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The prehistory of Egypt
Egypt
spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer
Narmer
for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
for others, (also known as Menes). This Predynastic era is traditionally equivalent to the final part of the Neolithic
Neolithic
period beginning c. 6000 BC, and corresponds to the Naqada III period. The dates of the Predynastic period were first defined before widespread archaeological excavation of Egypt
Egypt
took place, and recent finds indicating very gradual Predynastic development have led to controversy over when exactly the Predynastic period ended. Thus, the term "Protodynastic period", sometimes called the "Zero Dynasty", has been used by scholars[who?] to name the part of the period which might be characterized as Predynastic by some and Early Dynastic by others. The Predynastic period is generally divided into cultural eras, each named after the place where a certain type of Egyptian settlement was first discovered. However, the same gradual development that characterizes the Protodynastic period is present throughout the entire Predynastic period, and individual "cultures" must not be interpreted as separate entities but as largely subjective divisions used to facilitate study of the entire period. The vast majority of Predynastic archaeological finds have been in Upper Egypt, because the silt of the Nile River
Nile River
was more heavily deposited at the Delta region, completely burying most Delta sites long before modern times.[1]

Contents

1 Late Paleolithic

1.1 Wadi
Wadi
Halfa 1.2 Aterian
Aterian
Industry 1.3 Khormusan Industry

2 Mesolithic

2.1 Halfan culture 2.2 Qadan culture 2.3 Sebilian culture 2.4 Harifian culture

3 Neolithic

3.1 Lower Egypt

3.1.1 Faiyum A culture 3.1.2 Merimde culture 3.1.3 El Omari culture 3.1.4 Maadi
Maadi
culture

3.2 Upper Egypt

3.2.1 Tasian culture 3.2.2 Badarian culture 3.2.3 Naqada culture

3.2.3.1 Amratian culture
Amratian culture
(Naqada I) 3.2.3.2 Gerzean culture
Gerzean culture
(Naqada II) 3.2.3.3 Protodynastic Period (Naqada III)

