HOME
The Info List - Presbyterianism


--- Advertisement ---



Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is a part of the Reformed tradition
Reformed tradition
within Protestantism
Protestantism
which traces its origins to the British Isles, particularly Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, which is governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches
Reformed churches
are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is often applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Scottish and English Presbyterians, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War.[2] Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland
Scotland
by the Acts of Union in 1707[3] which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England
England
can trace a Scottish connection, and the Presbyterian denomination was also taken to North America mostly by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants. The Presbyterian denominations in Scotland
Scotland
hold to the theology of John Calvin
John Calvin
and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism. Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation (elders); a conciliar approach which is found at other levels of decision-making (presbytery, synod and general assembly). The roots of Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
lie in the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
of the 16th century; the example of John Calvin's Geneva
Geneva
being particularly influential. Most Reformed churches
Reformed churches
that trace their history back to Scotland
Scotland
are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed
Reformed
denominations and Christians of other traditions, especially in the World Communion of Reformed
Reformed
Churches. Some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans, Anglicans, and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States
United States
came largely from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, and also from New England
England
Yankee communities that had originally been Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.[4] Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be considerably wealthier[5] and better educated (having more graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita) than most other religious groups in United States,[6] and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business,[7] law and politics.[8]

Celtic cross draped for Easter at a Presbyterian church

Contents

1 History 2 Characteristics

2.1 Government 2.2 Doctrine 2.3 Worship
Worship
and sacraments

2.3.1 Worship 2.3.2 Sacraments

3 Architecture 4 Regions

4.1 France 4.2 Scotland 4.3 England 4.4 Wales 4.5 Northern Ireland 4.6 Italy 4.7 North America

4.7.1 United States 4.7.2 Canada

4.8 Latin
Latin
America

4.8.1 Mexico 4.8.2 Brazil 4.8.3 Other Latin
Latin
American states

4.9 Africa

4.9.1 Kenya 4.9.2 Malawi 4.9.3 Southern Africa 4.9.4 Northern Africa

4.10 Asia

4.10.1 Hong Kong 4.10.2 South Korea 4.10.3 Taiwan 4.10.4 India

4.11 Oceania

4.11.1 Australia 4.11.2 New Zealand 4.11.3 Vanuatu

5 See also

5.1 Churches 5.2 Colleges and seminaries 5.3 People

6 Sidenotes 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Christianity
Christianity
in Scotland

John Knox

Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
was especially influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, who is credited with the development of Reformed theology, and the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland. He brought back Reformed
Reformed
teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back primarily to England
England
and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but also establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which later became known as presbyteries.[9] In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
between 1643 and 1649. Characteristics[edit] Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization (or "church order") and worship; often using a "Book of Order" to regulate common practice and order. The origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. Some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyterians place great importance upon education and lifelong learning. Continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine are embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church, often referred to as "subordinate standards". It is generally considered that the point of such learning is to enable one to put one's faith into practice; some Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, by generosity, hospitality, as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ. Government[edit] Main article: Presbyterian church governance

The Ordination
Ordination
of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.

Presbyterian government is by councils (known as courts) of elders. Teaching and ruling elders are ordained and convene in the lowest council known as a session or consistory responsible for the discipline, nurture, and mission of the local congregation. Teaching elders (pastors) have responsibility for teaching, worship, and performing sacraments. Pastors are called by individual congregations. A congregation issues a call for the pastor's service, but this call must be ratified by the local presbytery. Ruling elders are usually laymen (and laywomen in some denominations) who are elected by the congregation and ordained to serve with the teaching elders, assuming responsibility for nurture and leadership of the congregation. Often, especially in larger congregations, the elders delegate the practicalities of buildings, finance, and temporal ministry to the needy in the congregation to a distinct group of officers (sometimes called deacons, which are ordained in some denominations). This group may variously be known as a "Deacon Board", "Board of Deacons" "Diaconate", or "Deacons' Court". These are sometimes known as "presbyters" to the full congregation. Above the sessions exist presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of teaching elders and ruling elders from each of the constituent congregations. The presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional or national assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, such as the Church of Scotland
Scotland
or the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.); some bodies, such as the Presbyterian Church in America
Presbyterian Church in America
and the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. The Church of Scotland abolished the Synod
Synod
in 1993.[10] Presbyterian governance is practised by Presbyterian denominations and also by many other Reformed
Reformed
churches.[11] Doctrine[edit]

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: Reformed
Reformed
theology

Snow-covered Celtic cross in a Presbyterian memorial garden

"Presbyterian Cross", used by the National Cemetery Administration of the United States
United States
Department of Veterans Affairs.[12]

Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is historically a confessional tradition. This has two implications. The obvious one is that confessional churches express their faith in the form of "confessions of faith," which have some level of authoritative status. However this is based on a more subtle point: In confessional churches, theology is not solely an individual matter. While individuals are encouraged to understand Scripture, and may challenge the current institutional understanding, theology is carried out by the community as a whole. It is this community understanding of theology that is expressed in confessions.[13] However, there has arisen a spectrum of approaches to confessionalism. The manner of subscription, or the degree to which the official standards establish the actual doctrine of the church, turns out to be a practical matter. That is, the decisions rendered in ordination and in the courts of the church largely determine what the church means, representing the whole, by its adherence to the doctrinal standard. Some Presbyterian traditions adopt only the Westminster Confession of Faith
Faith
as the doctrinal standard to which teaching elders are required to subscribe, in contrast to the Larger and Shorter catechisms, which are approved for use in instruction. Many Presbyterian denominations, especially in North America, have adopted all of the Westminster Standards as their standard of doctrine which is subordinate to the Bible. These documents are Calvinistic in their doctrinal orientation. The Presbyterian Church in Canada
Presbyterian Church in Canada
retains the Westminster Confession of Faith
Faith
in its original form, while admitting the historical period in which it was written should be understood when it is read. The Westminster Confession is "The principal subordinate standard of the Church of Scotland" but "with due regard to liberty of opinion in points which do not enter into the substance of the Faith" (V). This formulation represents many years of struggle over the extent to which the confession reflects the Word of God
God
and the struggle of conscience of those who came to believe it did not fully do so (e.g. William Robertson Smith). Some Presbyterian Churches, such as the Free Church of Scotland, have no such "conscience clause". The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
has adopted the Book of Confessions, which reflects the inclusion of other Reformed confessions
Reformed confessions
in addition to the Westminster Standards. These other documents include ancient creedal statements (the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed), 16th-century Reformed confessions
Reformed confessions
(the Scots Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Second Helvetic Confession), and 20th century documents (The Theological Declaration of Barmen, Confession of 1967 and A Brief Statement of Faith). The Presbyterian Church in Canada
Presbyterian Church in Canada
developed the confessional document Living Faith
Faith
(1984) and retains it as a subordinate standard of the denomination. It is confessional in format, yet like the Westminster Confession, draws attention back to original Bible text. Presbyterians in Ireland
Ireland
who rejected Calvinism
Calvinism
and the Westminster Confessions formed the Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland. Worship
Worship
and sacraments[edit] Worship[edit] Main article: Presbyterian worship Presbyterian denominations that trace their heritage to the British Isles usually organise their church services inspired by the principles in the Directory of Public Worship, developed by the Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
in the 1640s. This directory documented Reformed worship practices and theology adopted and developed over the preceding century by British Puritans, initially guided by John Calvin and John Knox. It was enacted as law by the Scottish Parliament, and became one of the foundational documents of Presbyterian church legislation elsewhere.

Presbyterian catechising, 19th century

Historically, the driving principle in the development of the standards of Presbyterian worship is the Regulative principle of worship, which specifies that (in worship), what is not commanded is forbidden.[14] Over subsequent centuries, many Presbyterian churches modified these prescriptions by introducing hymnody, instrumental accompaniment, and ceremonial vestments into worship. However, there is not one fixed "Presbyterian" worship style. Although there are set services for the "Lord's Day", one can find a service to be evangelical and even revivalist in tone (especially in some conservative denominations), or strongly liturgical, approximating the practices of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
or Anglicanism
Anglicanism
(especially where Scottish tradition is esteemed),[clarification needed] or semi-formal, allowing for a balance of hymns, preaching, and congregational participation (favored by probably most American Presbyterians). Most Presbyterian churches follow the traditional liturgical year and observe the traditional holidays, holy seasons, such as Advent, Christmas, Ash Wednesday, Holy Week, Easter, Pentecost, etc. They also make use of the appropriate seasonal liturgical colors, etc. Many incorporate ancient liturgical prayers and responses into the communion services and follow a daily, seasonal, and festival lectionary. Other Presbyterians, however, such as the Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterians, would practice a cappella exclusive psalmody, as well as eschew the celebration of holy days. Among the paleo-orthodox and emerging church movements in Protestant and evangelical churches, in which some Presbyterians are involved, clergy are moving away from the traditional black Geneva
Geneva
gown to such vestments as the alb and chasuble, but also cassock and surplice (typically a full length Old English style surplice which resembles the Celtic alb, an ungirdled liturgical tunic of the old Gallican Rite), which some, particularly those identifying with the Liturgical Renewal Movement, hold to be more ancient and representative of a more ecumenical past. Sacraments[edit] See also: Reformed baptismal theology
Reformed baptismal theology
and Lord's Supper in Reformed theology

A Scottish Sacrament, by Henry John Dobson

Presbyterians traditionally have held the Worship
Worship
position that there are only two sacraments:

Baptism, in which they would baptize infants, as well as unbaptized adults by the Aspersion (sprinkling) or Affusion
Affusion
(pouring) method, rather than the Immersion method. The Lord's Supper (also known as Communion), in which they would believe that Christ is present in the bread and wine through the Holy Spirit, as opposed to being locally present.

Architecture[edit]

Cold Spring Presbyterian Church
Cold Spring Presbyterian Church
near Cape May, New Jersey, rebuilt 1823

Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago), built 1914

Early Presbyterians were careful to distinguish between the "church," which referred to the members, and the "meeting house," which was the building in which the church met.[15] Until the late 19th century, very few Presbyterians ever referred to their buildings as "churches." Presbyterians believed that meeting-houses (now called churches) are buildings to support the worship of God. The decor in some instances was austere so as not to detract from worship. Early Presbyterian meeting-houses were extremely plain. No stained glass, no elaborate furnishings, and no images were to be found in the meeting-house. The pulpit, often raised so as only to be accessible by a staircase, was the centerpiece of the building. But these were not the standard characteristics of the mainline Presbyterians. These were more of the wave of Presbyterians that were influenced by the Puritans
Puritans
and simplicity. In the late 19th century a gradual shift began to occur. Prosperous congregations built imposing churches, such as Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago and Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church
Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church
in New York City, and many others. Usually a Presbyterian church will not have statues of saints, nor the ornate altar more typical of a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church. Instead, one will find a "communion table," usually on the same level as the congregation. There may be a rail between the communion table and the "Chancel" behind it, which may contain a more decorative altar-type table, choir loft, or choir stalls, lectern and clergy area. The altar is called the communion table and the altar area is called the Chancel by Presbyterians. In a Presbyterian ( Reformed
Reformed
Church) there may be an altar cross, either on the communion table or on a table in the chancel. By using the "empty" cross, or cross of the resurrection, Presbyterians emphasize the resurrection and that Christ is not continually dying, but died once and is alive for all eternity. Some Presbyterian church buildings are often decorated with a cross that has a circle around the center, or Celtic cross. This not only emphasized the resurrection, but also acknowledges historical aspects of Presbyterianism. A baptismal font will be located either at the entrance or near the chancel area. Presbyterian architecture generally makes significant use of symbolism. You may also find decorative and ornate stained glass windows depicting scenes from the bible. Some Presbyterian churches will also have ornate statues of Christ or Graven Scenes from the Last Supper located behind the Chancel. St. Giles Cathedral ( Church Of Scotland- The Mother Church of Presbyterians) does have a Crucifix next to one of the Pulpits that hangs alongside. The image of Christ is more of faint image and more modern design. Regions[edit] France[edit] There is a Church of Scotland
Scotland
(Presbyterian) in central Paris The Scots Kirk, Paris which is English-speaking, and is attended by many nationalities. It maintains close links with the Church of Scotland
Scotland
in Scotland
Scotland
itself; as well as with the Reformed
Reformed
Church of France. Scotland[edit] John Knox
John Knox
(1505–1572), a Scot who had spent time studying under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland
Scotland
and urged his countrymen to reform the Church in line with Calvinist
Calvinist
doctrines. After a period of religious convulsion and political conflict culminating in a victory for the Protestant
Protestant
party at the Siege of Leith
Siege of Leith
the authority of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was abolished in favour of Reformation
Reformation
by the legislation of the Scottish Reformation
Reformation
Parliament in 1560. The Church was eventually organised by Andrew Melville
Andrew Melville
along Presbyterian lines to become the national Church of Scotland. King James VI and I
King James VI and I
moved the Church of Scotland
Scotland
towards an episcopal form of government, and in 1637, James' successor, Charles I and William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury, attempted to force the Church of Scotland
Scotland
to use the Book of Common Prayer. What resulted was an armed insurrection, with many Scots signing the Solemn League and Covenant. The Covenanters would serve as the government of Scotland
Scotland
for nearly a decade, and would also send military support to the Parliamentarians during the English Civil War. Following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II, despite the initial support that he received from the Covenanters, reinstated an episcopal form of government on the church.

An illegal conventicle. Covenanters in a Glen.

However, with the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 the Church of Scotland was finally unequivocally recognised as a Presbyterian institution by the monarch due to Scottish Presbyterian support for the aforementioned revolution and the Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
between Scotland and England
England
guaranteed the Church of Scotland's form of government. However, legislation by the United Kingdom parliament
United Kingdom parliament
allowing patronage led to splits in the Church. In 1733, a group of ministers seceded from the Church of Scotland
Scotland
to form the Associate Presbytery, another group seceded in 1761 to form the Relief Church and the Disruption of 1843
Disruption of 1843
led to the formation of the Free Church of Scotland. Further splits took place, especially over theological issues, but most Presbyterians in Scotland
Scotland
were reunited by 1929 union of the established Church of Scotland
Scotland
and the United Free Church of Scotland. The Presbyterian denominations in Scotland
Scotland
today are the Church of Scotland, the Free Church of Scotland, the United Free Church of Scotland, the Free Church of Scotland
Scotland
(Continuing), the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, the Associated Presbyterian Church (Associated Presbyterian Churches), and the Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Within Scotland
Scotland
the term kirk is usually used to refer to a local Presbyterian church. Informally, the term 'The Kirk' refers to the Church of Scotland. Some of the values and ideals espoused in Scottish presbyterian denominations can be reflected in this reference in a book from Norman Drummond, chaplain to the Queen in Scotland.[16] England[edit] Main article: English Presbyterianism In England, Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
was established in secret in 1592. Thomas Cartwright is thought to be the first Presbyterian in England. Cartwright's controversial lectures at Cambridge University
Cambridge University
condemning the episcopal hierarchy of the Elizabethan Church led to his deprivation of his post by Archbishop John Whitgift and his emigration abroad. Between 1645 and 1648, a series of ordinances of the Long Parliament established Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
as the polity of the Church of England. Presbyterian government was established in London and Lancashire and in a few other places in England, although Presbyterian hostility to the execution of Charles I and the establishment of the republican Commonwealth of England
England
meant that Parliament never enforced the Presbyterian system in England. The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the return of Episcopal church government in England
England
(and in Scotland
Scotland
for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England
England
continued in Non-Conformity, outside of the established church. In 1719 a major split, the Salter's Hall controversy, occurred; with the majority siding with nontrinitarian views. Thomas Bradbury
Thomas Bradbury
published several sermons bearing on the controversy, and in 1719, "An answer to the reproaches cast on the dissenting ministers who subscribed their belief of the Eternal Trinity.". By the 18th century many English Presbyterian congregations had become Unitarian in doctrine. A number of new Presbyterian Churches were founded by Scottish immigrants to England
England
in the 19th century and later. Following the 'Disruption' in 1843 many of those linked to the Church of Scotland eventually joined what became the Presbyterian Church of England
England
in 1876. Some, that is Crown Court (Covent Garden, London), St Andrew's (Stepney, London) and Swallow Street
Swallow Street
(London), did not join the English denomination, which is why there are Church of Scotland congregations in England
England
such as those at Crown Court, and St Columba's, Pont Street (Knightsbridge) in London. There is also a congregation in the heart of London's financial district called London City Presbyterian Church that is also affiliated with Free Church of Scotland. In 1972, the Presbyterian Church of England
England
(PCofE) united with the Congregational Church in England
England
and Wales
Wales
to form the United Reformed Church (URC). Among the congregations the PCofE brought to the URC were Tunley (Lancashire), Aston Tirrold
Aston Tirrold
(Oxfordshire) and John Knox Presbyterian Church, Stepney, London (now part of Stepney Meeting House URC) – these are among the sole survivors today of the English Presbyterian churches of the 17th century. The URC also has a presence in Scotland, mostly of former Congregationalist Churches. Two former Presbyterian congregations, St Columba's, Cambridge (founded in 1879), and St Columba's, Oxford (founded as a chaplaincy by the PCofE and the Church of Scotland
Scotland
in 1908 and as a congregation of the PCofE in 1929), continue as congregations of the URC and university chaplaincies of the Church of Scotland. In recent years a number of smaller denominations adopting Presbyterian forms of church government have organised in England, including the International Presbyterian Church planted by evangelical theologian Francis Schaeffer
Francis Schaeffer
of L'Abri
L'Abri
Fellowship in the 1970s, and the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England
England
and Wales
Wales
founded in the North of England
England
in the late 1980s. Wales[edit] In Wales, Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is represented by the Presbyterian Church of Wales, which was originally composed largely of Calvinistic Methodists who accepted Calvinist
Calvinist
theology rather than the Arminianism
Arminianism
of the Wesleyan Methodists. They broke off from the Church of England
England
in 1811, ordaining their own ministers. They were originally known as the Calvinist
Calvinist
Methodist connexion and in the 1920s it became alternatively known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales. Northern Ireland[edit] Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is the largest Protestant
Protestant
denomination in Northern Ireland
Ireland
and the second largest on the island of Ireland
Ireland
(after the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Ireland),[citation needed] and was brought by Scottish plantation settlers to Ulster
Ulster
who had been strongly encouraged to emigrate by James VI of Scotland, later James I of Ireland
Ireland
and England. An estimated 100,000 Scottish Presbyterians moved to the northern counties of Ireland
Ireland
between 1607 and the Battle of the Boyne in 1690.[citation needed] The Presbytery of Ulster
Ulster
was formed in 1642 separately from the established Anglican
Anglican
Church. Presbyterians, along with Roman Catholics in Ulster
Ulster
and the rest of Ireland, suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is represented in Ireland
Ireland
by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, the Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland, the Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church of Ireland
Ireland
and the Evangelical Presbyterian Church. Italy[edit] Further information: Waldensian The Waldensian
Waldensian
Evangelical Church (Chiesa Evangelica Valdese, CEV) is an Italian Protestant
Protestant
denomination. The church was founded in the 12th century, and centuries later, after the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, it adhered to Calvinist
Calvinist
theology and became the Italian branch of the Presbyterian churches. As such, the church is a member of the World Communion of Reformed
Reformed
Churches. North America[edit] See also: List of Presbyterian churches
List of Presbyterian churches
in North America

