For the purposes of this article, PREHISTORIC BRITAIN is Britain
during the period between the first arrival of humans on the land mass
now known as
Great Britainand the start of recorded British history .
The "recorded history" of Britain is conventionally reckoned to begin
in AD 43 with the
Roman invasion of Britain, though some historical
information is available from before then.
Archaeological prehistory, which comprises the bulk of this article,
is commonly divided into distinct chronological periods. These are
based on the development of tools, from stone to bronze and iron, as
well as changes in culture and climate that can be determined from the
archaeological record. The boundaries of these periods are uncertain,
as the changes between them are gradual. In addition, the dates of
these changes demonstrated in Britain are generally different from
those of Continental Europe.
* 1 Context
* 2.1.1 Lower and Middle
* 2.1.2 Upper
* 2.2.1 Mesolithic-
* 4 The
* 4.1 The Late pre-Roman
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 Sources
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
Britain has been intermittently inhabited by members of the _Homo_
genus for hundreds of thousands of years, and by _
Homo sapiens_ for
tens of thousands of years. Modern humans reached Britain by around
42,000 years before present (BP) , but the island was unoccupied
during the last glacial maximum , between about 25,000 and 15,000
People then briefly re-occupied Britain, but cold conditions returned
Younger Dryas, about 12,900 to 11,600 years ago. It is not
known whether Britain was wholly uninhabited during the Younger Dryas,
but people certainly moved in when the climate improved around 9600
BC. Britain and Ireland were then joined to the Continent, but rising
sea levels cut the land bridge between Britain and Ireland by around
11,000 years ago. A large plain between Britain and Continental
Europe, known as
Doggerland, persisted much longer, probably until
around 5600 BC.
By around 4000 BC, the island was populated by people with a
Neolithicculture. However, none of the pre-Roman inhabitants of
Britain had any known, surviving, written language. Because no
literature of pre-
Roman Britainhas survived, its history, culture and
way of life are known mainly through archaeological finds. Though the
main evidence for the period is archaeological, there is a growing
amount of genetic evidence, which continues to change. There is also a
small amount of linguistic evidence, from river and hill names, which
is covered in the article about Pre-Celtic Britain and the Celtic
The first significant written record of Britain and its inhabitants
was made by the Greek navigator
Pytheas, who explored the coastal
region of Britain around 325 BC . However, there may be some
additional information on Britain in the "
Ora Maritima", a text which
is now lost but which is incorporated in the writing of the later
Avienus. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that ancient
Britons were involved in extensive maritime trade and cultural links
with the rest of
Neolithiconwards, especially by
exporting tin that was in abundant supply.
Julius Caesaralso wrote of
Britain in about 50 BC after his two military expeditions to the
island in 55 and 54 BC. The 54 invasion was probably an attempt to
conquer at least the southeast of Britain but failed.
Located at the fringes of Europe, Britain received European
technological and cultural achievements much later than Southern
Mediterraneanregion did during prehistory. The story
of ancient Britain is traditionally seen as one of successive waves of
invasion from the continent, with each bringing different cultures and
technologies. More recent archaeological theories have questioned this
migrationist interpretation and argue for a more complex relationship
between Britain and the Continent. Many of the changes in British
society demonstrated in the archaeological record are now suggested to
be the effects of the native inhabitants adopting foreign customs
rather than being subsumed by an invading population.
Palaeolithic(Old Stone Age) Britain is the period of the earliest
known occupation of Britain by humans. This huge period saw many
changes in the environment, encompassing several glacial and
interglacial episodes greatly affecting human settlement in the region
. Providing dating for this distant period is difficult and
contentious. The inhabitants of the region at this time were bands of
hunter-gatherers who roamed Northern
Europefollowing herds of
animals, or who supported themselves by fishing.
Recent (2006) scientific evidence regarding mitochondrial DNA
sequences from ancient and modern
Europehas shown a distinct pattern
for the different time periods sampled in the course of the study.
