of Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision Service on Tariffs Federal Financial Monitoring Service Financial Market Service Federal Space Agency Agency for Deliveries of Military and Special
Special
Equipment of Material Means Agency on the Arrangement of the State Boundary Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography

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Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

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Heads of state of the Group of 20

Macri Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor-General: Cosgrove) Temer Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor General: Payette) Xi Tusk Macron Steinmeier Kovind Jokowi Mattarella Akihito Peña Nieto Putin Salman Ramaphosa Moon Erdoğan Elizabeth II Trump

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

.
President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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Ministry of Construction, Housing and Utilities

Ministry of Transport

Federal Service of Supervision of Transport Air Transport Agency Road Agency Agency of Railway Transport Agency of Sea and River Transport

Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

Federal Service for Labour and Employment

Ministry of Finance

Federal Tax Service Service of Insurance Supervision Service of Financial-Budgetary Supervision Treasury

Ministry of Economic Development

Agency for State Reserves Agency for State Property Management State Statistics

Ministry of Energy

Russian Energy Agency

Governmental committees, services and agencies

Federal Migratory Service Federal Antimonopoly Service Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Service for Hydrometeorology and the Monitoring of the Environment Federal Customs Service Service of Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision Service on Tariffs Federal Financial Monitoring Service Financial Market Service Federal Space Agency Agency for Deliveries of Military and Special
Special
Equipment of Material Means Agency on the Arrangement of the State Boundary Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography

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Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

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Heads of state of the Group of 20

Macri Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor-General: Cosgrove) Temer Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor General: Payette) Xi Tusk Macron Steinmeier Kovind Jokowi Mattarella Akihito Peña Nieto Putin Salman Ramaphosa Moon Erdoğan Elizabeth II Trump

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

.
President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Education and Science Service for Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks Agency of Education Agency of Science and Innovation Federal Youth Agency

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service of Supervision in Sphere of Wildlife Management Agency of Water Resources Agency on the use of Mineral Resources

Ministry of Industry and Trade

Agency of Technical Regulation and Metrology

Ministry for Development of Russian Far East

 

Ministry of Communications and Mass Media

Agency of Communication Agency on Information Technologies Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media

Ministry of Agriculture

Service of Veterinary and Phytosanitary Supervision Agency of Forestry Agency of Fisheries

Ministry of Sport

Ministry of Construction, Housing and Utilities

Ministry of Transport

Federal Service of Supervision of Transport Air Transport Agency Road Agency Agency of Railway Transport Agency of Sea and River Transport

Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

Federal Service for Labour and Employment

Ministry of Finance

Federal Tax Service Service of Insurance Supervision Service of Financial-Budgetary Supervision Treasury

Ministry of Economic Development

Agency for State Reserves Agency for State Property Management State Statistics

Ministry of Energy

Russian Energy Agency

Governmental committees, services and agencies

Federal Migratory Service Federal Antimonopoly Service Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Service for Hydrometeorology and the Monitoring of the Environment Federal Customs Service Service of Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision Service on Tariffs Federal Financial Monitoring Service Financial Market Service Federal Space Agency Agency for Deliveries of Military and Special
Special
Equipment of Material Means Agency on the Arrangement of the State Boundary Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography

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Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

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Heads of state of the Group of 20

Macri Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor-General: Cosgrove) Temer Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor General: Payette) Xi Tusk Macron Steinmeier Kovind Jokowi Mattarella Akihito Peña Nieto Putin Salman Ramaphosa Moon Erdoğan Elizabeth II Trump

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

.
President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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Foreign Intelligence Service Federal Security Service Federal Drug Control Service of Russia Federal Protective Service Special
Special
Communications Service State Courier Service Chief Directorate of Special
Special
Programs of the President Federal Financial Monitoring Directorate of the President National Guard of Russia Security Council of Russia

Offices subordinated to Government of Russia
Russia
head by the Chairman

Ministry of Health

Service of Supervision in the Sphere of Public Health Services Medical and Biologic Agency