Evolution of Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
in the United States

Even before Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
spread with immigrants abroad from Scotland, there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. Some later rejoined only to separate again. In what some interpret as rueful self-reproach, some Presbyterians refer to the divided Presbyterian churches as the "Split P's". United States[edit] See also: American Presbyterianism Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
first officially arrived in Colonial America in 1644 with the establishment of Christ's First Presbyterian Church in Hempstead, NY. The Church was organized by the Rev. Richard Denton. Another notable church was established in 1703 the first Presbytery in Philadelphia. In time, the presbytery would be joined by two more to form a synod (1717) and would eventually evolve into the Presbyterian Church in the United States
United States
of America in 1789. The nation's largest Presbyterian denomination, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
– PC (USA) – can trace their heritage back to the original PCUSA, as can the Presbyterian Church in America
Presbyterian Church in America
(PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Bible Presbyterian Church
Bible Presbyterian Church
(BPC), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (CPC), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
in America, the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC), and the Evangelical Covenant Order of Presbyterians
Evangelical Covenant Order of Presbyterians
(ECO). Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States
United States
include the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (RPCNA), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP), the Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church in the United States
United States
(RPCUS), the Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church General Assembly, the Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church – Hanover Presbytery, the Covenant Presbyterian Church, the Presbyterian Reformed
Reformed
Church, the Westminster Presbyterian Church in the United States, the Korean American Presbyterian Church, and the Free Presbyterian Church of North America.

First Presbyterian Church in Phoenix, Arizona

The territory within about a 50-mile (80 km) radius of Charlotte, North Carolina, is historically the greatest concentration of Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
in the Southern United States, while an almost identical geographic area around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains probably the largest number of Presbyterians in the entire nation. The PC (USA), beginning with its predecessor bodies, has, in common with other so-called "mainline" Protestant
Protestant
denominations, experienced a significant decline in members in recent years. Some estimates have placed that loss at nearly half in the last forty years.[17] Presbyterian influence, especially through Princeton theology
Princeton theology
can be traced in modern Evangelicalism. Balmer says that:

Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism
itself, I believe, is a quintessentially North American phenomenon, deriving as it did from the confluence of Pietism, Presbyterianism, and the vestiges of Puritanism. Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism
picked up the peculiar characteristics from each strain – warmhearted spirituality from the Pietists (for instance), doctrinal precisionism from the Presbyterians, and individualistic introspection from the Puritans
Puritans
– even as the North American context itself has profoundly shaped the various manifestations of evangelicalism: fundamentalism, neo-evangelicalism, the holiness movement, Pentecostalism, the charismatic movement, and various forms of African-American and Hispanic evangelicalism.[18]

In the late 1800s, Presbyterian missionaries established a presence in what is now northern New Mexico. This provided an alternative to the Catholicism, which was brought to the area by the Spanish Conquistadors and had remained unchanged. The area experienced a "mini" reformation, in that many converts were made to Presbyterianism, prompting persecution. In some cases, the converts left towns and villages to establish their own neighboring villages. The arrival of the United States
United States
to the area prompted the Catholic church to modernize and make efforts at winning the converts back, many of which did return. However, there are still stalwart Presbyterians and Presbyterian churches in the area. Canada[edit]