Despite some limitations regarding sample sizes, the results were
found to be non-random. As such, the results indicate that, in
addition to populations in
Europeexpanding from southern refugia
after the last glacial maximum (especially the Franco-Cantabrian
region ), evidence also exists for various northern refugia.
Lower And Middle Palaeolithic
(From about 800,000 to 45,000 years ago)
There is evidence from bones and flint tools found in coastal
species of _Homo_ was present in what is now Britain at least 814,000
years ago. At this time, Southern and Eastern Britain were linked to
Europeby a wide land bridge (
Doggerland) allowing humans
to move freely. The current position of the
English Channelwas a
large river flowing westwards and fed by tributaries that later became
the Thames and Seine . Reconstructing this ancient environment has
provided clues to the route first visitors took to arrive at what was
then a peninsula of the Eurasian continent. Archaeologists have found
a string of early sites located close to the route of a now lost
watercourse named the
Bytham Riverwhich indicate that it was
exploited as the earliest route west into Britain.
Sites such as
Sussexillustrate the later arrival in the
archaeological record of an archaic _Homo _ species called _Homo
heidelbergensis _ around 500,000 years ago. These early peoples made
Acheuleanflint tools (hand axes) and hunted the large native mammals
of the period. One hypothesis is that they drove elephants ,
rhinoceroses and hippopotamuses over the tops of cliffs or into bogs
to more easily kill them.
The extreme cold of the following
Anglian Stageis likely to have
driven humans out of Britain altogether and the region does not appear
to have been occupied again until the ice receded during the Hoxnian
Stage . This warmer time period lasted from around 424,000 until
374,000 years ago and saw the
Clactonianflint tool industry develop
at sites such as Swanscombe in Kent. The period has produced a rich
and widespread distribution of sites by
although uncertainty over the relationship between the
Acheuleanindustries is still unresolved.
Britain was only populated intermittently, and even during periods of
occupation may have reproduced below replacement level and needed
immigration from elsewhere to maintain numbers. According to Paul
Pettitt and Mark White: The British Lower
that of much of northern Europe) is thus a long record of abandonment
and colonisation, and a very short record of residency. The sad but
inevitable conclusion of this must be that Britain has little role to
play in any understanding of long-term human evolution and its
cultural history is largely a broken record dependent on external
introductions and insular developments that ultimately lead nowhere.
Britain, therefore, was an island of the living dead.
This period also saw Levallois flint tools introduced, possibly by
humans arriving from
Africa. However, finds from Swanscombe and
Botany Pit in
Purfleetsupport Levallois technology being a European
rather than African introduction. The more advanced flint technology
permitted more efficient hunting and therefore made Britain a more
worthwhile place to remain until the following period of cooling known
Wolstonian Stage, 352,000–130,000 years ago. Britain first
became an island about 350,000 years ago. Early Neanderthal remains
discovered at the Pontnewydd
Waleshave been dated to 230,000
BP , and are the most north westerly Neanderthal remains found
anywhere in the world.
From c.180,000 to c.60,000 years ago there is no evidence of human
occupation in Britain, probably due to inhospitable cold in some
periods, Britain being cut off as an island in others, and the
neighbouring areas of north-west
Europebeing unoccupied by hominins
at times when Britain was both accessible and hospitable.
(around 45,000 – 10,000 years ago)
Robin Hood Cave Horse,
This period is often divided into three subperiods: the Early Upper
Palaeolithic(before the main glacial period), the Middle Upper
Palaeolithic(the main glacial period) and the Late Upper Palaeolithic
(after the main glacial period). There was limited Neanderthal
occupation of Britain in
Marine Isotope Stage3 between about 60,000
and 42,000 years BP. Britain had its own unique variety of late
Neanderthal handaxe, the bout-coupé , so seasonal migration between
Britain and the continent is unlikely, but the main occupation may
have been in the now submerged area of
Doggerland, with summer
migrations to Britain in warmer periods.