Ministry of Culture

Federal Archival Agency Federal Agency for Tourism

Ministry of Education and Science

Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Education and Science Service for Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks Agency of Education Agency of Science and Innovation Federal Youth Agency

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service of Supervision in Sphere of Wildlife Management Agency of Water Resources Agency on the use of Mineral Resources

Ministry of Industry and Trade

Agency of Technical Regulation and Metrology

Ministry for Development of Russian Far East

 

Ministry of Communications and Mass Media

Agency of Communication Agency on Information Technologies Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media

Ministry of Agriculture

Service of Veterinary and Phytosanitary Supervision Agency of Forestry Agency of Fisheries

Ministry of Sport

Ministry of Construction, Housing and Utilities

Ministry of Transport

Federal Service of Supervision of Transport Air Transport Agency Road Agency Agency of Railway Transport Agency of Sea and River Transport

Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

Federal Service for Labour and Employment

Ministry of Finance

Federal Tax Service Service of Insurance Supervision Service of Financial-Budgetary Supervision Treasury

Ministry of Economic Development

Agency for State Reserves Agency for State Property Management State Statistics

Ministry of Energy

Russian Energy Agency

Governmental committees, services and agencies

Federal Migratory Service Federal Antimonopoly Service Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Service for Hydrometeorology and the Monitoring of the Environment Federal Customs Service Service of Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision Service on Tariffs Federal Financial Monitoring Service Financial Market Service Federal Space Agency Agency for Deliveries of Military and Special
Special
Equipment of Material Means Agency on the Arrangement of the State Boundary Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography

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Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

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Heads of state of the Group of 20

Macri Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor-General: Cosgrove) Temer Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor General: Payette) Xi Tusk Macron Steinmeier Kovind Jokowi Mattarella Akihito Peña Nieto Putin Salman Ramaphosa Moon Erdoğan Elizabeth II Trump

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

.
President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the Russian Federation

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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Russian State Fire Service State Inspectorate for Small Ships

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Agency of CIS affairs

Ministry of Defence

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Special
Construction

Ministry of Justice

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Presidential Services and Directorates

Foreign Intelligence Service Federal Security Service Federal Drug Control Service of Russia Federal Protective Service Special
Special
Communications Service State Courier Service Chief Directorate of Special
Special
Programs of the President Federal Financial Monitoring Directorate of the President National Guard of Russia Security Council of Russia

Offices subordinated to Government of Russia
Russia
head by the Chairman

Ministry of Health

Service of Supervision in the Sphere of Public Health Services Medical and Biologic Agency

Ministry of Culture

Federal Archival Agency Federal Agency for Tourism

Ministry of Education and Science

Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Education and Science Service for Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks Agency of Education Agency of Science and Innovation Federal Youth Agency

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

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Ministry of Industry and Trade

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Ministry of Communications and Mass Media

Agency of Communication Agency on Information Technologies Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media

Ministry of Agriculture

Service of Veterinary and Phytosanitary Supervision Agency of Forestry Agency of Fisheries

Ministry of Sport

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Ministry of Transport

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Governmental committees, services and agencies

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Special
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Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

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Heads of state of the Group of 20

Macri Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor-General: Cosgrove) Temer Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor General: Payette) Xi Tusk Macron Steinmeier Kovind Jokowi Mattarella Akihito Peña Nieto Putin Salman Ramaphosa Moon Erdoğan Elizabeth II Trump

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

.
President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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Presidents of the Russian Federation

Presidents

Boris Yeltsin Vladimir Putin Dmitry Medvedev Vladimir Putin

Acting Presidents

Alexander Rutskoy Viktor Chernomyrdin Vladimir Putin

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Russian Presidential Administrations

1 Yeltsin (1991–1999) 2 & 4 Putin (2000–2008 & 2012–present) 3 Medvedev (2008–2012)

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Government of the Russian Federation

Offices subordinated to the President of Russia

Ministry of Internal Affairs

Police of the Russian Federation

Ministry for Affairs of Civil Defence, Emergencies and Disaster Relief

Russian State Fire Service State Inspectorate for Small Ships

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Agency of CIS affairs

Ministry of Defence

Service of Military-Technical Cooperation Service of Technical and Export Control Service for Defence Contracts Agency of Special
Special
Construction

