HOME
The Info List - President's Rule





In India, President's rule refers to suspension of state government and imposition of direct Central Government rule in a state. Under Article 356 of the Constitution of India, in the event that a state government is unable to function according to constitutional provisions, the Central government can take direct control of the state machinery. Subsequently, executive authority is exercised through the centrally appointed governor, who has the authority to appoint other administrators to assist them. The administrators are usually nonpartisan retired civil servants. When a state government is functioning correctly, it is run by an elected Council of Ministers responsible to the state's legislative assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The council is led by the Chief Minister, who is the de facto chief executive of the state; the Governor is only a de jure constitutional head. However, during President's rule, the Council of Ministers is dissolved, vacating the office of Chief Minister. Furthermore, the Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
is either prorogued or dissolved, necessitating a new election. Similarly, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, failure of governmental function results in Governor's rule, imposed by invoking Section 92 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. The state's governor issues the proclamation, after obtaining the consent of the President of India. If it is not possible to revoke Governor's rule within six months of imposition, the President's Rule under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution is imposed. There is little practical difference between the two provisions. Following its landmark judgment in the 1994 Bommai case, the Supreme Court of India
India
has restricted arbitrary impositions of President's rule. Chhattisgarh and Telangana
Telangana
are the only states where President's rule has yet to be imposed. However, while Telangana
Telangana
was part of Andhra Pradesh, it was under President's rule.

Contents

1 Imposition 2 Criticism 3 List of instances 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Imposition[edit] In practice, president's rule has been imposed under different circumstances:

State Legislature is unable to elect a leader as Chief Minister Breakdown of a coalition Loss of majority in the assembly Elections postponed for unavoidable reasons

If approved by both houses, President's Rule can continue for 6 months. It can be extended for a maximum of 3 years with the approval of the Parliament done every 6 months. If the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
is dissolved during this time, the rule is valid for 30 days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
provided that this continuance has already been approved by Rajya Sabha. The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 introduced a new provision to put a restraint on the power of the Parliament to extend President's rule in a state. According to this provision, President's rule can only be extended over a year every 6 months under following conditions:

There is already a National emergency throughout India, or in the whole or any part of the state. The commission of election certifies that elections cannot be conducted in the concerned state.

President's rule can be revoked at any time by the President and does not need the Parliament's approval. Until the mid-1990s, President's rule was often imposed in states through abusing the authority of Governors who were in collusion with the central government. The Supreme Court of India
India
in March 1994 instituted a rule by which such abuse has been drastically reduced. Criticism[edit] Article 356 gave wide powers to the central government to assert its authority over a state if civil unrest occurs, and the state government does not have the means to end it. Though the purpose of this article is to give more powers to central government to preserve the unity and integrity of the nation, it has often been misused[1] by the ruling parties at the center, who used it as a pretext to dissolve state governments ruled by political opponents.[2] Thus, it is seen by many as a threat to the federal state system. Since the adoption of Indian constitution in 1950, the central government has used this article several times[3] to dissolve elected state governments by imposing President's rule. The article was used for the first time in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
1954. It was also used in the state of Patiala and East Punjab States Union
Patiala and East Punjab States Union
(PEPSU) and during the Vimochana Samaram to dismiss the democratically elected Communist state government of Kerala
Kerala
on 31 July 1959. In the 1970s and 1980s, it was common for the central government to dismiss state governments led by opposition parties.[4] The Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
regime and post-emergency Janata Party were noted for this practice. Indira Gandhi's government between 1966 and 1977 is known to have imposed President's rule 39 times in different states. Similarly, the Janata Party which came to power after the emergency issued President's rule in 9 states which were ruled by Congress. The practice was limited only after the Supreme Court established strict guidelines for imposing the President's Rule in its ruling on the S. R. Bommai v. Union of India
India
case in 1994. This landmark judgement has helped curtail the widespread misuse of Article 356. The judgement established strict guidelines for imposing President's rule. Subsequent pronouncements by the Supreme Court in Jharkhand
Jharkhand
and other states have further limited the scope for misuse of Article 356. Only since the early 2000s has the number of cases of imposition of President's rule has been drastically reduced. Article 356 has always been the focal point of a wider debate of the federal structure of government in Indian polity.[5] The Sarkaria Commission Report on Centre-State Relations 1983 has recommended that Article 356 must be used "very sparingly, in extreme cases, as a measure of last resort, when all the other alternatives fail to prevent or rectify a breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state".[6] Dr. Ambedkar also said that it would be like a "dead letter" (i.e. would be used rarely). List of instances[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