4 Timeline 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Late Paleolithic[edit] The Late Paleolithic
Paleolithic
in Egypt
Egypt
started around 30,000 BC.[2] The Nazlet Khater skeleton was found in 1980 and dated in 1982 from nine samples ranging between 35,100 and 30,360 years.[3] This specimen is the only complete modern human skeleton from the earliest Late Stone Age
Stone Age
in Africa.[4] Excavation of the Nile
Nile
has exposed early stone tools. The earliest of these lithic industries were located within the 30-metre (100 ft) terrace, and were Chellean, primitive Acheulean
Acheulean
and an Egyptian form of the Clactonian. Within the 15-metre (50 ft) terrace was developed Acheulean. Originally reported as Early Mousterian
Mousterian
but since changed to Levalloisean, other implements were located in the 10-metre (30 ft) terrace. The 4.5- and 3-metre (15–10 ft) terraces saw a more developed version of the Levalloisean, also initially reported as an Egyptian version of Mousterian. Finally, tools of the Egyptian Sebilian technology and an Egyptian version of the Aterian technology were also located.[5] Wadi
Wadi
Halfa[edit] Some of the oldest known buildings were discovered in Egypt
Egypt
by archaeologist Waldemar Chmielewski along the southern border near Wadi Halfa, Sudan.[when?][2] They were mobile structures—easily disassembled, moved, and reassembled—providing hunter-gatherers with semi-permanent habitation.[2] Aterian
Aterian
Industry[edit] Main article: Aterian Aterian
Aterian
tool-making reached Egypt
Egypt
c. 40,000 BC.[2] Khormusan Industry[edit] The Khormusan industry in Egypt
Egypt
began between 42,000 and 32,000 BP.[2] Khormusans developed tools not only from stone but also from animal bones and hematite.[2] They also developed small arrow heads resembling those of Native Americans,[2] but no bows have been found.[2] The end of the Khormusan industry came around 16,000 B.C. with the appearance of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.[6] Mesolithic[edit] Halfan culture[edit] Main article: Halfan culture The Halfan culture flourished along the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
of Egypt
Egypt
and Nubia between 18,000 and 15,000 BC, though one Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.[a] People survived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing. Greater concentrations of artifacts indicate that they were not bound to seasonal wandering, but settled for longer periods.[9][citation needed] They are viewed as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian
Ibero-Maurusian
industry,[a] which spread across the Sahara
Sahara
and into Spain. The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan,[b][11] which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival. The primary material remains of this culture are stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings. Qadan culture[edit] Main article: Qadan Culture The Qadan culture (13,000-9,000 BC) was a Mesolithic
Mesolithic
industry that, archaeological evidence suggests, originated in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
(present day south Egypt) approximately 15,000 years ago [12][13] The Qadan subsistence mode is estimated to have persisted for approximately 4,000 years. It was characterized by hunting, as well as a unique approach to food gathering that incorporated the preparation and consumption of wild grasses and grains.[12][13] Systematic efforts were made by the Qadan people to water, care for, and harvest local plant life, but grains were not planted in ordered rows.[14] Around twenty archaeological sites in upper Nubia
Nubia
give evidence for the existence of the Qadan culture's grain-grinding culture. Its makers also practiced wild grain harvesting along the Nile
Nile
during the beginning of the Sahaba Daru Nile
Nile
phase, when desiccation in the Sahara
Sahara
caused residents of the Libyan oases to retreat into the Nile valley.[15] Among the Qadan culture sites is the Jebel Sahaba cemetery, which has been dated to the Mesolithic.[16] Qadan peoples developed sickles and grinding stones to aid in the collecting and processing of these plant foods prior to consumption.[2] However, there are no indications of the use of these tools after around 10,000 BC, when hunter-gatherers replaced them.[2] Sebilian culture[edit] Main article: Sebilian In Egypt, analyses of pollen found at archaeological sites indicate that the Sebilian culture (also known as the Esna culture) were gathering wheat and barley[citation needed]. Domesticated seeds were not found (modern wheat and barley originated in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Canaan[15]). It has been hypothesized that the sedentary lifestyle used by farmers led to increased warfare, which was detrimental to farming and brought this period to an end.[15] Harifian culture[edit] Main article: Harifian The Harifians are viewed as migrating out of the Fayyum[c] and the Eastern Deserts of Egypt
Egypt
during the late Mesolithic
Mesolithic
to merge with the Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
B (PPNB)[c] culture, whose tool assemblage resembles that of the Harifian. This assimilation led to the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, a group of cultures that invented nomadic pastoralism, and may have been the original culture which spread Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
languages throughout Mesopotamia.[19] Neolithic[edit] Lower Egypt[edit] Faiyum A culture[edit]

Expansion of Afroasiatic languages. The second stage shows the formation of Semitic languages.