Ministry of Justice

Federal Penitentiary Service Service of Court Bailiffs

Presidential Services and Directorates

Foreign Intelligence Service Federal Security Service Federal Drug Control Service of Russia Federal Protective Service Special
Special
Communications Service State Courier Service Chief Directorate of Special
Special
Programs of the President Federal Financial Monitoring Directorate of the President National Guard of Russia Security Council of Russia

Offices subordinated to Government of Russia
Russia
head by the Chairman

Ministry of Health

Service of Supervision in the Sphere of Public Health Services Medical and Biologic Agency

Ministry of Culture

Federal Archival Agency Federal Agency for Tourism

Ministry of Education and Science

Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Education and Science Service for Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks Agency of Education Agency of Science and Innovation Federal Youth Agency

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service of Supervision in Sphere of Wildlife Management Agency of Water Resources Agency on the use of Mineral Resources

Ministry of Industry and Trade

Agency of Technical Regulation and Metrology

Ministry for Development of Russian Far East

 

Ministry of Communications and Mass Media

Agency of Communication Agency on Information Technologies Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media

Ministry of Agriculture

Service of Veterinary and Phytosanitary Supervision Agency of Forestry Agency of Fisheries

Ministry of Sport

Ministry of Construction, Housing and Utilities

Ministry of Transport

Federal Service of Supervision of Transport Air Transport Agency Road Agency Agency of Railway Transport Agency of Sea and River Transport

Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

Federal Service for Labour and Employment

Ministry of Finance

Federal Tax Service Service of Insurance Supervision Service of Financial-Budgetary Supervision Treasury

Ministry of Economic Development

Agency for State Reserves Agency for State Property Management State Statistics

Ministry of Energy

Russian Energy Agency

Governmental committees, services and agencies

Federal Migratory Service Federal Antimonopoly Service Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Service for Hydrometeorology and the Monitoring of the Environment Federal Customs Service Service of Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision Service on Tariffs Federal Financial Monitoring Service Financial Market Service Federal Space Agency Agency for Deliveries of Military and Special
Special
Equipment of Material Means Agency on the Arrangement of the State Boundary Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography

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Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

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Heads of state of the Group of 20

Macri Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor-General: Cosgrove) Temer Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Governor General: Payette) Xi Tusk Macron Steinmeier Kovind Jokowi Mattarella Akihito Peña Nieto Putin Salman Ramaphosa Moon Erdoğan Elizabeth II Trump

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

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President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

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President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Russia.

Official site of the President of Russia ´ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
will once again become Russia’s president´ – The Economist, 3 March 2012

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v t e

Presidents of the Russian Federation

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Boris Yeltsin Vladimir Putin Dmitry Medvedev Vladimir Putin

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v t e

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1 Yeltsin (1991–1999) 2 & 4 Putin (2000–2008 & 2012–present) 3 Medvedev (2008–2012)

v t e

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v t e

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

.
l> President Of The Russian Federation


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1991

Passage of presidency law: 24 April 1991[2] Constitutional amendments: 24 May 1991 [3] First inauguration: 10 July 1991

(Modern status is defined by the Constitution, adopted on 12 December 1993)

Succession Prime Minister of Russia

Salary 3.6 million rubles annually

Website (in Russian) президент.рф (in English) eng.kremlin.ru

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v t e

The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia
Russia
and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia
Russia
was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia
Russia
is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.[4] In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia.[5] The Chairman of the Federation Council
Chairman of the Federation Council
is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.[6][7] The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma
State Duma
and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the fourth and current president.

