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The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Cộng hoà Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is, according to the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the elected head of state of Vietnam, holds the second highest office in Vietnam
Vietnam
after General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In addition, the president appoints the head of government, the Prime Minister. In this capacity, the President represents the government both domestically and internationally, and maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The President appoints the Vice President, Prime Minister, Ministers and other officials with the consent of the National Assembly. The President is furthermore the Supreme Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces, Chairman of the Council for Defense and Security. Moreover, Member of Political Bureau, Standing Member of the Central Military Commission and the Central Police Party Committee. Since September 2011, the President is also the Head of the Central Steering Committee for Judicial Reform. The tenure of the President is five years, and a president can only serve three terms. If the President becomes unable to discharge duties of office, the Vice President or Prime Minister assumes the office of acting president until the President resumes duty, or until the election of a new president. The powers and prestige of the office of President have varied over the years. For instance, while the inaugural president, Hồ Chí Minh, was also the Chairman of the Communist Party, making him the first ranking member of the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, his successor, Tôn Đức Thắng, served as a symbolic figure along with the General Secretary Lê Duẩn. Since Trường Chinh's ascension to the presidency, the President has been ranked 1st or 2nd in the order of precedence of the Communist Party's Politburo except President Nguyễn Minh Triết
Nguyễn Minh Triết
ranked fourth and President Võ Chí Công
Võ Chí Công
ranked third. The current president is Trần Đại Quang, since 2 April 2016. He is ranked second in the Politburo hierarchy, after General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Term of office 3 Duties, powers and responsibilities 4 Order of succession 5 Living former presidents 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography

History[edit] Main article: List of Presidents of Vietnam Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
was appointed Vietnam's first president in 1946 by the National Assembly.[2] Both the 1946 and 1959 Constitutions stated that the National Assembly had the power to appoint and dismiss the President. The President represented Vietnam
Vietnam
both internally and externally. The powers and responsibilities of the President remained unchanged in the 1959 constitution. The 1980 constitution transformed the office of head of state dramatically. The office of President was abolished and replaced with the office of Chairman of the Council of State (CC). The CC chairmanship was modelled after the Soviet office of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. The Council of State, as with the Council of Ministers, was a collective decision-making body. Both the Council of State and the Council of Ministers were part of the executive branch; the strengthening of these institutions weakened the role of the legislative branch.[3] The duties, powers and responsibilities of the Council of State were taken from the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, which lost most of its powers and prestige in the 1980 Constitution. The members of the Council of State were elected by the National Assembly and consisted of a chairman, deputy chairmen, a General Secretary and other members. Council of State members could not concurrently be members of the Council of Ministers. The Chairman of the Council of State was concurrently Chairman of the National Defense Council (later the National Defense and Security Council) and commander-in-chief of the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Armed Forces. The Council of State supervised the works of other institutions, most notably the Council of Ministers, the Supreme People's Organ for Control and the People's Councils at all levels. It also presided over the elections of the National Assembly. The office of Chairman of the Council of State, the head of state, was abolished in the 1992 Constitution and replaced by the office of President. The importance of the President has not remained constant throughout Vietnamese history. For instance, while Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
was ranked as first member of the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, his successor, Tôn Đức Thắng, was a symbolic figure with little power.[4] The post of head of state was strengthened in the 1980 Constitution by the appointment of Trường Chinh
Trường Chinh
who was, by order of precedence, the second-highest-ranking member in the Politburo, behind Lê Duẩn.[5] The office of President retained the second highest rank in the Politburo order of precedence until Nguyễn Minh Triết
Nguyễn Minh Triết
was appointed in 2006; he ranked fourth in the Politburo hierarchy. The Politburo elected in the aftermath of the 11th National Party Congress (held in January 2011) by the Central Committee elected Trương Tấn Sang, the current President, the first-ranking member of the Politburo.[6] This was the first time in Vietnamese history where the highest-ranking member of the Politburo does not hold post of either General Secretary or Chairman (was in existence from 1951 to 1969) of the party.[7][8] Since Trương Tấn Sang is first-ranked member of the Politburo, he is the body's unofficial head. Politburo meetings are held regularly; decisions within the Politburo are made through collective decision-making, and policies are only enacted if a majority of Politburo members supports them.[9] Term of office[edit] The President is selected for a term of office of five years. The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the parliament: In my capacity as President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, I swear complete allegiance to the country, people, and constitution; to fulfill the tasks assigned by the State, and people [10] Duties, powers and responsibilities[edit]