Rev Bruin Romkes Comingo, 1st Presbyterian Minister in Canada, St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church (Lunenburg)

In Canada, the largest Presbyterian denomination – and indeed the largest Protestant
Protestant
denomination – was the Presbyterian Church in Canada, formed in 1875 with the merger of four regional groups. In 1925, the United Church of Canada
Canada
was formed by the majority of Presbyterians combining with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada. A sizable minority of Canadian Presbyterians, primarily in southern Ontario but also throughout the entire nation, withdrew, and reconstituted themselves as a non-concurring continuing Presbyterian body. They regained use of the original name in 1939. Latin
Latin
America[edit]

Presbyterian Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
arrived in Latin
Latin
America in the 19th century. Mexico[edit] The biggest Presbyterian church is the National Presbyterian Church in Mexico (Iglesia Nacional Presbiteriana de México), which has around 2,500,000 members and associates and 3000 congregations, but there are other small denominations like the Associate Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church in Mexico which was founded in 1875 by the Associate Reformed Church in North America. The Independent Presbyterian Church and the Presbyterian Reformed
Reformed
Church in Mexico, the National Conservative Presbyterian Church in Mexico are existing churches in the Reformed tradition. Brazil[edit] In Brazil, the Presbyterian Church of Brazil
Presbyterian Church of Brazil
(Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil) totals approximately 1,011,300 members;[19] other Presbyterian churches (Independents, United, Conservatives, Renovated, etc.) in this nation have around 350,000 members. The Renewed Presbyterian Church in Brazil was influenced by the charismatic movement and has about 131 000 members as of 2011.[20] The Conservative Presbyterian Church was founded in 1940 and has eight presbyteries.[21] The Fundamentalist Presbyterian church in Brazil was influenced by Karl McIntire and the Bible Presbyterian church USA and has around 1 800 members. The Independent Presbyterian Church in Brasil was founded in 1903 by pastor Pereira, has 500 congregations and 75 000 members. The United Presbyterian Church in Brazil has around 4 000 members. There are also ethnic Korean Presbyterian churches in the country. The Evangelical Reformed
Reformed
Church in Brazil has Dutch origin. The Reformed Churches in Brazil were recently founded by the Canadian Reformed Churches with the Reformed
Reformed
Church in the Netherlands (liberated). Congregational churches present in the country are also part of the Calvinistic tradition in Latin
Latin
America. Other Latin
Latin
American states[edit] There are probably more than four million members of Presbyterian churches in all of Latin
Latin
America. Presbyterian churches are also present in Peru, Bolivia, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Argentina and others, but with few members. The Presbyterian Church in Belize has 14 churches and church plants and there is a Reformed
Reformed
Seminary founded in 2004. Some Latin
Latin
Americans in North America are active in the Presbyterian Cursillo Movement. Africa[edit] Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
arrived in Africa
Africa
in the 19th century through the work of Scottish missionaries and founded churches such as St Michael and All Angels Church, Blantyre, Malawi. The church has grown extensively and now has a presence in at least 23 countries in the region.[22] African Presbyterian churches often incorporate diaconal ministries, including social services, emergency relief, and the operation of mission hospitals. A number of partnerships exist between presbyteries in Africa
Africa
and the PC(USA), including specific connections with Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Ghana and Zambia. For example, the Lackawanna Presbytery, located in Northeastern Pennsylvania, has a partnership with a presbytery in Ghana. Also the Southminster Presbyterian Church, located near Pittsburgh, has partnerships with churches in Malawi and Kenya. The Presbyterian Church of Nigeria, western Africa
Africa
is also healthy and strong in mostly the southern states of this nation, strong density in the south-eastern states of this country. Beginning from Cross River state, the nearby coastal states, Rivers state, Lagos state to Ebonyi and Abia States. The missionary expedition of Mary Slessor and Hope Waddel and their group in the mid 18th century in this coastal regions of the ten British colony has brought about the beginning and the flourishing of this church in these areas. Kenya[edit] The Presbyterian Church of East Africa, based in Kenya, is particularly strong, with 500 clergy and 4 million members.[23] Malawi[edit] The Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church in Malawi has 150 congregations and 17 000–20 000 members. It was a mission of the Free Presbyterian church of Scotland. The Restored Reformed
Reformed
Church works with RPCM. Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Malawi is an existing small church. Part of the Presbyterian Church in Malawi and Zambia is known as CCAP, Church of Central Africa-Presbyterian. Often the churches there have one main congregation and a number of Prayer
Prayer
Houses develop. education, health ministries as well as worship and spiritual development are important. Southern Africa[edit] Southern Africa
Africa
is a major base of Reformed
Reformed
and Presbyterian Churches.[citation needed] Northern Africa[edit] In addition also there are a number of Presbyterian Churches in north Africa, the most known is the Nile Synod
Synod
in Egypt and a recently founded synod for Sudan. Asia[edit] Hong Kong[edit] Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Yao Dao Secondary School is a Presbyterian school in Yuen Long, New Territories. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church also have a church on the island of Cheung Chau. There are also Korean Christians resident in Hong Kong who are Presbyterians.[citation needed] South Korea[edit] Presbyterian Churches are the biggest and by far the most influential Protestant
Protestant
denominations in South Korea, with close to 20,000 churches affiliated with the two largest Presbyterian denominations in the country.[24] In South Korea
Korea
there are 15 million Protestants and about 9 million are Presbyterians. In South Korea
Korea
there are 100 different Presbyterian denominations.[25] Most of the Korean Presbyterian denominations share the same name in Korean, 대한예수교장로회 (literally means the Presbyterian Church of Korea
Korea
or PCK), tracing its roots to the United Presbyterian Assembly before its long history of disputes and schisms. The Presbyterian schism began with the controversy in relation to the Japanese shrine worship enforced during the Japanese colonial period and the establishment of a minor division (Koryu-pa, 고려파, later The Koshin Presbyterian Church in Korea, Koshin 고신) in 1952. And in 1953 the second schism happened when the theological orientation of the Chosun Seminary (later Hanshin University) founded in 1947 could not be tolerated in the PCK and another minor group (The Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea, Kijang, 기장) was separated. The last major schism had to do with the issue of whether the PCK should join the WCC. The controversy divided the PCK into two denominations, The Presbyterian Church of Korea
Korea
(Tonghap, 통합) and The General Assembly of Presbyterian Church in Korea
Korea
(Hapdong, 합동) in 1959. All major seminaries associated with each denomination claim heritage from the Pyung Yang Theological Seminary, therefore, not only Presbyterian University and Theological Seminary and Chongsin University which are related to PCK but also Hanshin University of PROK all celebrated the 100th class in 2007, 100 years from the first graduates of Pyung Yang Theological Seminary.[26] Korean Presbyterian denominations are active in evangelism and many of its missionaries are being sent overseas, being the second biggest missionary sender in the world after the United States. GSM, the missionary body of the "Hapdong" General Assembly of Presbyterian Churches of Korea, is the single largest Presbyterian missionary organization in Korea.[27] In addition there are many Korean-American Presbyterians in the United States, either with their own church sites or sharing space in pre-existing churches as is the case in Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and even Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia with Korean immigration. The Korean Presbyterian Church started through the mission of the Presbyterian Church (USA) and the Australian Presbyterian theological tradition is central to the United States. But after independence, the 'Presbyterian Church in Korea
Korea
(KoRyuPa)' advocated a Dutch Reformed position. In the 21st century, a new General Assembly of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church of Korea
Korea
(Founder. Ha Seung-moo) in 2012 declared itself an authentic historical succession of Scottish Presbyterian John Knox. Taiwan[edit] The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan
Presbyterian Church in Taiwan
(PCT) is by far the largest Protestant
Protestant
denomination in Taiwan, with some 238,372 members as of 2009 (including a majority of the island's aborigines). English Presbyterian missionary James Laidlaw Maxwell
James Laidlaw Maxwell
established the first Presbyterian church in Tainan
Tainan
in 1865. His colleague George Leslie Mackay, of the Canadian Presbyterian Mission, was active in Danshui and north Taiwan
Taiwan
from 1872 to 1901; he founded the island's first university and hospital, and created a written script for Taiwanese Minnan. The English and Canadian missions joined together as the PCT in 1912. One of the few churches permitted to operate in Taiwan through the era of Japanese rule (1895–1945), the PCT experienced rapid growth during the era of Guomindang-imposed martial law (1949–1987), in part due to its support for democracy, human rights, and Taiwan
Taiwan
independence. Former ROC president Lee Teng-hui
Lee Teng-hui
(in office 1988–2000) is a Presbyterian. India[edit]

