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The President of the Philippines
Philippines
(Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas) or in (Spanish: Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The President leads the executive branch of the Philippine government
Philippine government
and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The President is directly elected by the people, and is one of only two nationally elected executive officials, the other being the Vice President of the Philippines. However, four vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation.[note 1] Filipinos
Filipinos
refer to their President as Pangulo or Presidente. The President serves a single, fixed, six-year term without possibility of re-election. On June 30, 2016, Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
was sworn in as the 16th and current president.

Contents

1 Timeline 2 Local nomenclature 3 History

3.1 Early republics

3.1.1 Bonifacio's Tagalog Republic 3.1.2 Aguinaldo's government and the First Republic 3.1.3 Other claimants

3.2 American occupation 3.3 Philippine Commonwealth 3.4 The Second Republic under the Japanese 3.5 After World War II 3.6 1973 Constitution 3.7 Fifth Republic 3.8 Other issues

3.8.1 Laurel's position

4 Powers and roles

4.1 Chief Executive 4.2 Commander-in-Chief 4.3 Power of appointment 4.4 Government agencies

5 Election process

5.1 Eligibility 5.2 Election 5.3 Inauguration 5.4 Oath of Office

6 Impeachment

6.1 Impeachable offenses 6.2 Impeachment attempts and proceedings

6.2.1 Joseph Ejercito Estrada 6.2.2 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

7 Title

7.1 Historical titles

8 State of the nation address 9 Tenure and term limits 10 Vacancy

10.1 At the start of the term 10.2 During the term

11 Privileges of office

11.1 Official
Official
residence

11.1.1 Bahay Pangarap

11.1.1.1 Other residences

11.2 Air transport 11.3 Water transport 11.4 Land transport 11.5 Security

12 Post-presidencies

12.1 Living former presidents

13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 External links

Timeline[edit]

Local nomenclature[edit] In Filipino, one of the two official languages of the Philippines, the President is referred to as Pangulo. In the other major languages of the Philippines
Philippines
such as the Visayan languages, Presidente is more common when Filipinos
Filipinos
are not actually code-switching with the English word. History[edit]

Philippines

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the Philippines

Constitution

Charter Change Laws and legal codes

Legislature

Congress

Senate

Senate President Aquilino Pimentel III

House of Representatives

Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez

Districts Party-list representation

Local legislatures

ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly Provinces Cities Municipalities Barangays

Executive

President of the Philippines

Rodrigo Duterte

Vice President of the Philippines

Leni Robredo

Cabinet Executive departments Local government

Judiciary

Supreme Court

Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno

Court of Appeals Court of Tax Appeals Sandiganbayan Ombudsman Regional Trial Courts Barangay
Barangay
justice

Constitutional commissions

Civil Service Commission Commission on Elections Commission on Audit Commission on Human Rights

Elections

Recent elections

General: 2007 2010 2013 2016

Political parties

Lakas Liberal Nacionalista NPC NUP PDP–Laban UNA

Administrative divisions

Capital Regions Provinces Cities Municipalities Barangays Poblacions Sitios Puroks

Related topics

Foreign relations Human rights Taxation

Other countries Atlas

v t e

Main article: List of Presidents of the Philippines Further information: List of Unofficial Presidents of the Philippines Early republics[edit] Bonifacio's Tagalog Republic[edit] Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andrés Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio
could be considered the first President of a united Philippines
Philippines
since he was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Filipino: Kataas-taasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan
Katipunan
started an open revolt against the Spanish colonial government in August 1896, Bonifacio transformed the society into a revolutionary government with him as its head. While the term Katipunan
Katipunan
remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic
Tagalog Republic
(Spanish: República Tagala; Filipino: Republikang Tagalog). Although the word Tagalog refers to the Tagalog people, a specific ethno-linguistic group, Bonifacio used it to denote all non-Spanish peoples of the Philippines
Philippines
in place of Filipinos, which had colonial origins.[3][4][5][6][7] Bonifacio's revolutionary government never controlled much territory for any significant period. Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
should also be included.[8] Aguinaldo's government and the First Republic[edit]

Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
and ten of the Malolos Congress
Malolos Congress
delegates that passed the Constitución Política de la República Filipina in 1899

In March 1897, during the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
against Spain Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention.[9] The new government was meant to replace the Katipunan, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Aguinaldo therefore signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato
Pact of Biak-na-Bato
and went into exile in Hong Kong at the end of 1897. In April 1898, the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
broke out, and the Asiatic Squadron of the United States
United States
Navy sailed for the Philippines. At the Battle of Manila
Manila
Bay on May 1, 1898 the American Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy
Spanish Navy
effectively ending Spanish rule in the Philippines.[10] Aquinaldo subsequently returned to the Philippines aboard a U.S. Navy vessel and renewed the revolution. He formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898 and issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was then elected President of the First Philippine Republic, a government constituted by the Malolos Congress under the Malolos Constitution. Consequently, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. The First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
was short-lived and never internationally recognized. The Philippines
Philippines
was transferred from Spanish to American control by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed in December of that year.[11] The Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
broke out between the United States
United States
and Aguinaldo's government. His government effectively ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, after he pledged allegiance to the United States
United States
following his capture by U.S. forces in March. The current government of the Republic of the Philippines, considers Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
to be the first President of the Philippines.[12] Other claimants[edit] Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic
Tagalog Republic
in 1902 as a continuing state of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents", and along with Bonifacio, are not recognized as Presidents by the government.[13][14] American occupation[edit] Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines
Philippines
was exercised by a succession of four American military Governors-General and eleven civil Governors-General. Philippine Commonwealth[edit]