La Cotte de St Breladein
Jerseyis the only site in the British Isles to have produced late
The earliest evidence for modern humans in North West
jawbone discovered in England at
Kents Cavernin 1927, which was
re-dated in 2011 to between 41,000 and 44,000 years old. The most
famous example from this period is the burial of the "Red Lady of
Paviland " (actually now known to be a man) in modern-day coastal
Wales, which in 1823 was the first human fossil ever discovered
anywhere in the world, and was re-dated in 2009 to 33,000 years old.
The distribution of finds shows that humans in this period preferred
the uplands of
Walesand northern and western England to the flatter
areas of eastern England. Their stone tools are similar to those of
the same age found in
Belgiumand far north-east France, and very
different from those in north-west France. At a time when Britain was
not an island, hunter gatherers may have followed migrating herds of
Franceacross the giant Channel
The climatic deterioration which culminated in the Last Glacial
Maximum , between about 26,500 and 19,000–20,000 years ago, drove
humans out of Britain, and there is no evidence of occupation for
around 18,000 years after c.33,000 years BP. Sites such as Cathole
Cavein Swansea County dated at 14,500BP,
Nottinghamshire at 12,800BP and Gough\'s
BP, provide evidence suggesting that humans returned to Britain
towards the end of this ice age during a warm period from 14,700 to
12,900 years BP ago (the
Bølling-Allerødinterstadial known as the
_Windermere Interstadial_ in Britain), although further extremes of
cold right before the final thaw may have caused them to leave again
and then return repeatedly. The environment during this ice age period
would have been a largely treeless tundra , eventually replaced by a
gradually warmer climate, perhaps reaching 17 degrees
Fahrenheit) in summer, encouraging the expansion of birch trees as
well as shrub and grasses.
The first distinct culture of the Upper
Palaeolithicin Britain is
what archaeologists call the
Creswellianindustry, with leaf-shaped
points probably used as arrowheads. It produced more refined flint
tools but also made use of bone, antler, shell, amber , animal teeth,
and mammoth ivory. These were fashioned into tools but also jewellery
and rods of uncertain purpose. Flint seems to have been brought into
areas with limited local resources; the stone tools found in the caves
Devon, such as Kent\'s Cavern , seem to have been sourced from
Salisbury Plain, 100 miles (161 km) east. This is interpreted as
meaning that the early inhabitants of Britain were highly mobile,
roaming over wide distances and carrying 'toolkits' of flint blades
with them rather than heavy, unworked flint nodules, or else
improvising tools extemporaneously. The possibility that groups also
travelled to meet and exchange goods or sent out dedicated expeditions
to source flint has also been suggested.
The dominant food species were equines (_
Equus ferus_) and Red Deer
(_Cervus elaphus_), although other mammals ranging from hares to
mammoth were also hunted, including rhino and hyena. From the limited
evidence available, burial seemed to involve skinning and dismembering
a corpse with the bones placed in caves. This suggests a practice of
excarnation and secondary burial, and possibly some form of ritual
cannibalism . Artistic expression seems to have been mostly limited to
engraved bone, although the cave art at
Creswell Cragsand Mendip
caves are notable exceptions.
Between about 12,890 and 11,650 years ago Britain returned to glacial
conditions during the
Younger Dryas, and may have been unoccupied for
(around 10,000 to 5,500 years ago)
The _Younger Dryas_ ended around 11,500 years BP (about 9500 BC) and
Holocene, a geological epoch , began (at 11,700 calendar years BP
), and continues to the present. By 8000 BC temperatures were higher
than today, and birch woodlands spread rapidly. The plains of
Doggerlandwere thought to have finally been submerged around 6500 to
6000 BC, but recent evidence suggests that the bridge may have lasted
until between 5800 and 5400 BC, and possibly as late as 3800 BC. The
warmer climate changed the arctic environment to one of pine , birch
and alder forest; this less open landscape was less conducive to the
large herds of reindeer and wild horse that had previously sustained
humans. Those animals were replaced in people's diets by pig and less
social animals such as elk , red deer , roe deer , wild boar and
aurochs (wild cattle), which would have required different hunting
techniques. Tools changed to incorporate barbs which could snag the
flesh of an animal, making it harder for it to escape alive. Tiny
microliths were developed for hafting onto harpoons and spears.