Contents

1 Selection process

1.1 Eligibility 1.2 Election 1.3 Inauguration 1.4 Vacancy or disability

2 Insignia

2.1 Chain of office 2.2 Standard (flag) 2.3 Special
Special
copy of the Constitution 2.4 Legal basis of the insignia

3 Powers and duties

3.1 Guarantor of the Constitution 3.2 Nominations 3.3 Legislation 3.4 Domestic policy 3.5 Foreign policy 3.6 Ceremonial duties

4 Residences 5 Political affiliation 6 Transport 7 Post-presidency

7.1 Living former Presidents 7.2 Presidential centers

8 List of presidents

8.1 Presidential administrations

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Selection process[edit] Eligibility[edit] A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia
Russia
for at least 10 years.[8] The Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.[9] Election[edit] Main article: Russian presidential elections The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL).[10] The Federation Council
Federation Council
calls the presidential elections.[11] If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election.[12] The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.[13] Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.[14] The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation.[15] If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes.[15] The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.[16] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Russian presidential inauguration

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
takes the Presidential Oath in 2012.

Inauguration of the President of Russia
Russia
is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:[17]

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.

Vacancy or disability[edit] See also: Acting President of Russia Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. Insignia[edit] After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions. Chain of office[edit]

Chain of office

Presidential standard

The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions. Standard (flag)[edit] The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President. Special
Special
copy of the Constitution[edit] The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library. Legal basis of the insignia[edit] These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996,[18] and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000.[19] In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency. Powers and duties[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
delivering the 2012 Address to the Federal Assembly

Guarantor of the Constitution[edit] As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country’s Constitution and federal laws. Nominations[edit] The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma
State Duma
any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.[20] Legislation[edit] Under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution, the President exercises his right to submit draft legislation, as well as the right to sign bills into law or to veto them. The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia’s constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma
State Duma
in certain cases, and calling referendum. Domestic policy[edit] Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia
Russia
within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws. Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state. Foreign policy[edit]

President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with US President
US President
Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2009.

The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia
Russia
to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties. Ceremonial duties[edit] An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients. Residences[edit]

Kremlin Senate, is the working residence of the President of Russia

Cabinet of the President of Russia

The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin complex.[21] Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace
(used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the socalled 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.[21][22] Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo
Novo-Ogaryovo
(Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
after his retirement. Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.[23]

Rus' (Russian: Русь), Zavidovo, Tver Oblast Congress Palace or Constantine Palace complex (Russian: Дворец конгрессов, Константиновский дворец), Strelna, Saint Petersburg, reconstructed for 300th Saint Petersburg anniversary Bocharov Ruchey (Russian: Боча́ров Руче́й, lit. Bocharov creek), Sochi Shuyskaya Chupa (Russian: Шу́йская Чупа́) at a distance of 25 km from Petrozavodsk, Karelia Dolgiye Borody (Russian: Долгие Бороды) (also known as Uzhin Russian: Ужи́н) at a distance of 20 km from Valday, Novgorod Oblast Volzhskiy Utyos sanatorium (Russian: Во́лжский утёс, lit. Cliff-upon-Volga) on Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev Reservoir
shore Tantal tourist centre (Russian: Танта́л, lit. Tantalum) on Volga bank, at a distance of 25 km from Saratov Sosny (Russian: Со́сны, lit. pines) on Yenisei bank, near Krasnoyarsk Angarskie hutora (Russian: Анга́рские хутора́, lit. Steadings of Angarsk) at a distance of 47 km from Irkutsk Maly istok (Russian: Ма́лый исто́к, lit. The small headspring) inside Ekaterineburg
Ekaterineburg
forestry

Political affiliation[edit] None of the Russian presidents to date were ever a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia
Russia
party leader, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".[24] Transport[edit] National transport services for the Russian President and the Presidential state car are provided by the Special
Special
Purpose Garage (SPG).[25] The SPG is a unit within the Federal Protective Service.

Limousines

ZIL-41047
ZIL-41047
Presidential executive car.