Manuel Luis Quezon, the first president of the Philippine Commonwealth, is officially recognized as the second President of the Philippines

In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, which had been established, still under United States
United States
sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on 14 May of that year. During its first five years, the President could serve for an unrenewable six-year term. It was later amended in 1940 to limit a President to serving no more than two four-year terms. When President Quezon exiled himself to the United States
United States
after the Philippines
Philippines
fell to the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
in World War II, he appointed Chief Justice José Abad Santos
José Abad Santos
as Acting President and as Acting Commander-in Chief of the Armed Forces. Abad Santos was subsequently executed by the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
on May 2, 1942. The Second Republic under the Japanese[edit] On October 14, 1943, José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel
became President under a constitution imposed by the Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, had been instructed to remain in the City of Manila
Manila
by President Quezon, who withdrew to Corregidor
Corregidor
and then to the United States
United States
to establish a government in exile in the United States. The General Headquarters and Military Camp Base of the Philippine Commonwealth
Philippine Commonwealth
Army was a military station are moved in the province. After the combined American and Filipino forces liberated the islands in 1945, Laurel officially dissolved the republic on August 17, 1945. After World War II[edit] The 1935 Constitution was restored after the Japanese surrender ended World War II, with Vice President Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
becoming President due to Quezon's death on August 1, 1944. It remained in effect after the United States
United States
recognized the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
as a separate self-governing nation on July 4, 1946. 1973 Constitution[edit] A new Constitution ratified on January 17, 1973 under the rule of Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand E. Marcos
introduced a parliamentary-style government. Marcos instituted himself as Prime Minister while serving as President in 1978. He later appointed César Virata as Prime Minister in 1981. This Constitution was in effect until the People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
of 1986 toppled Marcos's 21-year authoritarian regime and replaced him with Corazon C. Aquino. Fifth Republic[edit] Ruling by decree during the early part of her tenure and as a president installed by revolutionary means, President Corazon Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3 on March 25, 1986 which abrogated many of the provisions of the then 1973 Constitution, including the provisions associated with the Marcos regime which gave the President legislative powers, as well as the unicameral legislature called the Batasang Pambansa (literally National Legislature in Filipino). Often called the "Freedom Constitution," the proclamation retained only parts of the 1973 Constitution that were essential for a return to democratic rule, such as the bill of rights. This constitution was superseded on February 2, 1987 by the present constitution. Other issues[edit] Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo might be considered to have been an inaugural president of an insurgent government. Quezon was the inaugural president of a predecessor state to the current one, while Aquino, mère, was the inaugural president of the currently-constituted government. The government considers Aguinaldo to have been the first President of the Philippines, followed by Quezon and his successors.[12][15] Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Rodrigo R. Duterte, is considered to be the 16th president. While the government may consider Aguinaldo as the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States' jurisdiction due to the 1898 Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish–American War; the United States
United States
thus does not consider his tenure to have been legitimate.[12][16] Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
is considered to be the first president by the United States. He is also the first to win a popular election and a nationwide election. Laurel's position[edit]

José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel
giving a speech after his inauguration as President of the Second Philippine Republic

As with many other Axis-occupied countries in the Second World War, the Philippines
Philippines
had at one point two presidents heading two governments. One was Quezon and the Commonwealth government-in-exile in Washington, D.C., and the other was Manila-based Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored Second Republic. Notably, Laurel was himself instructed to remain in Manila
Manila
by President Quezon.[citation needed] Laurel was not formally recognized as a President until the rule of Diosdado Macapagal.[citation needed] His inclusion in the official list coincided with the transfer of the official date of Independence Day from July 4 (the anniversary of the Philippines' independence from the United States) to June 12 (the anniversary of the 1898 Declaration of Independence). The inclusion of Laurel thus causes some problems in determining the order of presidents. It is inaccurate to call Laurel the successor of Osmeña or vice versa, since Laurel's Second Republic was formally repudiated after World War II, its actions not considered legal or binding. Quezon, Osmeña, and Roxas were seen as being in a contiguous line according to the 1935 Constitution, while Laurel was the only president of the Second Republic, which had a separate charter. Thus, Laurel had neither predecessor nor successor, while Osmeña succeeded Quezon after the latter's death, and was in turn succeeded by Roxas as President of the Third Republic. Powers and roles[edit] Chief Executive[edit] The President of the Philippines, being the chief executive, serves as both the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The Constitution vests the executive power upon the President who thus heads the government's executive branch, which includes the Cabinet and all executive departments.[17] The President also has the power to grant pardons[18] to enter into foreign loans with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board.[19] The President also exercises general supervision over local government units.[20] Commander-in-Chief[edit]