Woodworking tools such as adzes appear in the archaeological record,
although some flint blade types remained similar to their Palaeolithic
predecessors. The dog was domesticated because of its benefits during
hunting, and the wetland environments created by the warmer weather
would have been a rich source of fish and game. It is likely that
these environmental changes were accompanied by social changes. Humans
spread and reached the far north of Scotland during this period. Sites
from the British
Mesolithicinclude the Mendips ,
Yorkshireand Oronsay in the
Inner Hebrides. Excavations at Howick in
Northumberlanduncovered evidence of a large circular building dating
to c. 7600 BC which is interpreted as a dwelling. A further example
has also been identified at
Sheffield, and a building
dating to c. 8500 BC was discovered at the
Star Carrsite. The older
MesolithicBritons as nomadic is now being replaced with a
more complex picture of seasonal occupation or, in some cases,
permanent occupation. Travel distances seem to have become shorter,
typically with movement between high and low ground.
Wheat of a variety grown in the middle East was present on the Isle
of Wight at the
Bouldnor Cliff Mesolithic Villagedating from about
Mesolithicenvironment was of a bounteous nature, the
rising population and the ancient Britons' success in exploiting it
eventually led to local exhaustion of many natural resources. The
remains of a
Mesolithicelk found caught in a bog at Poulton-le-Fylde
Lancashireshow that it had been wounded by hunters and escaped on
three occasions, indicating hunting during the Mesolithic. A few
Mesolithicsites but little continuity can
Farmingof crops and domestic animals was adopted in
Britain around 4500 BC, at least partly because of the need for
reliable food sources. Hunter-gathering ways of life would have
persisted into the
Neolithicat first but the increasing
sophistication of material culture with the concomitant control of
local resources by individual groups would have caused it to be
replaced by distinct territories occupied by different tribes. Other
elements of the
Neolithicsuch as pottery, leaf-shaped arrowheads and
polished stone axes would have been adopted earlier. The climate had
been warming since the later
Mesolithicand continued to improve,
replacing the earlier pine forests with woodland .
DNAanalysis was carried out on a tooth from a Mesolithic
Cheddar Manfrom about 7150 BC whose remains were found in Gough's
Cheddar Gorge. His mitochondrial
DNAwas of Haplogroup U5, a
Haplogroup U (mtDNA)found in only 11% of modern European
populations, suggesting he (and maybe his clan) had migrated to
Britain from outside of Europe. Haplogroup U was the dominant type of
Mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) in
Europebefore the spread of agriculture
(from around 4300 – 2000 BC)
Neolithicwas the period of domestication of plants and animals.
Flint axeused for cutting down trees in the Later Neolithic.
Wisbech Museum. From Bedlam Hill. This is a 'Seamer'
Analysis of the mitochondrial
DNAof modern European populations
shows that over 80% are descended in the female line from European
hunter-gatherers . Less than 20% are descended in the female line from
Neolithicfarmers from the Middle East and from subsequent migrations.