State Date of imposition Date of revocation Duration Notes

Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
[1] 18 January 1973 10 December 1973 7002326000000000000♠326 days Break down of Law & Order due to Jai Andhra Agitation, in P. V. Narasimha Rao's tenure.

Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
[2] 28 February 2014 8 June 2014 7002100000000000000♠100 days Political impasse following the resignation of Chief Minister Kiran Kumar Reddy and several other congress party legislators from the Government as well as the Party, in protest against Indian Parliament passing Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Reorganisation Bill to bifurcate united Andhra Pradesh and create a separate Telangana
Telangana
State.[7] President's rule revoked from Telangana
Telangana
areas on 2 June 2014 and bifurcated Andhra Pradesh areas on 8 June 2014.[8] President rule reimposed unlawfully by the President after the two months time limit without taking approval of the Parliament under Article 356.[9][10]

Andhra State
Andhra State
[1] 15 November 1954 29 March 1955 7002134000000000000♠134 days Loss of Majority.

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
[1] 3 November 1979 18 January 1980 7001760000000000000♠76 days Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment during Janata party rule at the Centre.

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
[2] 25 January 2016 19 February 2016 26 days 21 Congress MLAs joined hands with 11 of the BJP and two Independents, making the current government a minority government.[11] Supreme Court declared the imposition of president rule as ultra vires and reinstated the dismissed congress led government in the state. In a landmark judgement, it found fault with the unconstitutional role played by the Governor by interfering in the activities of legislatures and speaker of the Vidhan Shaba[12]

Assam
Assam
[1] 12 December 1979 5 December 1980 7002359000000000000♠359 days ' Assam
Assam
Agitation' against illegal foreign national staying in Assam started to take roots under the leadership of the All Assam Students’Union (AASU). The violence fuelled by United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) resulted in break down of law and order.

Assam
Assam
[2] 30 June 1981 13 January 1982 7002197000000000000♠197 days Congress (I) government led by Anwara Taimur representing immigrant minorities collapsed following intensification of ' Assam
Assam
Agitation' against illegal foreign national staying in Assam.

Assam
Assam
[3] 19 March 1982 27 February 1983 7002345000000000000♠345 days Congress (I) government led by Kesab Gogoi representing ethnic Asom people collapsed following continued violence in Assam.

Assam
Assam
[4] 28 November 1990 30 June 1991 7002214000000000000♠214 days Govt. dismissed in spite of AGP CM Prafulla Mahanta enjoying majority support in Assembly. The dismissal was triggered apparently by the threat to internal security due to banned organisation ULFA's activities. During President's rule, Operation Bajrang was launched to flush out ULFA militants.

Bihar
Bihar
[1] 29 June 1968 26 February 1969 7002242000000000000♠242 days Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment.

Bihar
Bihar
[2] 4 July 1969 16 February 1970 7002227000000000000♠227 days Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment due to split in ruling Congress party

Bihar
Bihar
[3] 9 January 1972 19 March 1972 7001700000000000000♠70 days Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment.

Bihar
Bihar
[4] 30 April 1977 24 June 1977 7001550000000000000♠55 days Government dismissed in spite of Jagannath Mishra enjoying majority support in Assembly

Bihar
Bihar
[5] 17 February 1980 8 June 1980 7002112000000000000♠112 days Government dismissed in spite of Ram Sundar Das enjoying majority support in Assembly

Bihar
Bihar
[6] 28 March 1995 5 April 1995 7000800000000000000♠8 days President’s rule imposed for a brief period of one week to facilitate passage of vote on account (to permit day-to-day government expenses in Bihar) by Parliament while awaiting the results of Assembly elections held during the Chief Ministership of Laloo Prasad.