President Aquino reviews the troops of the Armed Forces of the Philippines

The President also serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.[21] This includes the power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus and to declare martial law.[21] Power of appointment[edit] With the consent of the Commission on Appointments, the President also appoints the heads of the executive departments, board of members and its leaders from any national government-related institutions, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, high-ranking officers of the armed forces, and other officials.[22] The members of the Supreme Court and lower courts are also appointed by the President, but only from the list of nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. Such appointments do not need the approval of the Commission on Appointments.[23] Government agencies[edit] Main article: Office of the President of the Philippines Some government agencies report to no specific department but are instead under the Office of the President. These include important agencies such as the National Security Council, Office of The Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process, Commission on Human Rights, Commission on Higher Education, Climate Change Commission, Commission on Population, Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board, Metropolitan Manila
Manila
Development Authority, Movie and Television Review and Classification Board, Authority of the Freeport Area of Bataan, Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority, and many more.[24] The Presidential Security Group, which is composed mostly of members from the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
and the Philippine National Police, is directly under the Office of the President. Election process[edit] Eligibility[edit] Article 7, Section 2 of the Constitution reads: "No person may be elected President unless he or she is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines
Philippines
for at least ten years immediately preceding such election." [25] The Constitution also provides term limits where the President is ineligible for reelection and a person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years will be ineligible to be elected for a second term. However, with the case of Joseph Ejercito Estrada
Joseph Ejercito Estrada
who was elected president in 1998, served until 2001, and again ran for the presidency in 2010, the Constitution's wording where "[the] President shall not be eligible for any re-election"[26] remains unclear as his case was never brought to the Supreme Court. It remains unclear whether the term limit of no re-election applies only to the incumbent President or for any person who has been elected as President. Election[edit] Main article: Philippine presidential election

Home provinces (blue and purple) of the Presidents.

The President is elected by direct vote every six years, usually on the second Monday of May.[26] The returns of every election for President and Vice President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall open all the certificates in the presence of a joint public session of Congress not later than 30 days after election day. Congress then canvasses the votes upon determining that the polls are authentic and were done in the manner provided by law. The person with the highest number of votes is declared the winner, but in case two or more have the highest number of votes, the President is elected by a majority of all members of both Houses, voting separately on each. Inauguration[edit] Main article: Philippine presidential inauguration Further information: List of Philippine presidential inaugurations

Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
swears in as the 8th President of the Philippines after winning the elections of 1957

Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
during his inauguration.

The President of the Philippines
Philippines
usually takes the Oath of Office at noon of June 30 following the Presidential election Traditionally, the Vice President takes the Oath first, a little before noon. This is for two reasons: first, according to protocol, no one follows the President (who is last due to his supremacy), and second, to establish a constitutionally valid successor before the President-elect accedes. During the Quezon inauguration, however, the Vice President and the Legislature were sworn in after the President, to symbolise a new start. As soon as the President takes the Oath of Office, a 21-gun salute
21-gun salute
is fired to salute the new head of state, and the Presidential Anthem Mabuhay is played. The President delivers his inaugural address, and then proceeds to Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
to climb the Grand Staircase, a ritual which symbolises the formal possession of the Palace. The President then inducts the newly formed cabinet into office in one of the state rooms. Custom has enshrined three places as the traditional venue for the inauguration ceremony: Barasoain Church
Barasoain Church
in Malolos City, Bulacan; in front of the old Legislative Building (now part of the National Museum) in Manila; or at Quirino Grandstand, where most have been held. In 2004, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
delivered her pre-inaugural address at Quirino Grandstand, took the Oath of Office in Cebu City before Chief Justice Hilario Davide Jr., and the next day held the first cabinet meeting in Butuan City. She broke with precedent, reasoning that she wanted to celebrate her inauguration in each of the three main island groups of the Philippines: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Her first inauguration also broke precedent as she was sworn in at the EDSA Shrine
EDSA Shrine
on January 20, 2001, during the EDSA Revolution of 2001 that removed Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
from office. In the past, elections were held in November and the President's inauguration was held on December 30 (Rizal Day). This ensured that when the inauguration was usually held at Quirino Grandstand, the new President could see the Rizal Monument
Rizal Monument
on the anniversary of his death. Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
transferred the dates of both the elections and the inauguration to May and June, respectively, and it remains so to this day. The dress code at the modern inaugural ceremony is traditional, formal Filipino clothing, which is otherwise loosely termed Filipiniana. Ladies must wear terno, baro't saya (the formal wear of other indigenous groups is permissible), while men don the Barong Tagalog. Non- Filipinos
Filipinos
at the ceremony may wear their respective versions of formal dress, but foreign diplomats have often been seen donning Filipiniana as a mark of cultural respect. Oath of Office[edit] The Constitution provides the following oath or affirmation for the President and Vice President-elect which must be taken before they enter into office:[27]

“I, (name), do solemnly swear [or affirm], that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice-President or Acting President] of the Philippines. Preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.” [In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.] — Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 5

The Filipino text of the oath used for the inaugurations of Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, and Benigno S. Aquino III
Benigno S. Aquino III
reads:[28]