The percentage in Britain is smaller at around 11%. Initial studies
suggested that this situation is different with the paternal
Y-chromosomeDNA, varying from 10–100% across the country, being
higher in the east. This was considered to show a large degree of
population replacement during the Anglo-Saxon invasion and a nearly
complete masking over of whatever population movement (or lack of it)
went before in these two countries. However, more widespread studies
have suggested that there was less of a division between Western and
Eastern parts of Britain with less Anglo-Saxon migration. Looking
from a more Europe-wide standpoint, researchers at Stanford University
have found overlapping cultural and genetic evidence that supports the
theory that migration was at least partially responsible for the
NeolithicRevolution in Northern
Europe(including Britain). The
science of genetic anthropology is changing very fast and a clear
picture across the whole of human occupation of Britain has yet to
Pollen analysis shows that woodland was decreasing and grassland
increasing, with a major decline of elms. The winters were typically 3
degrees colder than at present but the summers some 2.5 degrees
The arrival of farming and a sedentary lifestyle as shorthand for the
Neolithicis increasingly giving way to a more complex view of the
changes and continuities in practices that can be observed from the
Mesolithicperiod onwards. For example, the development of Neolithic
monumental architecture, apparently venerating the dead, may represent
more comprehensive social and ideological changes involving new
interpretations of time, ancestry, community and identity.
In any case, the
NeolithicRevolution , as it is called, introduced a
more settled way of life and ultimately led to societies becoming
divided into differing groups of farmers, artisans and leaders. Forest
clearances were undertaken to provide room for cereal cultivation and
animal herds. Native cattle and pigs were reared whilst sheep and
goats were later introduced from the continent, as were the wheats and
barleys grown in Britain. However, only a few actual settlement sites
are known in Britain, unlike the continent.
Caveoccupation was common
at this time.
The construction of the earliest earthwork sites in Britain began
during the early
Neolithic(c. 4400 BC – 3300 BC) in the form of
long barrows used for communal burial and the first causewayed
enclosures , sites which have parallels on the continent. The former
may be derived from the long house , although no long house villages
have been found in Britain — only individual examples. The
stone-built houses on
Orkney— such as those at
Skara Brae— are,
however, indicators of some nucleated settlement in Britain. Evidence
of growing mastery over the environment is embodied in the Sweet Track
, a wooden trackway built to cross the marshes of the
and dated to 3807 BC. Leaf-shaped arrowheads, round-based pottery
types and the beginnings of polished axe production are common
indicators of the period. Evidence of the use of cow's milk comes from
analysis of pottery contents found beside the Sweet Track.
Neolithic(c. 3300 BC – c. 2900 BC) saw the development
of cursus monuments close to earlier barrows and the growth and
abandonment of causewayed enclosures, as well as the building of
impressive chamber tombs such as the
Maeshowetypes. The earliest
stone circles and individual burials also appear.
Different pottery types, such as
Grooved ware, appear during the
Neolithic(c. 2900 BC – c. 2200 BC). In addition, new
enclosures called henges were built, along with stone rows and the
famous sites of
Silbury Hill, which building
reached its peak at this time. Industrial flint mining begins, such as
Grimes Graves, along with evidence of long
distance trade. Wooden tools and bowls were common, and bows were also
(Around 2200 to 750 BC) Main article:
Bronze Age Britain
This period can be sub-divided into an earlier phase (2300 to 1200
BC) and a later one (1200 – 700 BC).
Beaker potteryappears in
England around 2475–2315 _cal._ BC along with flat axes and burial
practices of inhumation . With the revised
is after the Sarsen Circle and trilithons were erected at
Believed to be of Iberian origin (modern day
Beaker techniques brought to Britain the skill of refining metal . At
first the users made items from copper , but from around 2,150 BC
smiths had discovered how to smelt bronze (which is much harder than
copper) by mixing copper with a small amount of tin . With this
BronzeAge arrived in Britain. Over the next thousand
years, bronze gradually replaced stone as the main material for tool
and weapon making.
Britain had large, easily accessible reserves of tin in the modern
Devonand thus tin mining began. By around 1600
BC the southwest of Britain was experiencing a trade boom as British
tin was exported across Europe, evidence of ports being found in
Copperwas mined at the
Great Ormein North Wales.
The Beaker people were also skilled at making ornaments from gold ,
silver and copper , and examples of these have been found in graves of
Wessex cultureof central southern Britain.