Bihar
Bihar
[7] 12 February 1999 9 March 1999 7001250000000000000♠25 days Breakdown of law and order, killings of 11 Dalits at Narayanpur. The Vajpayee Government, revoked President’s rule within 26 days since the coalition did not have a majority in the Rajya Sabha.

Bihar
Bihar
[8] 7 March 2005 24 November 2005 7002262000000000000♠262 days Indecisive outcome of elections. In a landmark judgement, Supreme Court ruled that the imposition of the president rule without giving the chance to the elected legislatures to form new government is unconstitutional and mala fide act by the President.[13]

Delhi
Delhi
[1] 14 February 2014 11 February 2015 7002362000000000000♠362 days Arvind Kejriwal resigned as Chief Minister after failing to table the Jan Lokpal Bill in the Delhi
Delhi
Assembly.

Goa
Goa
[1] 2 December 1966 5 April 1967 7002124000000000000♠124 days The Union Territory of Goa's Assembly was dissolved to conduct an opinion poll to determine whether Goa
Goa
should be merged with Maharashtra.

Goa
Goa
[2] 27 April 1979 16 January 1980 7002264000000000000♠264 days Loss of majority following split in the ruling MGP Party

Goa
Goa
[3] 14 December 1990 25 January 1991 7001420000000000000♠42 days C.M. resigned consequent upon his disqualification by High Court - No other Government found viable

Goa
Goa
[4] 9 February 1999 9 June 1999 7002120000000000000♠120 days Loss of majority and no alternate claimant to form next government

Goa
Goa
[5] 4 March 2005 7 June 2005 7001950000000000000♠95 days Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Pratap Sinh Rane

Gujarat
Gujarat
[1] 12 May 1971 17 March 1972 7002310000000000000♠310 days Loss of Majority following vertical split in Congress during 1969 presidential election

Gujarat
Gujarat
[2] 9 February 1974 18 June 1975 7002494000000000000♠1 year, 129 days Chimanbhai Patel led Congress government resigned due to Navnirman Movement Anti-Corruption protests. The protesters forced MLA's resignations, forcing dissolution of assembly.

Gujarat
Gujarat
[3] 12 March 1976 24 December 1976 7002287000000000000♠287 days "Non-Passage" of budget leading to collapse of government

Gujarat
Gujarat
[4] 17 February 1980 8 June 1980 7002112000000000000♠112 days Government dismissed in spite of Babubhai J Patel enjoying majority support in the Assembly

Gujarat
Gujarat
[5] 19 September 1996 23 October 1996 7001340000000000000♠34 days Government dismissed following a controversial confidence vote. The Assembly was placed in suspended animation, which led to subsequent installation of Vaghela government, supported by Congress

Haryana
Haryana
[1] 2 November 1967 22 May 1968 7002202000000000000♠202 days Government dismissed in spite of having a tenuous majority.

Haryana
Haryana
[2] 30 April 1977 21 June 1977 7001520000000000000♠52 days Government dismissed in spite of B D Gupta enjoying majority support in Assembly

Haryana
Haryana
[3] 6 April 1991 23 July 1991 7002108000000000000♠108 days Rebellion in the ruling party

Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
[1] 30 April 1977 22 June 1977 7001530000000000000♠53 days Government dismissed in spite of Thakur Ram Lal enjoying majority support in Assembly

Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
[2] 15 December 1992 3 December 1993 7002353000000000000♠353 days Government dismissed in the aftermath of the destruction of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan in Uttar Pradesh.