Continued expansion of the desert forced the early ancestors of the Egyptians
Egyptians
to settle around the Nile
Nile
more permanently and adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. The period from 9000 to 6000 BC has left very little in the way of archaeological evidence. Around 6000 BC, Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements appear all over Egypt.[20] Studies based on morphological,[21] genetic,[22][23][24][25][26] and archaeological data[17][27][28][29][30] have attributed these settlements to migrants from the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
in the Near East
Near East
returning during the Egyptian and North African Neolithic, bringing agriculture to the region. However, other regions in Africa independently developed agriculture at about the same time: the Ethiopian highlands, the Sahel, and West Africa.[31] Some morphological and post-cranial data has linked the earliest farming populations at Fayum, Merimde, and El-Badari, to Near Eastern populations.[32][33][34] However, the archaeological data also suggests that Near Eastern domesticates were incorporated into a pre-existing foraging strategy and only slowly developed into a full-blown lifestyle, contrary to what would be expected from settler colonists from the Near East.[d][36][37] Finally, the names for the Near Eastern domesticates imported into Egypt
Egypt
were not Sumerian or Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
loan words,[38] which further diminishes the likelihood of a mass immigrant colonization of lower Egypt
Egypt
during the transition to agriculture.[39] Weaving
Weaving
is evidenced for the first time during the Faiyum A Period. People of this period, unlike later Egyptians, buried their dead very close to, and sometimes inside, their settlements.[40] Although archaeological sites reveal very little about this time, an examination of the many Egyptian words for "city" provide a hypothetical list of reasons why the Egyptians
Egyptians
settled. In Upper Egypt, terminology indicates trade, protection of livestock, high ground for flood refuge, and sacred sites for deities.[41] Merimde culture[edit] Main article: Merimde culture From about 5000 to 4200 BC the Merimde culture, so far only known from a big settlement site at the edge of the Western Delta, flourished in Lower Egypt. The culture has strong connections to the Faiyum A culture as well as the Levant. People lived in small huts, produced a simple undecorated pottery and had stone tools. Cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were held. Wheat, sorghum and barley were planted. The Merimde people buried their dead within the settlement and produced clay figurines.[42] The first Egyptian lifesize head made of clay comes from Merimde.[43] El Omari culture[edit] The El Omari culture is known from a small settlement near modern Cairo. People seem to have lived in huts, but only postholes and pits survive. The pottery is undecorated. Stone tools include small flakes, axes and sickles. Metal was not yet known.[44] Their sites were occupied from 4000 BC to the Archaic Period.[45] Maadi
Maadi
culture[edit] The Maadi
Maadi
culture (also called Buto Maadi
Maadi
culture) is the most important Lower Egyptian prehistoric culture contemporary with Naqada I and II phases in Upper Egypt. The culture is best known from the site Maadi
Maadi
near Cairo, but is also attested in many other places in the Delta to the Fayum region. This culture was marked by development in architecture and technology. It also followed its predecesor cultures when it comes to undecorated ceramics.[46] Copper was known, and some copper adzes have been found. The pottery is simple and undecorated and shows, in some forms, strong connections to the southern Levant[citation needed]. People lived in small huts, partly dug into the ground. The dead were buried in cemeteries, but with few burial goods. The Maadi
Maadi
culture was replaced by the Naqada III culture; whether this happened by conquest or infiltration is still an open question.[47] Upper Egypt[edit]

Predynastic artifacts: clockwise from top left: a Bat figurine, a Naqada jar, an ivory figurine, a diorite vase, a flint knife, a cosmetic palette.

Tasian culture[edit] Main article: Tasian culture The Tasian culture
Tasian culture
was the next in Upper Egypt. This culture group is named for the burials found at Der Tasa, on the east bank of the Nile between Asyut
Asyut
and Akhmim. The Tasian culture
Tasian culture
group is notable for producing the earliest blacktop-ware, a type of red and brown pottery that is painted black on the top and interior.[40] This pottery is vital to the dating of Predynastic Egypt. Because all dates for the Predynastic period are tenuous at best, WMF Petrie developed a system called Sequence Dating by which the relative date, if not the absolute date, of any given Predynastic site can be ascertained by examining its pottery. As the Predynastic period progressed, the handles on pottery evolved from functional to ornamental. The degree to which any given archaeological site has functional or ornamental pottery can also be used to determine the relative date of the site. Since there is little difference between Tasian ceramics and Badarian pottery, the Tasian Culture overlaps the Badarian range significantly.[48] From the Tasian period onward, it appears that Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
was influenced strongly by the culture of Lower Egypt.[49] Badarian culture[edit] Main article: Badarian culture The Badarian culture, from about 4400 to 4000 BC,[50] is named for the Badari
Badari
site near Der Tasa. It followed the Tasian culture, but was so similar that many consider them one continuous period. The Badarian Culture continued to produce the kind of pottery called Blacktop-ware (albeit much improved in quality) and was assigned Sequence Dating numbers 21 - 29.[48] The primary difference that prevents scholars from merging the two periods is that Badarian sites use copper in addition to stone and are thus chalcolithic settlements, while the Neolithic
Neolithic
Tasian sites are still considered Stone Age.[48] Badarian flint tools continued to develop into sharper and more shapely blades, and the first faience was developed.[51] Distinctly Badarian sites have been located from Nekhen
Nekhen
to a little north of Abydos.[52] It appears that the Fayum A culture and the Badarian and Tasian Periods overlapped significantly; however, the Fayum A culture was considerably less agricultural and was still Neolithic
Neolithic
in nature.[51][53] Naqada culture[edit] Main article: Naqada culture Amratian culture
Amratian culture
(Naqada I)[edit] Main article: Amratian
Amratian
culture