BronzeAge Britons buried their dead beneath earth mounds known
as barrows , often with a beaker alongside the body. Later in the
period, cremation was adopted as a burial practice with cemeteries of
urns containing cremated individuals appearing in the archaeological
record, with deposition of metal objects such as daggers. People of
this period were also largely responsible for building many famous
prehistoric sites such as the later phases of
BronzeAge people lived in round houses and divided up
the landscape. Stone rows are to be seen on, for example,
They ate cattle, sheep, pigs and deer as well as shellfish and birds.
They carried out salt manufacture. The wetlands were a source of
wildfowl and reeds. There was ritual deposition of offerings in the
wetlands and in holes in the ground.
There is debate amongst archaeologists as to whether the "Beaker
people" were a race of people who migrated to Britain _en masse_ from
the continent, or whether a Beaker cultural "package" of goods and
behaviour (which eventually spread across most of Western Europe)
diffused to Britain's existing inhabitants through trade across tribal
boundaries. Modern thinking tends towards the latter view.
Alternatively, a ruling class of Beaker individuals may have made the
migration and come to control the native population at some level.
Genetics suggests that there was only a small influx of people to
Britain at this time, around a few percent.
There is evidence of a relatively large scale disruption of cultural
patterns which some scholars think may indicate an invasion (or at
least a migration) into Southern
Great Britainc. the 12th century BC.
This disruption was felt far beyond Britain, even beyond Europe, as
most of the great Near Eastern empires collapsed (or experienced
severe difficulties) and the
Sea Peoplesharried the entire
Mediterraneanbasin around this time. Some scholars consider that the
Celtic languagesarrived in Britain at this time, but the more
generally accepted view is that Celtic origins lie with the Hallstatt
THE IRON AGE
Wandsworth Shield, in the Insular version of
La Tène style,
2nd century BC
(around 750 BC – 43 AD) Main article:
British Iron Age
British Iron Age
In around 750 BC iron working techniques reached Britain from
Ironwas stronger and more plentiful than bronze ,
and its introduction marks the beginning of the
IronAge . Iron
working revolutionised many aspects of life, most importantly
Irontipped ploughs could turn soil more quickly and
deeply than older wooden or bronze ones, and iron axes could clear
forest lane more efficiently for agriculture. There was a landscape of
arable, pasture and managed woodland. There were many enclosed
settlements and land ownership was important.
It is generally thought that by 500 BC most people inhabiting the
British Isles were speaking
Common Brythonic, on the limited evidence
of place-names recorded by
Pytheasof Massalia and transmitted to us
second-hand, largely through
Strabo. Certainly by the Roman period
there is substantial place and personal name evidence which suggests
that this was so; Tacitus also states in his Agricola that the British
language differed little from that of the Gauls. Among these people
were skilled craftsmen who had begun producing intricately patterned
gold jewellery, in addition to tools and weapons of both bronze and
iron. It is disputed whether
IronAge Britons were "Celts", with some
academics such as John Collis and Simon James actively opposing the
idea of 'Celtic Britain', since the term was only applied at this time
to a tribe in Gaul. However, placenames and tribal names from the
later part of the period suggest that a
Celtic languagewas spoken.
Pytheas, whose own works are lost, was quoted by later
classical authors as calling the people "Pretanoi", which is cognate
with "Britanni" and is apparently Celtic in origin. The term "Celtic"
continues to be used by linguists to describe the family that includes
many of the ancient languages of Western
Europeand modern British
languages such as Welsh without controversy. The dispute essentially
revolves around how the word "Celtic" is defined; it is clear from the
archaeological and historical record that
IronAge Britain did have
much in common with
IronAge Gaul, but there were also many
differences. Many leading academics, such as
Barry Cunliffe, still
use the term to refer to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Britain for want
of a better label.