This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. You can assist by editing it. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Jowai
Jowai
Presbyterian Church, India

In the mainly Christian Indian state of Mizoram, the Presbyterian denomination is the largest denomination; it was brought to the region with missionaries from Wales
Wales
in 1894. Prior to Mizoram, the Welsh Presbyterians (missionaries) started venturing into the north-east of India
India
through the Khasi Hills (presently located within the state of Meghalaya
Meghalaya
in India) and established Presbyterian churches all over the Khasi Hills from the 1840s onwards. Hence there is a strong presence of Presbyterians in Shillong
Shillong
(the present capital of Meghalaya) and the areas adjoining it. The Welsh missionaries built their first church in Sohra (aka Cherrapunji) in 1846. Presbyterian Churches in India
India
was integrated in 1970 in the United Church of Northern India formed in 1924.This is the Largest Presbyterian Church Till Now. Oceania[edit] Australia[edit] See also: List of Presbyterian denominations in Australia

Timeline showing the Presbyterian denominations in Australia
Australia
over the past 100 years, and the movement of congregations from one to another

In Australia, Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is the fourth largest denomination of Christianity, with nearly 600,000 Australians claiming to be Presbyterian in the 2006 Commonwealth Census. Presbyterian churches were founded in each colony, some with links to the Church of Scotland and others to the Free Church. There were also congregations originating from United Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Scotland
as well as a number founded by John Dunmore Lang. Most of these bodies merged between 1859 and 1870, and in 1901 formed a federal union called the Presbyterian Church of Australia
Australia
but retaining their state assemblies. The Presbyterian Church of Eastern Australia
Australia
representing the Free Church of Scotland
Scotland
tradition, and congregations in Victoria of the Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian Church, originally from Ireland, are the other existing denominations dating from colonial times. In 1977, two thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, along with most of the Congregational Union of Australia
Australia
and all the Methodist Church
Methodist Church
of Australasia, combined to form the Uniting Church in Australia. The third who did not unite had various reasons for so acting, often cultural attachment but often conservative theological or social views. The permission for the ordination of women given in 1974 was rescinded in 1991 without affecting the two or three existing woman ministers. The approval of women elders given in the 1960s has been rescinded in all states except New South Wales, which has the largest membership. The theology of the church is now generally conservative and Reformed. A number of small Presbyterian denominations have arisen since the 1950s through migration or schism. New Zealand[edit]