ZiL Mercedes-Benz

Escort cars

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(including G-Class) Chevrolet

Honorary escort (motorcycles)

Ural BMW

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU – The official Russian presidential aircraft

Air transport services for the President are provided by the airline company Rossiya Airlines.[26] Main article: Russian presidential aircraft

Airplanes for long-distance travel

Ilyushin Il-96-300PU (long-range) – main aircraft Ilyushin Il-62M (long-range) Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 900
(long-range) Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
(medium-range) Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
(short-range) Tupolev Tu-214PU

Helicopters

Mil Mi-8

The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms
Russian coat of arms
or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia. In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.[27] Post-presidency[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with former President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
on 12 June 2001

On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999. On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001. This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:

President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, regardless of age, is entitled to a monthly lifetime pay of 75% of the monthly remuneration of the President of Russia. In the case of the President's death his family members are entitled to a monthly allowance in the amount equal to six times the minimum old-age pension, established by the federal law on the day of his death. President of Russia, ceased to carry out its mandate, has immunity. He can not be held criminally or administratively liable for acts committed by them during the execution of the President's powers, as well as arrested, detained, interrogated and subjected to a personal search, if these actions are carried out in the course of proceedings relating to the execution of his powers as President.

Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection. Living former Presidents[edit] As of April 2018, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
(1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.

Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012) (1965-09-14) September 14, 1965 (age 52)

Presidential centers[edit]

Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Presidential Center

In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted.[28] According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia
Russia
as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
is also planned.[29] List of presidents[edit] Main article: List of presidents of Russia

Name Term of office Length of term

Boris Yeltsin 1991–1999 8 years, 174 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1st & 2nd terms) 1999–2008 8 years, 128 days

Dmitry Medvedev 2008–2012 4 years, 0 days

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(3rd term) 2012–present 5 years, 334 days

Presidential administrations[edit]

Presidency of Boris Yeltsin Presidency of Vladimir Putin Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Russia List of Russian presidential candidates Lifespan timeline of Presidents of Russia Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation First Lady of Russia Prime Minister of Russia Acting President of Russia List of heads of state of Russia List of leaders of Russia President of the Soviet Union Russian presidential administration Security Council of Russia

References[edit]

^ UNITED NATIONS HEADS OF STATE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS Protocol and Liaison Service ^ RSFSR Law "On President of the Russian SFSR ^ RSFSR Law on amendments to the Constitution of the RSFSR ^ I.E. Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 383 ^ "Конституция Российской Федерации". Eng.constitution.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство". Ria.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ ""Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." – Сергей Шахрай". Newstube.ru. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation : A Contextual Analysis, Henderson, Jane ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ thato, phengo; begang, Rita James (2009). Voting and Elections the World Over. Global Perspectives on Social Issues Series. Lexington Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7391-3090-2.  ^ Constitution of Russia
Constitution of Russia
article 102:1 ^ Kozlova and O. E. Kutafin, Konstitutsionnoe Pravo Rossii (Constitutional Law of Russia) (4th ed, 2006) p. 373. ^ "Medvedev Signs Off on Election, Party Signature Laws". RIA Novosti. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ Sefanov, Mike (22 December 2008). "Russian presidential term extended to 6 years". CNN.  ^ a b Gueorguieva & Simon 2009, p. 79. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (5 March 2012). "Observers Detail Flaws in Russian Election". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation". The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 1996, №33, ar. 3976 ^ Coбpaниe зaкoнoдaтeльcтвa Рoccийcкoй Фeдepaции 2000, №19, ar. 2068 ^ "Authority and Duties of the President". Archive.kremlin.ru. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ a b The Presidential Residences Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "Завершён демонтаж 14-го корпуса Кремля". RT (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Residences, Kommersant, #18(3594), 7 February 2007 ^ "Putin steps down as United Russia
Russia
head". Themoscownews.com. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ President's transports. Cars (in Russian) Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President's transports. Air transport". Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.  (in Russian) ^ "Putin's Kremlin Helipad
Helipad
Cost $6.4 Mln – Official". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "Федеральный закон о центрах исторического наследия президентов РФ, прекративших исполнение своих полномочий". Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ "В России появятся Медведев Центр и Путин Центр". AltaPress (in Russian). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 

Attribution note: Material from the powers and duties section of this article was originally published by the website of the Office of the President of Russia. External links[edit]

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141021468 LCCN: no96011667 ISNI: 0000 0004 0619 8

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