"Ako si (pangalan), ay taimtim kong pinanunumpaan (o pinatototohanan) na tutuparin ko nang buong katapatan at sigasig ang aking mga tungkulin bilang Pangulo (o Pangalawang Pangulo o Nanunungkulang Pangulo) ng Pilipinas, pangangalagaan at ipagtatanggol ang kanyang Konstitusyon, ipatutupad ang mga batas nito, magiging makatarungan sa bawat tao, at itatalaga ang aking sarili sa paglilingkod sa Bansa. Kasihan nawa ako ng Diyos.” (Kapag pagpapatotoo, ang huling pangungusap ay kakaltasin.) — Konstitusyon ng Pilipinas, Articulo VII, SEK. 5

Impeachment[edit] Impeachment in the Philippines
Philippines
follows procedures similar to the United States. The House of Representatives, one of the houses of the bicameral Congress, has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions and the Ombudsman.[29] When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines
Philippines
which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, the impeachment case.[30] A main difference from US proceedings however is that only a third of House members are required to approve the motion to impeach the President (as opposed to the majority required in the United States). In the Senate, selected members of the House of Representatives act as the prosecutors and the Senators act as judges with the Senate President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court jointly presiding over the proceedings. Like the United States, to convict the official in question requires that a minimum of two-thirds (i.e., 16 of 24 members) of the senate vote in favour of conviction. If an impeachment attempt is unsuccessful or the official is acquitted, no new cases can be filed against that impeachable official for at least one full year. Impeachable offenses[edit] The Constitution enumerates the culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, and betrayal of public trust as grounds for the impeachment of the President.[31] The same also applies for the Vice President, the Members of the Supreme Court, the Members of the Constitutional Commissions, and the Ombudsman. Impeachment attempts and proceedings[edit] Joseph Ejercito Estrada[edit] Joseph Ejercito Estrada
Joseph Ejercito Estrada
was the first President to undergo impeachment when the House of Representatives voted to raise the impeachment proceedings to the Senate in 2000. However, the trial ended prematurely where anti-Estrada senators walked out of the impeachment sessions when Estrada's allies in the Senate voted narrowly to block the opening of an envelope which allegedly contained critical evidence on Estrada's wealth. Estrada was later ousted from office when the 2001 EDSA Revolution forced him out of the presidential palace and when the Supreme Court confirmed that his leaving the palace was his de facto resignation from office. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo[edit] Several impeachment complaints were filed against Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo but none reached the required endorsement of a third of the House of Representatives. Title[edit] The official title of the Philippine head of state and government is "President of the Philippines."[32] The title in Filipino is Pangulo (cognate of Malay penghulu "leader", "chieftain"). The honorific for the President is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General
Governor-General
of the Philippines
Philippines
during Spanish and American occupation.[citation needed] Historical titles[edit] The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines" used under Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
distinguished the government of then-President José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel
from the Commonwealth government-in-exile under President Manuel L. Quezon.[33] The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines
Philippines
restored the title of "President of the Philippines" enacted in the 1935 constitution.[34] The 1973 constitution, though generally referring to the president as "President of the Philippines" did, in Article XVII, Section 12, once use the term, "President of the Republic."[35] In the text of Proclamation No. 1081
Proclamation No. 1081
that announced martial law in September 1972, President Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand E. Marcos
consistently referred to himself as "President of the Philippines."[36] State of the nation address[edit]

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
delivers her 7th State of the Nation Address at the Batasang Pambansa

Main article: State of the Nation Address (Philippines) The State of the Nation Address (abbreviated SONA) is an annual event in the Philippines, in which the President of the Philippines
Philippines
reports on the status of the nation, normally to the resumption of a joint session of the Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). This is a duty of the President as stated in Article VII, Section 23 of the 1987 Constitution:[32]

“ The President shall address Congress at the opening of its regular session. He/She may also appear anytime. ”

Tenure and term limits[edit]

Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
was the only President to serve three terms (1965–1969, 1969–1981, 1981–1986).

The 1935 Constitution originally set the president's term at six years, without re-election.[37] In 1940, however, the 1935 Constitution was amended and the term of the President (and Vice President) was shortened to four years, with a two-term limit. Since the amendment was done, only Presidents Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
(1941) and Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand E. Marcos
(1969) were re-elected. Presidents Sergio Osmeña (1946), Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
(1953), Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
(1961) and Diosdado Macapagal (1965) all failed in seeking a new term. However, in 1973, a new Constitution was promulgated and allowed then-incumbent President Marcos to seek a new term. In 1981, Marcos was again elected as President against Alejo Santos
Alejo Santos
– making him the only President to be elected to a third term.[38] The 1987 Constitution restored the 1935 Constitution's original ban on presidential reelection. Under Article 7, Section 4 of the current constitution, the term of the President shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date, six years thereafter. The incumbent President shall not be eligible for any re-election. No person who has been President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the presidency at any time.[39] Vacancy[edit] At the start of the term[edit] Under Article 7, Section 7 of the Constitution of the Philippines, In case the president-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified.[32] If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President.[32] Where no President and Vice President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until a President or a Vice President shall have been chosen and qualified.[32] During the term[edit]

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
was the first Vice President to succeed to the presidency upon the death of a chief executive who was Manuel L. Quezon in 1944.