Vietnam

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Vietnam

Ideology

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Ho Chi Minh
Thought

Organizations

Central Propaganda Department Central Theoretical Council Nhân Dân

Constitution

History

1946 1959 1980 1992 2013

Communist Party

National Congress (12th) Central Committee (12th)

General Secretary: Nguyễn Phú Trọng

Politburo (12th) Secretariat

Executive Secretary: Đinh Thế Huynh

Central Military Commission

Secretary: Nguyễn Phú Trọng

Central Office

Director: Nguyễn Văn Nên

Central Inspection Commission

Chairman: Trần Quốc Vượng

Legislative

National Assembly

Standing Committee

Chairwoman: Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân

Executive

President (list)

Trần Đại Quang

Vice President

Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh

Prime Minister (list):

Nguyễn Xuân Phúc

Deputy Prime Ministers:

Vương Đình Huệ Trương Hòa Bình Phạm Bình Minh Vũ Đức Đam Trịnh Đình Dũng

Ministries Governor of the State Bank Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs

Fatherland Front

Central Committee

Chairman: Nguyễn Thiện Nhân Gen. Secretary: Trần Thanh Mẫn

Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Communist Youth Union

Central Committee First Secretary

Lê Quốc Phong

Vietnam
Vietnam
General Confederation of Labour Viet Nam Farmer's Union Vietnam
Vietnam
Women’s Union

Military

Central Military Commission

Secretary: Nguyễn Phú Trọng

Commander-in-Chief

Trần Đại Quang

People's Army People's Public Security

People's Security People's Police

Council for National Defense and Security

Chairman: President Vice-chairman: Prime Minister

Judiciary Law

National Assembly

Justice Committee

President

Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform

Director: Trần Đại Quang

Supreme People's Court

Chief Justice: Nguyễn Hòa Bình

Supreme People's Procuracy

Procurator-General: Lê Minh Trí

Foreign relations

Foreign aid

See also

Elections Administrative divisions Human rights

Other countries Atlas

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Presidential Palace, Hanoi

The President is the head of state of Vietnam, and his main priority is to represent Vietnam
Vietnam
internally and externally.[2] The officeholder is elected by the National Assembly of Vietnam, is responsible to it and reports to it. The tenure of the President is five years, the same as that of the National Assembly. The President continues to serve in his functions until the National Assembly elects a successor. The President has the following executive and legislative powers:

To promulgate laws, decree-laws and the Constitution, To suspend the implementation or abrogation of the documents of the Prime Minister or the Deputy Prime Minister which contravene the Constitution and the Laws To act as the country's commander-in-chief and holds the office of Chairman of the National Defense and Security Council of Vietnam, To calls the National Defense and Security Council of Vietnam
Vietnam
to meet, The President shall take measures to protect the sovereignty of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
its independence and state integrity, and ensure concerted functioning and interaction of all bodies of state power, To propose to the National Assembly the election or dismissal from office of the Vice President, the Prime Minister, the Chief Judge of the Supreme People's Court and the Head of the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control, The President has the right to preside over meetings of the Government of Vietnam, To appoint or dismiss Leader, Vice Leaders, Directors, Deputy Directors and staffs of the President Office, To appoint or dismiss Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and other members of the government, To proclaim a state of war or amnesty, On the basis of a Standing Committee resolution, the President can order a general or partial mobilisation, or can proclaim a state of emergency nationwide or in a particular region, To propose that the Standing Committee review its decree-laws and resolutions on matters stipulated in Points 8 and 9, Article 91, within the space of ten days following their adoption; if those decree-laws and resolutions are again passed by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly with the country's President dissenting, the latter shall report the matter to the National Assembly for it to decide the issue at its nearest session, To appoint or dismiss the Deputy Chief Judge and judges of the Supreme People's Court, Deputy Director of the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control, To appoint or dismiss the Chief of General Staff, Vice Chief of General Staff, Chief of the General Department of Politics, Vice Chief of the General Department of Politics, To confer titles and ranks on senior officers of the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Armed Forces and bestows "diplomatic titles and ranks, and other State titles and ranks; to confer medals, badges and State honours and distinctions", To appoint and recall ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiary, and receive foreign ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to negotiate and sign international agreements on behalf of the Socialist Republic with the Heads of other States; he can approve or join international agreements, except in cases where a decision by the National Assembly is necessary, To grant Vietnamese nationality, release from Vietnamese nationality, or deprive of Vietnamese nationality, To hold Head of Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform, To supervise the detection and handles all corrupt behaviors, To hold Director of the Economic Council.