Female Figure, ca. 3500–3400 B.C.E. Terracotta, painted, 11½ × 5½ × 2¼ in. (29.2 × 14 × 5.7 cm). Brooklyn Museum

The Amratian culture
Amratian culture
lasted from about 4000 to 3500 BC.[50] It is named after the site of El-Amra, about 120 km south of Badari. El-Amra is the first site where this culture group was found unmingled with the later Gerzean culture
Gerzean culture
group, but this period is better attested at the Naqada site, so it also is referred to as the Naqada I culture.[51] Black-topped ware continues to appear, but white cross-line ware, a type of pottery which has been decorated with close parallel white lines being crossed by another set of close parallel white lines, is also found at this time. The Amratian
Amratian
period falls between S.D. 30 and 39 in Petrie's Sequence Dating system.[54] Newly excavated objects attest to increased trade between Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
at this time. A stone vase from the north was found at el-Amra, and copper, which is not mined in Egypt, was imported from the Sinai, or possibly Nubia. Obsidian[55] and a small amount of gold[54] were both definitely imported from Nubia. Trade with the oases also was likely.[55] New innovations appeared in Amratian
Amratian
settlements as precursors to later cultural periods. For example, the mud-brick buildings for which the Gerzean
Gerzean
period is known were first seen in Amratian
Amratian
times, but only in small numbers.[56] Additionally, oval and theriomorphic cosmetic palettes appear in this period, but the workmanship is very rudimentary and the relief artwork for which they were later known is not yet present.[57][58] Gerzean culture
Gerzean culture
(Naqada II)[edit] Main article: Gerzean
Gerzean
culture

A typical Naqada II pot with ship theme

The Gerzean
Gerzean
culture, from about 3500 to 3200 BC,[50] is named after the site of Gerzeh. It was the next stage in Egyptian cultural development, and it was during this time that the foundation of Dynastic Egypt
Egypt
was laid. Gerzean culture
Gerzean culture
is largely an unbroken development out of Amratian
Amratian
Culture, starting in the delta and moving south through upper Egypt, but failing to dislodge Amratian culture
Amratian culture
in Nubia.[59] Gerzean
Gerzean
pottery is assigned values from S.D. 40 through 62, and is distinctly different from Amratian
Amratian
white cross-lined wares or black-topped ware.[54] Gerzean
Gerzean
pottery was painted mostly in dark red with pictures of animals, people, and ships, as well as geometric symbols that appear derived from animals.[59] Also, "wavy" handles, rare before this period (though occasionally found as early as S.D. 35) became more common and more elaborate until they were almost completely ornamental.[54] Gerzean culture
Gerzean culture
coincided with a significant decline in rainfall,[60] and farming along the Nile
Nile
now produced the vast majority of food,[59] though contemporary paintings indicate that hunting was not entirely forgone. With increased food supplies, Egyptians
Egyptians
adopted a much more sedentary lifestyle and cities grew as large as 5,000.[59] It was in this time that Egyptian city dwellers stopped building with reeds and began mass-producing mud bricks, first found in the Amratian Period, to build their cities.[59] Egyptian stone tools, while still in use, moved from bifacial construction to ripple-flaked construction. Copper was used for all kinds of tools,[59] and the first copper weaponry appears here.[52] Silver, gold, lapis, and faience were used ornamentally,[59] and the grinding palettes used for eye-paint since the Badarian period began to be adorned with relief carvings.[52] The first tombs in classic Egyptian style were also built, modeled after ordinary houses and sometimes composed of multiple rooms.[55] Although further excavations in the Delta are needed, this style is generally believed to originate there and not in Upper Egypt.[55]