Article 7, Sections 8 and 11 of the Constitution of the Philippines provide rules of succession to the presidency. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice President will become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice President; the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice President shall have been elected and qualified. The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President. The line of presidential succession as specified by Article VII, Section 8 of the Constitution of the Philippines
Philippines
are the Vice President, Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The current Presidential line of succession is:

# Name Position

1 Maria Leonor G. Robredo Vice President

2 Aquilino L. Pimentel III President of the Senate

3 Pantaleon D. Alvarez Speaker of the House

Notes:

Contrary to popular belief, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
is not in the line of succession. If the offices of both the President and the Vice President become vacant at the same time, Congress shall enact a law calling for a special election. However, if the presidential election is 18 months away, no special election shall be called.

Privileges of office[edit] Official
Official
residence[edit] Main article: Malacañang Palace

Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines.

Before the Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
was designated as the official residence of the President, various establishments served as residence of the chief executive. The Spanish Governor-General, the highest-ranking official in the Philippines
Philippines
during the Spanish Era, resided in the Palacio del Gobernador inside the walled city of Intramuros. However, after an earthquake in 1863, the Palacio del Gobernador was destroyed, and the residence and office of the Governor-General
Governor-General
transferred to Malacañang Palace. During the Philippine Revolution, President Aguinaldo resided in his own home in Kawit, Cavite. After his defeat in the Philippine–American War, Aguinaldo transferred the Capital of the Philippines
Philippines
to different areas while he struggled in the pursuit of American Forces. When the Americans occupied the Philippines, they also used the Palace as an official residence. During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, the governmental offices and the presidential residence transferred to Baguio, and the Mansion House was used as the official residence. Meanwhile, President Quezon of the Philippine Commonwealth
Philippine Commonwealth
resided in the Omni Shoreham Hotel
Omni Shoreham Hotel
in Washington D.C. After the restoration of independence, plans were made for the construction of a new capital city. However, the plans did not push through and Manila
Manila
remained as the capital city, and Malacañang Palace as the President's official residence.[40][41] The Filipino name is derived from the Tagalog phrase "may lakán diyán", ("there is a nobleman there"), and this was eventually shortened to Malakanyáng. There are two variant of the name in official use: "Malacañan Palace" refers to the structure of the Palace, while "Malacañang" identifies the office of the President. The latter, along with the term "the Palace" ("ang Palasyo") are interchangeable, metonyms for the President and his household in colloquial speech and in the media.[citation needed] Malacañan Palace serves as the official residence of the President of the Philippines, a privilege entitled to him/her under Article VII, Section 6 of the Constitution.[32] The Palace is located along the north bank of the Pasig River, along J.P. Laurel Street in the district of San Miguel, Manila. Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
is depicted on the reverse side of the 20-peso bill in the Pilipino, Ang Bagong Lipunan, New Design, and the present New Generation series. Bahay Pangarap[edit]

Bahay Pangarap at the Malacañang grounds

The actual residence of incumbent President Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
is Bahay Pangarap (English: House of Dreams),[42] a smaller structure located across the Pasig River
Pasig River
from Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
in Malacañang Park,[43] which is itself part of the Presidential Security Group Complex.[42][44] Former President Aquino was the first President to live in Bahay Pangarap his official residence.[45][46] Malacañang Park was originally built by former President Manuel L. Quezon as a rest house and venue for informal activities and social functions for the First Family.[42][46] The house was built and designed by architect Juan Arellano in the 1930s,[42][46] and underwent a number of renovations.[42] In 2008, the house was demolished and rebuilt in contemporary style by architect Conrad Onglao,[42][46] and a new swimming pool was built, replacing the Commonwealth Era one.[45][46] The house originally had one bedroom,[42] however, it was renovated for Aquino to have four bedrooms,[45] a guest room, a room for his household staff, and a room for his close-in security.[43] Malacañang Park was refurbished through the efforts of First Lady Eva Macapagal, the second wife of President Diosdado Macapagal, in the early 1960s.[46] Mrs. Macapagal renamed the rest house as Bahay Pangarap.[46] Under Fidel V. Ramos, Bahay Pangarap was transformed into a clubhouse for the Malacañang Golf Club.[42] The house was subsequently used by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
to welcome special guests.[42] Aquino made it clear before he assumed office that he refused to live in the main Palace, or in the nearby Arlegui Mansion (where he once lived during his mother's rule and where Ramos later stayed), stating that both were too big.[42] He lived in the Aquino family residence along Times Street, Quezon City
Quezon City
in the first few days of his rule, although he transferred to Bahay Pangarap because it was deemed a security concern for his neighbours if he stayed in their small, 1970s home.[44] Other residences[edit] The President also has other complexes nationwide for official use:

The Mansion – Baguio Malacañang sa Sugbo
Malacañang sa Sugbo
– Cebu City Malacañang of the South
Malacañang of the South
– Davao City

Air transport[edit] Main article: Air transports of heads of state and government § Philippines

President Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
exits the presidential helicopter at the Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
for his 1st State of the Nation Address

An Aérospatiale SA-330 Puma carrying President Corazon C. Aquino at Subic Bay Naval Base.