The National Defense and Security Council (NDSC) is composed of the President, the Prime Minister and other members. The members of the NDSC are proposed by the President and approved by the National Assembly. NDSC members do not need to be members of the National Assembly. The decision-making process of the NDSC is that of a collective leadership. Among its powers is the right to mobilise all forces in the name of national defense, and in case of war the National Assembly can entrust the NDSC with special duties and powers. Order of succession[edit] Article 93 of the Constitution of Vietnam. In the event of the president not being able to discharge the duties of his/her office, Vice President, the Prime Minister and ministers in line of the order of succession shall be the acting president

Vice President Prime Minister Minister of National Defence Minister of Public Security Minister of Foreign Affairs Minister of Home Affairs Minister of Justice Minister of Finance Minister of Transport Minister of Construction Minister of Education and Training Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Minister of Industry and Trade Minister of Planning and Investment Minister of Science and Technology Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Minister of information and Communications Leaders of the Government Inspectorate Governor of the State Bank Leaders of the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs Leaders of the Government Office Minister of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism Minister of Health

Living former presidents[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Vietnam.

Image Name Term of office Age

Lê Đức Anh 1992–1997 97 years, 124 days

Trần Đức Lương 1997–2006 80 years, 334 days

Nguyễn Minh Triết 2006–2011 75 years, 178 days

Trương Tấn Sang 2011–2016 69 years, 73 days

See also[edit]

Vice President of Vietnam Prime Minister of Vietnam Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam General Staff of the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Army List of central officeholders in the Communist Party of Vietnam Air transports of heads of state and government

References[edit]

^ "Party Congress announces CPVCC Politburo members". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ a b "Political system". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 20 April 2012.  ^  This article incorporates public domain material from the  Library of Congress
Library of Congress
document: Ronald J. Cima (December 1987). Ronald J. Cima, ed. "Vietnam: A country study". Federal Research Division. Constitutional Evolution.  ^ Duong 2008, p. 135. ^ Porter 1993, p. 77. ^ "Party Congress announces CPVCC Politburo members". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  ^ Staff writer. "Political Bureau". Ban chấp hành Trung ương, Bộ Chính trị, Ban Bí thư [Central Committee, Politburo, Secretariat] (in Vietnamese). Communist Party of Vietnam. pp. I–X. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  ^ Staff writer. "Đồng chí Nguyễn Phú Trọng
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
được bầu làm Tổng Bí thư" [Mr. Nguyen Phu Trong is elected General Secretary]. Bao Yen Bai (in Vietnamese). Communist Party of Vietnam. Retrieved 13 January 2014.  ^ Staff writer. "Điều lệ Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam thông qua tại Đại hội đại biểu toàn quốc lần thứ XI của Đảng" [The Charter of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
which was approved at the 11th National Congress]. 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2012.  ^ Staff writer. "the president takes the following oath before the National Congress". 13th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

Duong, Van Nguyen (2008). The Tragedy of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War: A South Vietnamese Officer's Analysis. McFarland. ISBN 978-0786432851.  Porter, Gareth (1993). Vietnam: The Politics of Bureaucratic Socialism. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801421686. 

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Heads of state of Vietnam
Vietnam
since 1945

Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1945–76)

Hồ Chí Minh Huỳnh Thúc Kháng1 Tôn Đức Thắng

State of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1949–55)

Bảo Đại Ngô Đình Diệm1

Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1955–75)

Ngô Đình Diệm Dương Văn Minh2 Nguyễn Khánh2 Provisional Leadership Committee3 Dương Văn Minh2 Phan Khắc Sửu2 Nguyễn Văn Thiệu2 Trần Văn Hương Dương Văn Minh

Republic of South Vietnam
Vietnam
(1969–76)

Nguyễn Hữu Thọ

Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1976–present)

Tôn Đức Thắng
Tôn Đức Thắng
(1976–1980) Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
(1980–1981)1 Council of State (1981–1987) (Chairman: Trường Chinh)3 Council of State (1987–1992) (Chairman: Võ Chí Công)3 Lê Đức Anh
Lê Đức Anh
(1992–1997) Trần Đức Lương
Trần Đức Lương
(1997–2006) Nguyễn Minh Triết
Nguyễn Minh Triết
(2006–2011) Trương Tấn Sang(2011–2016) Trần Đại Quang
Trần Đại Quang
(2016–present)

1acting 2military 3collective leadership

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