Diorite
Diorite
vase from Gerzean
Gerzean
or Neqada II period, approx 30 centimetres (12 in)

Although the Gerzean
Gerzean
Culture is now clearly identified as being the continuation of the Amratian
Amratian
period, significant amounts of Mesopotamian influences worked their way into Egypt
Egypt
during the Gerzean which were interpreted in previous years as evidence of a Mesopotamian ruling class, the so-called Dynastic Race, coming to power over Upper Egypt. This idea no longer attracts academic support. Distinctly foreign objects and art forms entered Egypt
Egypt
during this period, indicating contacts with several parts of Asia. Objects such as the Gebel el-Arak knife handle, which has patently Mesopotamian relief carvings on it, have been found in Egypt,[61] and the silver which appears in this period can only have been obtained from Asia Minor.[59] In addition, Egyptian objects are created which clearly mimic Mesopotamian forms, although not slavishly.[62] Cylinder seals appear in Egypt, as well as recessed paneling architecture, the Egyptian reliefs on cosmetic palettes are clearly made in the same style as the contemporary Mesopotamian Uruk culture, and the ceremonial mace heads which turn up from the late Gerzean
Gerzean
and early Semainean are crafted in the Mesopotamian "pear-shaped" style, instead of the Egyptian native style.[60] The route of this trade is difficult to determine, but contact with Canaan
Canaan
does not predate the early dynastic, so it is usually assumed to have been by water.[63] During the time when the Dynastic Race Theory was still popular, it was theorized that Uruk sailors circumnavigated Arabia, but a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
route, probably by middlemen through Byblos
Byblos
is more likely, as evidenced by the presence of Byblian objects in Egypt.[63] The fact that so many Gerzean
Gerzean
sites are at the mouths of wadis which lead to the Red Sea may indicate some amount of trade via the Red Sea (though Byblian trade potentially could have crossed the Sinai
Sinai
and then taken to the Red Sea).[64] Also, it is considered unlikely that something as complicated as recessed panel architecture could have worked its way into Egypt
Egypt
by proxy, and at least a small contingent of migrants is often suspected.[63] Despite this evidence of foreign influence, Egyptologists generally agree that the Gerzean
Gerzean
Culture is still predominantly indigenous to Egypt. Protodynastic Period (Naqada III)[edit] Main article: Naqada III

Pear-Shaped Mace in hieroglyphs

The Naqada III
Naqada III
period, from about 3200 to 3000 BC,[50] is generally taken to be identical with the Protodynastic period, during which Egypt
Egypt
was unified. Naqada III
Naqada III
is notable for being the first era with hieroglyphs (though this is disputed by some), the first regular use of serekhs, the first irrigation, and the first appearance of royal cemeteries.[65] The relatively affluent Maadi
Maadi
suburb of Cairo is built over the original Naqada stronghold.[66] Timeline[edit]

(All dates are approximate)

Late Paleolithic, from 40th millennium BC

Aterian
Aterian
tool-making[2] Semi-permanent dwellings in Wadi
Wadi
Halfa[2] Tools made from animal bones, hematite, and other stones[2]