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
[1] 26 March 1977 9 July 1977 7002105000000000000♠105 days Sheikh Abdullah led National Conference government bowed out after being reduced to a minority following withdrawal of support by the Congress Party

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
[2] 6 March 1986 7 November 1986 7002246000000000000♠246 days Loss of majority

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
[3] 19 January 1990 9 October 1996 7003245500000000000♠6 years, 264 days Insurgency and break down of law and order.

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
[4] 18 October 2002 2 November 2002 7001150000000000000♠15 days Indecisive outcome of elections.

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
[5] 11 July 2008 5 January 2009 7002178000000000000♠178 days Loss of majority following collapse of coalition. CM Gulam Nabi Azad's decision to transfer land for Amarnath pilgrimage led to PDP pulling out of coalation Govt.

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
[6] 9 January 2015 1 March 2015 7001510000000000000♠51 days Failure of Government formation after fractured verdict in Assembly elections. BJP & PDP reached an understanding to form an alliance to form Government in J&K.[14]

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
[7] 8 January 2016 4 April 2016 7001870000000000000♠87 days Death of Chief minister Mufti Mohammad Sayeed

Jharkhand
Jharkhand
[1] 19 January 2009 29 December 2009 7002344000000000000♠344 days Loss of Majority

Jharkhand
Jharkhand
[2] 1 June 2010 11 September 2010 7002102000000000000♠102 days Loss of Majority

Jharkhand
Jharkhand
[3] 18 January 2013 12 July 2013 7002175000000000000♠175 days Loss of Majority. BJP's ruling coalition partner JMM withdrew its support to the government pushing it into a minority. Chief Minister Arjun Munda resigned and sought dissolution of the state Assembly.[15]

Karnataka
Karnataka
[1] 19 March 1971 20 March 1972 7002367000000000000♠1 year, 1 day Loss of Majority

Karnataka
Karnataka
[2] 31 December 1977 28 February 1978 7001590000000000000♠59 days Government dismissed in spite of Congress CM Devraj Urs enjoying majority support in Assembly

Karnataka
Karnataka
[3] 21 April 1989 30 November 1989 7002223000000000000♠223 days Loss of majority of CM S. R. Bommai, followed by dissolution of Assembly. On an appeal by S. R. Bommai, in a landmark judgement delivered in 1994, the Indian Supreme Court laid out the procedure to be followed before dissolving an elected assembly. The historic ruling in this case reduced the scope for misuse of Article 356 by future central governments and governors.

Karnataka
Karnataka
[4] 10 October 1990 17 October 1990 7000700000000000000♠7 days Government of Veerendra Patil dismissed by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and state was placed under President's rule with the assembly placed in suspended animation until next chief Minister was elected

Karnataka
Karnataka
[5] 9 October 2007 11 November 2007 7001330000000000000♠33 days Loss of majority

Karnataka
Karnataka
[6] 20 November 2007 27 May 2008 7002189000000000000♠189 days Loss of majority

Kerala
Kerala
[1] 31 July 1959 22 February 1960 7002206000000000000♠206 days Government dismissed in spite of Communist CM EMS Namboodiripad enjoying majority support in Assembly

Kerala
Kerala
[2] 10 September 1964 6 March 1967 7002907000000000000♠2 years, 177 days Loss of majority followed by indecisive outcome of elections

Kerala
Kerala
[3] 1 August 1970 4 October 1970 7001640000000000000♠64 days Loss of majority

Kerala
Kerala
[4] 1 December 1979 25 January 1980 7001550000000000000♠55 days Loss of majority

Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
[1] 29 April 1977 25 June 1977 7001570000000000000♠57 days Government dismissed in spite of Shyama Charan Shukla enjoying majority support in Assembly

Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
[2] 18 February 1980 8 June 1980 7002111000000000000♠111 days Government dismissed in spite of Sundar Lal Patwa enjoying majority support in Assembly

Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
[3] 15 December 1992 7 December 1993 7002357000000000000♠357 days Govt. dismissed in the aftermath of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan destruction in Uttar Pradesh.