IronAge Britons lived in organised tribal groups, ruled by a
chieftain. As people became more numerous, wars broke out between
opposing tribes. This was traditionally interpreted as the reason for
the building of hill forts , although the siting of some earthworks on
the sides of hills undermined their defensive value, hence "hill
forts" may represent increasing communal areas or even 'elite areas'.
However some hillside constructions may simply have been cow
enclosures. Although the first had been built about 1500 BC, hillfort
building peaked during the later
IronAge. There are over 2,000 Iron
Age hillforts known in Britain. By about 350 BC many hillforts went
out of use and the remaining ones were reinforced.
as writing that the Britons were renowned wheat farmers. Large
farmsteads produced food in industrial quantities and Roman sources
note that Britain exported hunting dogs, animal skins and slaves.
THE LATE PRE-ROMAN IRON AGE (LPRIA)
The Stanwick Horse Mask,
La Tène stylemount, British, 1st
century AD, 10 cm
The last centuries before the Roman invasion saw an influx of mixed
Germanic -Celtic speaking refugees from
Gaul(approximately modern day
Belgium) known as the
Belgae, who were displaced as the
Roman Empireexpanded around 50 BC. They settled along most of the
coastline of southern Britain between about 200 BC and AD 43, although
it is hard to estimate what proportion of the population there they
formed. A Gaulish tribe known as the Parisi , who had cultural links
to the continent, appeared in northeast England.
From around 175 BC, the areas of
developed especially advanced pottery-making skills. The tribes of
southeast England became partially Romanised and were responsible for
creating the first settlements (oppida) large enough to be called
The last centuries before the Roman invasion saw increasing
sophistication in British life. About 100 BC, iron bars began to be
used as currency , while internal trade and trade with continental
Europeflourished, largely due to Britain's extensive mineral
reserves. Coinage was developed, based on continental types but
bearing the names of local chieftains. This was used in southeast
England, but not in areas such as
Dumnoniain the west.
Roman Empireexpanded northwards, Rome began to take interest
in Britain. This may have been caused by an influx of refugees from
Roman occupied Europe, or Britain's large mineral reserves. See Roman
Britain for the history of this subsequent period.
Timeline of prehistoric Britain
Prehistoric settlement of the British Isles
Genetic history of the British Isles
List of human evolution fossils
* List of prehistoric structures in
* ^ The time prior to the arrival of the genus _Homo_ is also
"prehistoric" Britain, hence the initial qualification.
* ^ Higham, T.; et al. (24 November 2011). "The earliest evidence
for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe". _Nature_.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 479 (7374): 521–524. PMID 22048314 . doi
* ^ Cunliffe, 2012, p. 47
* ^ Cunliffe, 2012, pp. 47-56
Prehistoric Britain6000BC – 55BC, Guide to Britain Archived
11 July 2007 at the
* ^ Webster, Graham (1980). _The Roman Invasion of Britain_.
Batsford. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7134-1329-8 .
* ^ Cunliffe, Barry. "Britain, the Veneti and beyond. 1982".
_Oxford Journal of Archaeology_. 1 (1): 39–68. doi
:10.1111/j.1468-0092.1982.tb00298.x . Retrieved 21 March 2015.
* ^ _Molecular Biology and Evolution 2006 23(1):152–161_ Tracing
the Phylogeography of Human Populations in Britain Based on 4th–11th
DNAGenotypes (full text)
* ^ Pettitt and White, pp. 132-33
Phil Gibbard, _How Britain Became An Island: The report_,
Nature Precedings doi :10.1038/npre.2007.1205.1
* ^ "The oldest people in
Wales– Neanderthal teeth from
Pontnewydd Cave". National Museum of Wales. 2007.
