Before the office of the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was created in 2004, Afghanistan has been a republic between 1973 and 1992 and from 2001 onward. Before 1973, it was a monarchy. Between 1992 and 2001, during the civil war, the country was recognized as the Islamic State of Afghanistan, and later the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
The Constitution of Afghanistan grants the president wide powers over military and legislative affairs, with a relatively weak national bicameral national assembly, the Wolesi Jirga (House of the People) and Meshrano Jirga (House of Elders). A president can only serve up to two five-year terms. Hamid Karzai started his first five-year term in 2004. After his second term ended in 2014, Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai was chosen as the next president.
|Candidate||Nominating party||First round||Second round (final result)|
|Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai||Independent||2,084,547||31.56||4,485,888||56.44|
|Abdullah Abdullah||National Coalition||2,972,141||45.00||3,461,639||43.56|
|Abdul Rasul Sayyaf||Islamic Dawa||465,207||7.04|
|Gul Agha Sherzai||Independent||103,636||1.57|
|Mohammad Daud Sultanzoy||Independent||30,685||0.46|
|Hedayat Amin Arsala||Independent||15,506||0.23|
|Source: IEC IEC|
The Meshrano Jirga of the National Assembly of Afghanistan consists of 102 members. Two-thirds were elected indirectly through Provincial Councils (one-third representing the Provincial Councils and one-third representing the District Councils) and one-third were appointed by the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.