Maharashtra
Maharashtra
[1] 17 February 1980 8 June 1980 7002112000000000000♠112 days Govt. dismissed in spite of Sharad Pawar enjoying majority support in the Assembly

Maharashtra
Maharashtra
[2] 28 September 2014 31 October 2014 7001330000000000000♠33 days Govt. dismissed since Congress Separated from its allies NCP and Others.

Manipur
Manipur
[1] 12 January 1967 19 March 1967 7001660000000000000♠66 days First Elections to Manipur
Manipur
Union Territory Assembly held.

Manipur
Manipur
[2] 25 October 1967 18 February 1968 7002116000000000000♠116 days Short lived ministry collapsed following resignation of speaker, resulting in neither ruling nor opposition congress having a clear majority in the assembly. Assembly kept in suspended animation.

Manipur
Manipur
[3] 17 October 1969 22 March 1972 7002887000000000000♠2 years, 157 days Violent secessionist insurgency and statehood demands resulted in breakdown of law and order

Manipur
Manipur
[4] 28 March 1973 3 March 1974 7002340000000000000♠340 days President's rule was imposed even though the opposition had a "tenuous" majority and could have formed a government

Manipur
Manipur
[5] 16 May 1977 28 June 1977 7001430000000000000♠43 days Collapse of Government following defections

Manipur
Manipur
[6] 14 November 1979 13 January 1980 7001600000000000000♠60 days Discontent within Janata Party Government and corruption charges led to dismissal of government and dissolution of Assembly.

Manipur
Manipur
[7] 28 February 1981 18 June 1981 7002110000000000000♠110 days Incumbent Government fell following defections. Governor did not permit an alternate government to be formed by People's Democratic Front on the basis of his assessment regarding stability of the proposed ministry.

Manipur
Manipur
[8] 7 January 1992 7 April 1992 7001910000000000000♠91 days Incumbent coalition Government fell following defections. President's rule imposed keeping assembly in suspension.

Manipur
Manipur
[9] 31 December 1993 13 December 1994 7002347000000000000♠347 days 1000 persons died in Naga-Kuki clashes and continued violence

Manipur
Manipur
[10] 2 June 2001 6 March 2002 7002277000000000000♠277 days Loss of majority

Meghalaya
Meghalaya
[1] 11 October 1991 5 February 1992 7002117000000000000♠117 days The Centre imposed President's rule in Meghalaya
Meghalaya
in the wake of a political crisis after the then Speaker PR Kyndiah suspended five MLAs, mostly independents, on grounds of defection.[16]

Meghalaya
Meghalaya
[2] 18 March 2009 12 May 2009 7001550000000000000♠55 days Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Donkupar Roy

Mizoram
Mizoram
[1] 11 May 1977 1 June 1978 7002386000000000000♠1 year, 21 days Mizo Union Ministry led by Chief Minister Chhunga resigned in May 1977, ostensibly to facilitate the progress of peace talks. see Lost Opportunities: 50 Years of Insurgency in the North-east and India's Response, By S. P. Sinha, Page 95

Mizoram
Mizoram
[2] 10 November 1978 8 May 1979 7002179000000000000♠179 days Chief Minister Sailo's refusal to grant undue favours caused dissension in his party which led to the fall of his government and imposition of President's rule. see Lost Opportunities: 50 Years of Insurgency in the North-east and India's Response, By S. P. Sinha, Page 96-97

Mizoram
Mizoram
[3] 7 September 1988 24 January 1989 7002139000000000000♠139 days Defections reduced the Government to minority

Nagaland
Nagaland
[1] 20 March 1975 25 November 1977 7002981000000000000♠2 years, 250 days Defections and counter defections led to imposition of President's rule

Nagaland
Nagaland
[2] 7 August 1988 25 January 1989 7002171000000000000♠171 days The state was under a brief spell of central rule again after the Hokishe Sema-led Congress government was reduced to a minority. The decision was challenged in the Supreme Court in held to be invalid in 1994.