Kaikorai Presbyterian Church, New Zealand

In New Zealand, Presbyterian is the dominant denomination in Otago and Southland due largely to the rich Scottish and to a lesser extent Ulster-Scots heritage in the region. The area around Christchurch, Canterbury, is dominated philosophically by the Anglican (Episcopalian) denomination. Originally there were two branches of Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
in New Zealand, the northern Presbyterian church which existed in the North Island and the parts of the South Island north of the Waitaki River, and the Synod
Synod
of Otago and Southland, founded by Free Church settlers in southern South Island. The two churches merged in 1901, forming what is now the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand. In addition to the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, there is also a more conservative Presbyterian church called Grace Presbyterian Church of New Zealand. Many of its members left the largely liberal PCANZ because they were seeking a more Biblical church. It has 17 churches throughout New Zealand. Vanuatu[edit] The Presbyterian Church in Vanuatu
Presbyterian Church in Vanuatu
is the largest denomination in the country, with approximately one-third of the population of Vanuatu members of the church. The PCV was taken to Vanuatu by missionaries from Scotland. The PCV (Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu) is headed by a moderator with offices in Port Vila. The PCV is particularly strong in the provinces of Tafea, Shefa, and Malampa. The Province of Sanma is mainly Presbyterian with a strong Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
minority in the Francophone
Francophone
areas of the province. There are some Presbyterian people, but no organised Presbyterian churches in Penama
Penama
and Torba, both of which are traditionally Anglican. Vanuatu is the only country in the South Pacific with a significant Presbyterian heritage and membership. The PCV is a founding member of the Vanuatu Christian Council (VCC). The PCV runs many primary schools and Onesua secondary school. The church is strong in the rural villages. See also[edit]

Calvinism
Calvinism
portal

Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy Ghost Ranch Protestant
Protestant
Reformation Puritan's Pit Presbyterian confessions of faith Religion
Religion
in Scotland Church of Scotland English Presbyterianism

Churches[edit]

List of Presbyterian churches List of Christian denominations#Presbyterianism St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh (Church of Scotland) – famous among Presbyterians worldwide for John Knox's success in preaching there

Colleges and seminaries[edit]

Presbyterian universities and colleges

People[edit] Main page: Category:Presbyterians Sidenotes[edit]

^ In Presbyterianism, alternative versions of the motto are also used such as "burning, yet not consumed".

References[edit]

^ [1][dead link] ^ Benedict, Philip (2002). Christ's Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. xiv. ISBN 978-0300105070.  ^ " Protestant
Protestant
Religion
Religion
and Presbyterian Church Act 1707". The National Archives. United Kingdom. Retrieved 19 October 2011.  ^ Mark J Englund-Krieger (2015). The Presbyterian Mission Enterprise: From Heathen to Partner. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 40–41.  ^ Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr. (1981-04-28). "The Episcopalians: An American Elite with Roots Going Back to Jamestown". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-17.  ^ Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet," Ethnicity, 1975 154+ ^ Hacker, Andrew (1957). "Liberal Democracy and Social Control". American Political Science Review. 51 (4): 1009–1026 [p. 1011]. JSTOR 1952449.  ^ Baltzell (1964). The Protestant
Protestant
Establishment. p. 9.  ^ "Established Church of Scotland". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26 September 2010.  ^ "Church of Scotland
Scotland
- Historical Records". Retrieved 31 May 2016.  ^ Constitution of the Presbyterian Church (USA): Part I: The Book of Confessions, p. 267. ^ "Available Emblems of Belief for Placement on Government Headstones and Markers". United States
United States
Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 22 March 2015.  ^ D. G. Hart, "The Lost Soul of American Protestantism." Rowman and Littlefield, 2004[page needed] ^ Westminster Confession of Faith, Chapter XXI, paragraph I ^ Quakers still insist upon this distinction ^ Drummond, Norman (2010). The Power of Three: Discovering what really matters in life. London: Hachette (Hodder & Stoughton). ISBN 9780340979914.  ^ "Big Losses Projected", News, Layman, 2006, archived from the original on 5 July 2008 . ^ Balmer, Randall (2002). The Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press. pp. vii–viii.  ^ "Estatísticas 2011 Dados Estimados" (PDF). Executivaipb.com.br. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Igreja Presbiteriana Renovada do Brasil". IPRB. Retrieved 25 May 2013.  ^ "Igreja Presbiteriana Conservadora do Brasil". IPCB. Retrieved 25 May 2013.  ^ "Worldwide Ministries, Africa". PC(USA). Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ "Worldwide Ministries, Kenya". PC(USA). Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ "History". KR: The Presbyterian Church of Korea. Retrieved 1 August 2011. . ^ "Touched by Devotion in South Korea" (article). Christian Reformed Church. 4 October 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2013. . ^ 리폼드뉴스 (in Korean). KR: Reformed
Reformed
news. Retrieved 7 August 2011.  ^ Search, KR: KCM, retrieved 7 August 2011 .

Bibliography[edit]

Stewart J Brown. The National Churches of England, Ireland, and Scotland, 1801–46 (2001) William the Baptist by James M. Chaney ( Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian perspective on baptism and infant baptism) Jay E. Adams. The Meaning and Mode of Baptism
Baptism
Thomas Shepard . (1975) ( Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian perspective on Aspersion and Affusion) THE CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF CHILDREN, AND THEIR RIGHT TO BAPTISM (1662) ( Reformed
Reformed
Presbyterian perspective on infants' right to church membership) William Henry Foote. Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Biographical...(1846) – full-text history of early North Carolina and its Presbyterian churches Andrew Lang (1905). John Knox
John Knox
and the Reformation. Longmans, Green, and Company.  William Klempa, ed. The Burning Bush and a Few Acres of Snow: The Presbyterian Contribution to Canadian Life and Culture (1994) Marsden, George M. The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience (1970) Mark A Noll. Princeton And The Republic, 1768–1822 (2004) Frank Joseph Smith, The History of the Presbyterian Church in America, Reformation
Reformation
Education Foundation, Manassas, VA 1985 William Warren Sweet, Religion
Religion
on the American Frontier, 1783—1840, vol. 2, The Presbyterians (1936), primary sources Ernest Trice Thompson. Presbyterians in the South vol 1: to 1860; Vol 2: 1861–1890; Vol 3: 1890–1972. (1963–1973) Leonard J. Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition: A Re-examination of Colonial Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
(1949) Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States
United States
of America (1884) St.Andrews Prebystarian church in Lahore, Pakistan.Church Website "Presbyterian 101 — Mission and Ministry — GAMC". Pcusa.org. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2011.  "History and Architecture :: East Liberty Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, PA :: "The Cathedral of Hope"". Cathedralofhope.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Davies, A. Mervyn (1965). Presbyterian Heritage.  Lingle, Walter L.; Kuykendall, John W. (1978). Presbyterians: Their History and Beliefs (4th rev. ed.). Atlanta: Westminster John Knox Press.  Smylie, James H. (1996). A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Louisville, KY: Geneva
Geneva
Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presbyterianism.