The 250th (Presidential) Airlift Wing of the Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
has the mandate of providing safe and efficient air transport for the President of the Philippines
Philippines
and the First Family. On occasion, the wing has also been tasked to provide transportation for other members of government, visiting heads of state, and other state guests. The fleet includes: 1 Fokker F28, which is primarily used for the President's domestic trips and it is also called "Kalayaan One" when the President is on board, 4 Bell 412
Bell 412
helicopters, 3 Sikorsky S-76 helicopters, 1 Sikorsky S-70-5 Black Hawk, a number of Bell UH-1N
Bell UH-1N
Twin Hueys, as well as Fokker F-27
Fokker F-27
Friendships. For trips outside of the Philippines, the Air Force employs a Bombardier Global Express
Global Express
or charters appropriate aircraft from the country's flag carrier, Philippine Airlines. In 1962, the Air Force chartered aircraft from Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
as the international services of Philippine Airlines were suspended. Pan Am later went defunct in 1991. For short-haul flights, PAL used the Boeing 737
Boeing 737
until they were replaced by Airbus A320
Airbus A320
and Airbus A321
Airbus A321
aircraft. For medium to long-haul flights, the airline's Boeing 747-400's were used until their retirement in September 2014. The Airbus A340-300, Airbus A330-300
Airbus A330-300
and Boeing 777-300ER
Boeing 777-300ER
have since fulfilled these roles. Any PAL aircraft with the flight number PR/PAL 001 and callsign PHILIPPINE 001 is a special plane operated by Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
to transport the President of the Philippines. The President sometimes charter private jets for domestic trips within the Philippines
Philippines
due to some airports in the Philippines
Philippines
having small runways.

President Rodrigo Roa Duterte
Rodrigo Roa Duterte
disembarks from the presidential plane upon his arrival at Vnukovo International Airport
Vnukovo International Airport
in Moscow
Moscow
for his official visit to the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
on May 23, 2017

A Presidential Helicopter Bell 412
Bell 412
crashed on April 7, 2009, in the mountainous Ifugao Province
Ifugao Province
north of Manila. On board were eight people, including two Cabinet undersecretaries and several servicemen. The flight was en route to Ifugao from Baguio
Baguio
City as an advance party of President Macapagal-Arroyo, when the control tower at the now-defunct Loakan Airport
Loakan Airport
lost communication with the craft several minutes after takeoff. The Arroyo administration planned to buy another aircraft worth of about 1.2 billion pesos before her term ended in June 2010,[47] but cancelled the purchase due to other issues.[48] Water transport[edit] Main article: BRP Ang Pangulo (AT-25) BRP Ang Pangulo (BRP stands for Barkó ng Repúblika ng Pilipinas, "Ship of the Republic of the Philippines"; "Ang Pangulo" is Filipino for "The President") was commissioned by the Philippine Navy
Philippine Navy
on March 7, 1959. It was built in and by Japan during the administration of President García as part of Japanese reparations to the Philippines for World War II.[49] It is primarily used in entertaining guests of the incumbent President. Land transport[edit] Main article: Official
Official
state car § Philippines

Presidential car with plate number 1 and Presidential Standard

The President of the Philippines
Philippines
uses two black and heavily armored Mercedes-Benz W221
Mercedes-Benz W221
S600 Guard, whereas one is a decoy vehicle. In convoys, the President is escorted by the Presidential Security Group using primarily Nissan Patrol
Nissan Patrol
SUVs with the combination of the following vehicles: Audi A6, BMW 7 Series, Chevrolet Suburban, Hyundai Equus, Hyundai Starex, Toyota Camry, Toyota Fortuner, Toyota Land Cruiser, Philippine National Police
Philippine National Police
400cc motorcycles, Philippine National Police Toyota Altis
Toyota Altis
(Police car variant), other government-owned vehicles, and ambulances at the tail of the convoy; the number depends on the destination. The presidential cars are designated and registered a plate number of 1 or the word PANGULO (President). The limousine bears the Flag of the Philippines
Philippines
and, occasionally, the Presidential Standard.[50] For regional trips, the President boards a Toyota Coaster
Toyota Coaster
or Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa
Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa
or other vehicles owned by government-owned and controlled corporations or government agencies. In this case, the PSG escorts the President using local police cars with an ambulance at the tail of the convoy. Former President Benigno Aquino III, preferred to use his personal vehicle, a Toyota Land Cruiser
Toyota Land Cruiser
200 or his relative's Lexus LX 570 over the black Presidential limousines after their electronic mechanisms were damaged by floodwater. The Palace has announced its interest to acquire a new Presidential limousine.[51] The current President, Rodrigo Duterte, prefers to utilize a white, bullet-proof armored Toyota Landcruiser
Toyota Landcruiser
as his official presidential vehicle instead of the "luxurious" Mercedes-Benz W221
Mercedes-Benz W221
S600 Guard, in his commitment to being the "People's President". The Office of the President has also owned various cars over the decades, including a 1937 Chrysler Airflow
Chrysler Airflow
that served as the country's very first Presidential limousine for Manuel L. Quezon. Security[edit] Main article: Presidential Security Group The Presidential Security Group
Presidential Security Group
(abbreviated PSG), is the lead agency tasked with providing security for the President, Vice President, and their immediate families. They also provide protective service for visiting heads of state and diplomats. Unlike similar groups around the world who protect other political figures, the PSG is not required to handle presidential candidates. However, former Presidents and their immediate families are entitled to a small security detail from the PSG. Currently, the PSG uses Nissan Patrol
Nissan Patrol
SUVs as its primary security vehicles. Post-presidencies[edit]

Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
and Manuel L. Quezón
Manuel L. Quezón
during the 1935 campaign.

After leaving office, a number of presidents held various public positions and made an effort to remain in the limelight. Among other honors, former Presidents and their immediate families are entitled to three soldiers as security detail.[52]

José P. Laurel, who was the only President of the Second Philippine Republic, was elected to the Senate in 1951 and would serve in the upper house until 1957, making him the country's first head of state to seek lower office following his presidency. During his tenure, the Nacionalista Party
Nacionalista Party
urged him to run for president in 1953. He declined, working instead for the successful election of Ramon Magsaysay, who subsequently appointed Laurel to head a diplomatic mission that was tasked with negotiating trade and other issues with United States
United States
officials, resulting in the Laurel-Langley Agreement. Laurel was also the chairman of the Economic Mission to the United States (1954) and the founder of Lyceum of the Philippines University.[53][54] Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
became a member of the Council of State under Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, and García. He was also a member of the National Security Council in the García administration.[54][55] Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
also became a Councillor of State under President Magsaysay.[56] Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
was a delegate, later elected, president of the Constitutional Convention on July 11, 1971.[57] Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
was also a delegate and then succeeded Carlos P. García as president of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. He also lectured in universities and was later a Councillor of State under Presidents Aquino mère and Ramos. Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
was a member of the National Security Council under Ramos, Estrada and Arroyo. She was also a member of the Council of State under President Arroyo. Fidel Ramos
Fidel Ramos
founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation. He was a senior advisor and member of the National Security Council under President Estrada. Ramos was a member of the Council of State and an Ambassador-at-Large under President Arroyo. He was later appointed as special envoy to china under President Duterte to open bilateral negotiations with China over the disputes in the South China Sea but later resigned on November 1 following President Duterte's state visit to Beijing on October 16, 2016. Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
returned to film in November 2009, starring in Ang Tanging Pamilya: A Marry Go Round as part of a promotional attempt to run for a second term as president in 2010 amid much controversy on the legality of his intent (he was allowed to run anyway by COMELEC since the Supreme Court never weighed in on the matter) with many questioning why such a constitutional violation was ever allowed. His release from prison in 2007 by his successor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, questionably restored his political privileges and allowed him to run again. Estrada eventually became a member of the National Security Council under Arroyo.[58][59][60] Following his loss to Noynoy Aquino in 2010, he geared up for a run against Alfredo Lim
Alfredo Lim
for control of the City of Manila
Manila
in 2013, which he won and as a result, Estrada is now the incumbent Mayor of the city of Manila, thus making him the third head of state to run for lower office following his presidency. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
ran for and won a seat in the House of Representatives of the Philippines
Philippines
as the Representative for the 2nd District of Pampanga in the 2010 elections, making her the second head of state after Laurel to seek lower office following her presidency.[61]

Living former presidents[edit] As of April 2018[update], there are four living former Presidents:

Fidel V. Ramos Served: 1992–1998 Age: 90

Joseph Ejercito Estrada Served: 1998–2001 Age: 80

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Served: 2001–2010 Age: 70

Benigno S. Aquino III Served: 2010–2016 Age: 58

Incumbent President Rodrigo Roa Duterte
Rodrigo Roa Duterte
(center) with (from left) former Presidents Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Fidel V. Ramos, and Benigno S. Aquino III, before the start of a National Security Council meeting at the Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
on July 27, 2016.

See also[edit]

Presidency of the Philippines
Philippines
portal

First Spouse of the Philippines List of Presidents of the Philippines Philippine Presidential Inauguration Prime Minister of the Philippines Seal of the President of the Philippines Unofficial Philippine Presidents Vice President of the Philippines

List of Vice Presidents of the Philippines

Bonifacio: Ang Unang Pangulo

Notes[edit]

^ The four vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency upon their predecessor's death or resignation and finished-out that unexpired term are: Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(1944); Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
(1948); Carlos P. Garcia (1957); Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
(2001).