Nagaland
Nagaland
[3] 2 April 1992 22 February 1993 7002326000000000000♠326 days Fluid party position and deteriorating law and order situation

Nagaland
Nagaland
[4] 3 January 2008 12 March 2008 7001690000000000000♠69 days Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Neiphiu Rio

Orissa [1] 25 February 1961 23 June 1961 7002118000000000000♠118 days Harekrishna Mahtab led Congress-Gantantra Parishad Minority Government resigned on 21 February 1961 due to differences in the Congress Party. President’s Rule was imposed on 25 February 1961.

Orissa [2] 11 January 1971 3 April 1971 7001820000000000000♠82 days Break-up of coalition

Orissa [3] 3 March 1973 6 March 1974 7002368000000000000♠1 year, 3 days Facing imminent collapse of government, incumbent chief minister recommended dissolution of assembly and fresh elections.

Orissa [4] 16 December 1976 29 December 1976 7001130000000000000♠13 days Chief Minister Nandini Satpathy was forced out and assembly placed under suspended animation. A new Congress government was sworn in after revocation of President's rule.

Orissa [5] 30 April 1977 26 June 1977 7001570000000000000♠57 days Government dismissed in spite of Binayak Acharya enjoying majority support in Assembly

Orissa [6] 17 February 1980 9 June 1980 7002113000000000000♠113 days Government dismissed in spite of Nilamani Routray enjoying majority support in Assembly

Patiala and East Punjab States Union
Patiala and East Punjab States Union
[1] 5 March 1953 8 March 1954 7002368000000000000♠1 year, 3 days President's rule was invoked in the erstwhile PEPSU (Patiala and East Punjab States Union ) State when the Akali Dal government, led by Gian Singh Rarewala, was dismissed

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
[1] 18 September 1968 17 March 1969 7002180000000000000♠180 days Assembly was dissolved and President's rule imposed as opposition parties had a chance to form a government after the fall of the Congress government.

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
[2] 3 January 1974 6 March 1974 7001620000000000000♠62 days Assembly dissolved after fall of DMK government following decision of two ministers to join newly formed ADMK.

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
[3] 28 March 1974 2 July 1977 7003119200000000000♠3 years, 96 days Fall of coalition government of ADMK, Congress(O)following division of votes by Congress(R) and DMK. The Assembly was dissolved.

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
[4] 12 November 1978 16 January 1980 7002430000000000000♠1 year, 65 days Fall of government due to political instability

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
[5] 24 June 1983 16 March 1985 7002631000000000000♠1 year, 265 days Government dismissed following withdrawal of Congress(I) from coalition government. In spite of incumbent chief minister asking for an opportunity to prove his majority on the floor of the house, the assembly was dissolved.

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
[6] 4 March 1991 3 July 1991 7002121000000000000♠121 days DMK Government dismissed in spite of having a majority in the Assembly

Punjab [1] 20 June 1951 17 April 1952 7002302000000000000♠302 days Pandit Nehru kept the Punjab Assembly in suspension for nine months and 28 days to help the state Congress government get its act together.

Punjab [2] 5 July 1966 1 November 1966 7002119000000000000♠119 days State administration was taken over, ostensibly to facilitate bifurcation of Punjab state into two, Punjab and Haryana

Punjab [3] 23 August 1968 17 February 1969 7002178000000000000♠178 days Break-up of coalition

Punjab [4] 14 June 1971 17 March 1972 7002277000000000000♠277 days Following poor performance in March, 1971 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
Elections, incumbent Chief Minister advised dissolving state assembly and holding fresh elections to state legislature.