Presbyterian Heritage and History Center Presbyterian & Reformed
Reformed
Publishing

v t e

History of Christianity

Centuries:1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st

Ministry of Jesus and Apostolic Age

Jesus

Ministry Crucifixion Resurrection

Holy Spirit Leadership

Apostles Seventy disciples Paul the Apostle Council of Jerusalem

Great Commission New Testament

Background Gospels Acts Pauline epistles General epistles Revelation

Ante-Nicene Period

Judaism
Judaism
split Justin Martyr Ignatius Persecution Fathers Irenaeus Marcionism Canon Tertullian Montanism Origen

Late ancient

Constantine Monasticism Councils: Nicaea I Creed Athanasius Arianism Jerome Augustine Constantinople I Ephesus I Chalcedon

Eastern Christianity

Eastern Orthodoxy Church of the East Oriental Orthodoxy Chrysostom Nestorianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Fall of Constantinople Armenia Georgia Greece Egypt Syria Ethiopia Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Russia America

Middle Ages

Pelagianism Gregory I Celtic Germanic Scandinavian Kievan Rus' Investiture Anselm Abelard Bernard of Clairvaux Bogomils Cathars Crusades Waldensians Inquisition Scholasticism Dominic Francis Bonaventure Aquinas Wycliffe Avignon Papal Schism Bohemian Reformation Hus Conciliarism

Catholicism

Primacy development Papacy Timeline Lateran IV Trent Counter-Reformation Thomas More Leo X Guadalupe Jesuits Jansenists Xavier Monastery dissolution Wars Teresa Vatican I and II Modernism

Reformation

Protestantism

Erasmus Five solae Eucharist Calvinist–Arminian debate Arminianism Dort Wars

Lutheranism

Martin Luther 95 Theses Diet of Worms Melanchthon Orthodoxy Eucharist Book of Concord

Calvinism

Zwingli Calvin Presbyterianism Scotland Knox TULIP Dort Three Forms of Unity Westminster

Anglicanism

Timeline Henry VIII Cranmer Settlement 39 Articles Common Prayer Puritans Civil War

Anabaptism

Radical Reformation Grebel Swiss Brethren Müntzer Martyrs' Synod Menno Simons Smyth

1640–1789

Revivalism English denominations Baptists Congregationalism First Great Awakening Methodism Millerism Pietism Neo- and Old Lutherans

1789–present

Camp meeting Holiness movement Independent Catholic denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus movement Mainline Protestant Pentecostalism Charismatics Liberation theology Christian right Christian left Genocide by ISIL

Timeline Missions Timeline Martyrs Theology Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Protestantism Catholicism

v t e

Religion

Major religious groups
Major religious groups
and religious denominations

Abrahamic

Judaism

Orthodox

Haredi Hasidic Modern

Conservative Reform Karaite Reconstructionist Renewal Humanistic Haymanot

Christianity

Catholicism

Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern Christianity

Church of the East

Assyrian Church of the East

Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy

Ethiopian Orthodoxy

Independent Catholicism

Old Catholicism

Protestantism

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptists Calvinism

Presbyterianism Congregationalism Continental Reformed

Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism Evangelicalism

Nontrinitarianism

Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Jesuism

Nondenominational

Islam

Sunni

Hanafi Maliki Hanbali Shafi'i

Shia

Twelver Isma'ilism Zaidiyyah

Ahmadi Ibadi Non-denominational Quranism Zahirism Salafism

Wahhabism Ahl al-Hadith

Mahdavia European Islam Nation of Islam

Others

Bábism

Azáli Bábism Bahá'í Faith

Druze Mandaeism Rastafari Samaritanism

Dharmic

Hinduism

Vaishnavism Shaktism Shaivism Ayyavazhi Smartism Balinese

Buddhism

Mahayana

Chan

Zen Thiền Seon

Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai

Theravada Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon

Navayana

Others

Dravidian Jainism

Digambara Śvētāmbara

Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon
Bon
Lamaism Kirant Mundhum

Persian

Manichaeism Yazdânism

Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism

Zoroastrianism

European

Armenian Baltic

Dievturība Druwi Romuva

Caucasian Celtic

Druidry

Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic

Uralic

Finnish Hungarian Uralic

Mari Mordvin Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

Burkhanism Chuvash Manchu Mongolian Siberian Tengrism

East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

Agriculture Business Clergy

monasticism ordination

Conversion

evangelism missionary proselytism

Education Fanaticism Freedom

pluralism syncretism toleration universalism

Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars

Category Portal

Authority control

GND: 41756

.

Time at 25405319.9, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25405319.9 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25405860.316667 = task['next-exec'];
25404420.316667 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25405319.9 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25414500.333333 = task['next-exec'];
25404420.333333 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25405319.9 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25405860.35 = task['next-exec'];
25404420.35 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25405319.9 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25405860.383333 = task['next-exec'];
25404420.383333 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25405319.9 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25405860.433333 = task['next-exec'];
25404420.433333 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25405319.9 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25405860.55 = task['next-exec'];
25404420.55 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25405319.9 Time.