References[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: National constitutions of the Philippines

^ "Emilio Aguinaldo". Official
Official
Gazette of the Philippine Government. March 22, 2011.  ^ Guevara, Sulpico, ed. (2005). The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898–1899. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972). Retrieved January 10, 2011.  ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 25 (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p.61, citing "This article underscores the existence of a de facto revolutionary government (with Bonifacio as its president) that antedated the revolutionary government in Cavite based upon the controversial Tejeros Convention. An attempt to change the official date of the Cry [see Cry of Pugad Lawin] from 23 to 24 August 1896 during a committee hearing on Senate Bill No. 336, held on 17 August 1993, apparently failed.". Sulyap Kultura. National Commission of Culture and the Arts, Philippines. 1 (2). 1996. ); ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 26, "Formation of a revolutionary government"; ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 135 (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Bricco Brigado Pantos). ^ Halili & Halili 2004, pp. 138–139. ^ Severino, Howie (November 27, 2007). " Bonifacio for (first) president". GMA News. . ^ * Guerrero, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998). Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People. 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 962-258-228-1. . ^ * Guerrero, Milagros; Encarnación, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramón (1996). " Andrés Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio
and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 1 (2): 3–12. . ^ Ambeth Ocampo
Ambeth Ocampo
(May 11, 2010). "Bonifacio, First President of the Philippines?". Philippine Daily Inquirer.  ^ Ambeth Ocampo
Ambeth Ocampo
(May 11, 2007). "Looking Back: Election fraud at the Tejeros Convention". Archived from the original on June 30, 2010. . ^ Regalado, Felix B., and Quintin B. Franco (1973). History of Panay. Jaro, Iloilo City: Central Philippine University.  ^ "The U.S. Occupation of the Philippines". University of Colorado American Studies. Retrieved February 13, 2015.  ^ a b c Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.  ^ "The Manila
Manila
Times – Trusted Since 1898". Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2015.  ^ Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995). "Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?". Philippine History Group of Los Ángeles. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2007.  ^ " Official
Official
Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines". Retrieved February 13, 2015.  ^ Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
y Famy, U.S. Library of Congress. ^ 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 1 ^ 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 19 ^ 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 20. ^ 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 10, sec. 4. ^ a b 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 18. ^ 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 16. ^ 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 8, sec. 9. ^ "Agencies/Offices under the Office of the President". Presidential Communications Operations Office. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved Jan 6, 2016.  ^ 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 2 ^ a b 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 4 ^ Constitution of the Philippines, art. 7, sec. 5 ^ "Konstitusyon ng Pilipinas, art. 7, sek. 5". Official
Official
Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.  ^ Constitution of the Philippines, art. 11, sec. 2 ^ Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library. "The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
– Article XI". Retrieved July 25, 2008.  ^ Constitution of the Philippines, art. 11, sec. 2. ^ a b c d e f "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved January 7, 2008.  ^ The 1943 Constitution ^ The 1935 Constitution ^ The 1973 Constitution ^ PROCLAMATION No. 1081 (September 21, 1972), PROCLAIMING A STATE OF MARTIAL LAW IN THE PHILIPPINES, Lawphil.net. ^ 1935 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY ^ 1973 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY ^ 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY ^ "A century of alternative Malacañangs". The Philippine Star.  ^ Grandstands and grand public spaces Modern Living, Lifestyle Features, The Philippine Star
The Philippine Star
philstar.com ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Bahay Pangarap: Aquino's future home?".  ^ a b "How was PNoy's first night at Bahay Pangarap?".  ^ a b "Noynoy's new home is Bahay Pangarap".  ^ a b c "Bahay Pangarap for P-Noy ready".  ^ a b c d e f g "Briefer on Bahay Pangarap and Malacañang Park".  ^ Palace shops for P1.2-B jet 10 months before Arroyo exit – Nation – GMANews.TV – Official
Official
Website of GMA News and Public Affairs – Latest Philippine News ^ http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/169954/news/nation/malaca-ang-cancels-plan-to-purchase-p1-2-b-jet, GMA News. ^ The Presidential Yachts, Official
Official
Gazette, Office of the President. ^ President Aquino arrives at the Palace – YouTube ^ Palace: Presidential Car Necessary Expense – Yahoo News Philippines ^ The Manila
Manila
Times TOP STORIES > Pullout of Erap security a ‘mistake’ (archived from the original on 2007-03-07) ^ [1] Archived March 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b [2] Archived April 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [4] Archived March 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [5] Archived April 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Amita O. Legaspi, Estrada to return to Malacañang, January 11, 2007, GMANews.TV ^ 9 years after ouster, Erap back in Malacañang, January 12, 2010, GMANews.TV ^ QTV: Erap back in Malacañang for NSC meeting, December 1, 2010, GMANews.TV ^ Tonette Orejas, Charlene Cayabyab, Arroyo proclaimed congresswoman of Pampanga’s 2nd district Archived May 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., May 13, 2010, Philippine Daily Inquirer

Bibliography[edit]

Borromeo, Soledad Masangkay; Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad (1998). The Cry of Balintawak: A contrived Controversy: A Textual Analysis with Appended Documents. Ateneo de Manila
Manila
University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-278-8.  Halili, Christine N; Halili, Maria Christine (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of the Philippines.

Office of the President of the Philippines The Presidential Museum and Library 1987 Constitution of the Philippines 'We Say Mabuhay' – The Anthem of the President of the Philippines 'March of the President of the Philippines' (unofficial title) – song played when the President is given military honors by the Armed Forces of the Philippines

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