Punjab [5] 30 April 1977 20 June 1977 7001510000000000000♠51 days Government dismissed in spite of Giani Zail Singh enjoying majority support in Assembly

Punjab [6] 17 February 1980 6 June 1980 7002110000000000000♠110 days Government dismissed in spite of Parkash Singh Badal enjoying majority support in Assembly

Punjab [7] 10 October 1983 29 September 1985 7002720000000000000♠1 year, 354 days Insurgency and breakdown of law and order

Punjab [8] 11 June 1987 25 February 1992 7003172000000000000♠4 years, 259 days Insurgency and breakdown of law and order

Rajasthan
Rajasthan
[1] 13 March 1967 26 April 1967 7001440000000000000♠44 days Indecisive outcome of elections

Rajasthan
Rajasthan
[2] 29 April 1977 22 June 1977 7001540000000000000♠54 days Government dismissed in spite of Hari Dev Joshi enjoying majority support in Assembly

Rajasthan
Rajasthan
[3] 16 February 1980 6 June 1980 7002111000000000000♠111 days Government dismissed in spite of Bhairon Singh Shekhawat enjoying majority support in Assembly

Rajasthan
Rajasthan
[4] 15 December 1992 4 December 1993 7002354000000000000♠354 days Government dismissed in spite of Bhairon Singh Shekhawat enjoying majority support in Assembly

Sikkim
Sikkim
[1] 18 August 1978 18 October 1979 7002426000000000000♠1 year, 61 days Loss of majority following split in Kazi Lhendup Dorji led Janata Party government. The central government imposed president's rule and followed up with electoral reforms before ordering fresh elections.

Sikkim
Sikkim
[2] 25 May 1984 8 March 1985 7002287000000000000♠287 days Congress Government formed following induced collapse of Nar Bahadur Bandari Sikkim
Sikkim
Janata Parishad Government was dismissed as it did not enjoy a majority in the Assembly.

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
[1] 31 January 1976 30 June 1977 7002516000000000000♠1 year, 150 days Government dismissed in spite of Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
enjoying majority support in Assembly

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
[2] 17 February 1980 6 June 1980 7002110000000000000♠110 days Government dismissed in spite of M G Ramachandran
M G Ramachandran
enjoying majority support in Assembly

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
[3] 30 January 1988 27 January 1989 7002363000000000000♠363 days Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Janaki Ramachandran

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
[4] 30 January 1991 24 June 1991 7002145000000000000♠145 days Government headed by M. Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
dismissed by Prime Minister Chandrashekhar on charges of supporting anti-national activities, in spite of the then Governor Barnala's report and enjoying majority support in the Assembly.[17]

Travancore-Cochin
Travancore-Cochin
[1] 23 March 1956 5 April 1957 7002378000000000000♠1 year, 13 days Loss of majority following split in Congress Party

Tripura
Tripura
[1] 1 November 1971 20 March 1972 7002140000000000000♠140 days In the backdrop of refugee influx due to Bangladesh Liberation War, split in the Congress and Communist agitation for Tripura
Tripura
to become a full-fledged state, President's rule was imposed. On 1 January 1972 Tripura
Tripura
became a State and assembly elections held subsequently.

Tripura
Tripura
[2] 5 November 1977 5 January 1978 7001610000000000000♠61 days Collapse of short lived government in a fluid political environment

Tripura
Tripura
[3] 11 March 1993 10 April 1993 7001300000000000000♠30 days Elections postponed from 15 February 1993 to 3 April 1993 on account of deteriorating law and order situation. Caretaker CM resigns.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[1] 25 February 1968 26 February 1969 7002367000000000000♠1 year, 1 day Loss of majority following withdrawal of support by Congress (R) led by Indira Gandhi.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[2] 1 October 1970 18 October 1970 7001170000000000000♠17 days Charan Singh Ministry supported by Congress collapsed following split in Congress party.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[3] 13 June 1973 8 November 1973 7002148000000000000♠148 days Chief Minister resigned as a result of the 1973 Provincial Armed Constabulary revolt.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[4] 30 November 1975 21 January 1976 7001520000000000000♠52 days Congress Government of H N Bahuguna tendered resignation due to infighting within the party.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[5] 30 April 1977 23 June 1977 7001540000000000000♠54 days Government dismissed in spite of N D Tiwari enjoying majority support in Assembly

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[6] 17 February 1980 9 June 1980 7002113000000000000♠113 days Government dismissed in spite of Banarasi Das enjoying majority support in Assembly

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[7] 6 December 1992 4 December 1993 7002363000000000000♠363 days Government dismissed in the aftermath of the destruction of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[8] 18 October 1995 21 March 1997 7002520000000000000♠1 year, 154 days Loss of Majority following collapse of coalition followed by indecisive outcome of fresh elections

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
[9] 8 March 2002 3 May 2002 7001560000000000000♠56 days Indecisive outcome of elections.

Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
[1] 27 March 2016 21 April 2016 7001250000000000000♠25 days Collapse of CM Harish Rawat's ministry following a split in the state unit of Congress party. In the hearing of related case, Uttarakhand High Court declared the President's rule imposition by the President unconstitutional and restored the Harish Rawat's led government in the state.[18]

Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
[2] 22 April 2016 11 May 2016 7001190000000000000♠19 days Supreme Court of India
India
held the stay on Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
High Court's verdict thus reinstating the President's rule in the state.

Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
[1] 8 April 1949 13 March 1952 7003107000000000000♠2 years, 340 days President's rule was imposed in the erstwhile Vindya Pradesh State when Chief Minister resigned. President's rule was revoked following independent India's first general elections.

West Bengal
West Bengal
[1] 1 July 1962 8 July 1962 7000700000000000000♠7 days Interim Period between death of incumbent Chief Minister and election of new leader.

West Bengal
West Bengal
[2] 20 February 1968 25 February 1969 7002371000000000000♠1 year, 5 days State placed under President's rule following collapse of two successive short lived coalition governments.

West Bengal
West Bengal
[3] 19 March 1970 2 April 1971 7002379000000000000♠1 year, 14 days Collapse of United Front Coalition between Bangla Congress and CPI(M)

West Bengal
West Bengal
[4] 28 June 1971 19 March 1972 7002265000000000000♠265 days Collapse of United Front Coalition between Bangla Congress and CPI(M)

See also[edit]

Article 370 Direct rule Federal intervention (A similar procedure used in Argentina) Federalism in India Part Eighteen of the Constitution of India Sarkaria Commission

References[edit]

^ "Perceptions' on 'misuse of article 356".  ^ "Limitations of Article 356". The Hindu.  ^ Ahmadi J., S.R. Bommai v. Union of India, (1994) 3 SCC 1, 296–297, ¶ 434 cited in http://www.ejcl.org/81/art81-4.html ^ " Sarkaria Commission Report - CHAPTER VI : Emergency Provisions" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "National Commission to Review the Working of the Article 356 of the constitution". 2001. Retrieved 29 July 2015.  ^ " Sarkaria Commission Report - CHAPTER VI: Emergency Provisions" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "President's Rule imposed in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
under Article 356 of Constitution". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 28 February 2014.  ^ " Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
mired in President rule imbroglio". Retrieved 21 September 2014.  ^ "Re-proclamation of President rule in Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.  ^ " Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
mired in President rule imbroglio". The Times Of India. Retrieved 21 September 2014.  ^ "It's against Constitution: Politicians react to Prez rule in Arunachal". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 25 January 2016.  ^ "After Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
debacle, PM Modi must abolish post of governor". Retrieved 15 July 2016.  ^ "Rameshwar Prasad And Ors vs Union Of India
India
And Anr on 24 January, 2006". Retrieved 2 July 2015.  ^ Kumar, Vinay (9 January 2015). "Governor's rule in J&K". Retrieved 5 April 2018 – via www.thehindu.com.  ^ PTI (18 January 2013). " Jharkhand
Jharkhand
put under President's rule again". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 18 January 2013.  ^ " Meghalaya
Meghalaya
clamped under President's Rule". www.merinews.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.  ^ "Congress had no role in dismissing DMK govt in 1991". The Hindu. 14 April 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.  ^ "Lessons from Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and Arunachal: What court orders on Central rule say". Retrieved 15 July 2016. 

External links[edit]

Article 355 and 356 text from wikisource Discusses the instances where presidents rule has been

.