Neolithic, from 11th millennium BC

c. 10,500 BC: Wild grain harvesting along the Nile, grain-grinding culture creates world's earliest stone sickle blades[2] roughly at end of Pleistocene c. 8000 BC: Migration of peoples to the Nile, developing a more centralized society and settled agricultural economy c. 7500 BC: Importing animals from Asia to Sahara c. 7000 BC: Agriculture—animal and cereal—in East Sahara c. 7000 BC: in Nabta Playa
Nabta Playa
deep year-round water wells dug, and large organized settlements designed in planned arrangements c. 6000 BC: Rudimentary ships (rowed, single-sailed) depicted in Egyptian rock art c. 5500 BC: Stone-roofed subterranean chambers and other subterranean complexes in Nabta Playa
Nabta Playa
containing buried sacrificed cattle c. 5000 BC: Alleged archaeoastronomical stone megalith in Nabta Playa.[citation needed] c. 5000 BC: Badarian: furniture, tableware, models of rectangular houses, pots, dishes, cups, bowls, vases, figurines, combs c. 4400 BC: finely-woven linen fragment[67]

Inventing prevalent, from 4th millennium BC

c. 4000 BC:

early Naqadan trade[68] (see Silk Road)

4th millennium BC: Gerzean
Gerzean
tomb-building, including underground rooms and burial of furniture and amulets 4th millennium BC: Cedar imported from Lebanon[69] c. 3900 BC: An aridification event in the Sahara
Sahara
leads to human migration to the Nile
Nile
Valley[70] c. 3500 BC: Lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli
imported from Badakshan
Badakshan
and / or Mesopotamia (see Silk Road) c. 3500 BC: Senet, world's oldest-(confirmed) board game c. 3500 BC: Faience, world's earliest-known glazed ceramic beads[citation needed] By 3400 BC:

Cosmetics[citation needed] Donkey domestication[citation needed] (Meteoric) iron works[71] Mortar (masonry)

c. 3300 BC: Double reed
Double reed
instruments and lyres (see Music of Egypt) c. 3100 BC: Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Narmer
Narmer
or possibly Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
unified Upper and Lower Egypt

See also[edit]

5.9 kiloyear event Prehistoric North Africa

Notes[edit]

^ a b The earliest Halfan is dated to 20,000 BP. Although one site was dated to 24,000 BP it was in error.[7] Since the earliest Ibero-Maurusian
Ibero-Maurusian
is dated to ≥ 21,000 BP[8] it is more likely that both the Halfan and the Ibero-Maurusian
Ibero-Maurusian
are descended from a common ancestor. ^ The Khormusan is defined as a Middle Palaeolithic industry while the Halfan is defined as an Epipalaeolithic industry. According to scholarly opinion the Khormusan and the Halfan are viewed as separate and distinct cultures.[10] ^ a b According to scholarly opinion the Harifian culture is derived from the Natufian culture in which the only characteristic that distinguishes it from the Natufian is the Harif point. It is viewed as an adaptation of Natufian hunter gatherers to the Negev
Negev
and Sinai.[17] The Harifian are thought to have lasted only about three hundred years, then vanishing, followed by a thousand year hiatus during which the Negev
Negev
and Sinai
Sinai
regions were uninhabitable.[17] Since the Harifian culture ended c. 12,000 BP[18] there could be no possible connection with the PPNB
PPNB
which began c. 10,500 BP. ^ Settler colonists from the Near East
Near East
would most likely have merged with the indigenous cultures resulting in a mixed economy with the agricultural aspect of the economy increasing in frequency through time, which is what the archaeological record more precisely indicates. Both pottery, lithics, and economy with Near Eastern characteristics, and lithics with African characteristics are present in the Fayum A culture.[35]

References[edit]

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Israel
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External links[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica: "ship", from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service[dead link] Ancient Egyptian History - A comprehensive and concise educational website focusing on the basic and the advanced in all aspects of Ancient Egypt Faium.com homepage Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian Civilization - Oriental Institute

v t e

Ancient Egypt
Egypt
topics

Outline Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts

Agriculture Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture) Art Astronomy Chronology Cities (list) Clothing Cuisine Dynasties Funerary practices Geography Great Royal Wives History Language Literature Mathematics Medicine Military Music Mythology People Pharaohs (list) Philosophy Religion Sites Technology Trade Writing

Egyptology Egyptologists Museums

Book Category Ancient Egypt
Egypt
portal WikiProject Commons

v t e

Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone
Bone
tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbo

.