* ^ Pettitt and White, p. 292
* ^ Pettitt and White, pp. 332, 349-51
* ^ Bates, Martin; Pope, Matthew; Shaw, Andrew; Scott, Beccy;
Schwenninger, Jean-Luc (16 October 2013). "Late Neanderthal occupation
in North-West Europe: rediscovery, investigation and dating of a last
glacial sediment sequence at the site of La Cotte de Saint Brelade,
Jersey". _Journal of Quaternary Science_. 28: 647–652. doi
* ^ Higham, T; Compton, T; Stringer, C; Jacobi, R; Shapiro, B;
Trinkaus, E; Chandler, B; Groening, F; Collins, C; Hillson, S;
O'Higgins, P; FitzGerald, C; Fagan, M (2011), "The earliest evidence
for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe", _Nature_, 479:
521–524, PMID 22048314 , doi :10.1038/nature10484
* ^ "Fossil Teeth Put Humans in
EuropeEarlier Than Thought". _The
New York Times_. 2 November 2011.
* ^ Dinnis, Robert (Winter 2012). "Hunting the Hunter". _The
British MuseumMagazine_ (74): 26.
* ^ Clark, Peter U.; Dyke, Arthur S.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Carlson,
Anders E.; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X.;
Hostetler, Steven W. & McCabe, A. Marshall (2009). "The Last Glacial
Maximum". _Science_. 325 (5941): 710–4. Bibcode
:2009Sci...325..710C. PMID 19661421 . doi :10.1126/science.1172873 .
* ^ Pettitt and White, p. 422
* ^ U-series dating suggests Welsh reindeer is Britain's oldest
rock art, http://www.bris.ac.uk/news/2012/8606.html
* ^ Pettitt and White, pp. 489, 497
* ^ Muscheler, Raimund; et al. (2008). "Tree rings and ice cores
reveal 14C calibration uncertainties during the Younger Dryas".
_Nature Geoscience_. 1 (4): 263–267.
doi :10.1038/ngeo128 .
* ^ Walker, M., Johnsen, S., Rasmussen, S. O., Popp, T.,
Steffensen, J.-P., Gibbard, P., Hoek, W., Lowe, J., Andrews, J., Bjo¨
rck, S., Cwynar, L. C., Hughen, K., Kershaw, P., Kromer, B., Litt, T.,
Lowe, D. J., Nakagawa, T., Newnham, R., and Schwander, J. 2009.
"Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section
and Point) for the base of the
Holoceneusing the Greenland NGRIP ice
core, and selected auxiliary records". _J. Quaternary Sci._, Vol. 24
pp. 3–17. ISSN 0267-8179 .
* ^ Cunliffe, 2012, p. 58
* ^ McIntosh, Jane _Handbook of Prehistoric Europe_ Oxford
University Press, USA (Jun 2009) ISBN 978-0-19-538476-5 p.24
* ^ Cunliffe, 2012, p. 56
* ^ Balter, Michael. "
DNArecovered from underwater British site
may rewrite history of farming in Europe.". Science. Retrieved 16
* ^ , A Revised Timescale for Human Evolution Based on Ancient
Mitochondrial Genomes, Fu et al. 2013
* ^ _Molecular Biology and Evolution 19: 1008–1021_ (full text)
* ^ Stephen Openheimer, The Origins of the British
* ^ _Overlapping Genetic and Archaeological Evidence Suggests
NeolithicMigration, Say Stanford Researchers_ (2002) (press release)
* ^ _European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 1293–1302_
* ^ Pearson, Mike;
Julian Thomas(September 2007). "The Age of
Stonehenge". _Antiquity_. 811 (313): 617–639.
* ^ http://www.aber.ac.uk/aberonline/en/archive/2008/05/au7608/
* ^ "O\'Donnell Lecture 2008 Appendix" (PDF).
* ^ Koch, John (2009). _Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at
the Dawn of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9
(2009)_ (PDF). Palaeohispanica. pp. 339–351. ISSN 1578-5386 .
* ^ Koch, John. "New research suggests Welsh Celtic roots lie in
Spainand Portugal". Retrieved 10 May 2010.
* ^ Cunliffe, Karl, Guerra, McEvoy, Bradley; Oppenheimer, Rrvik,
Isaac, Parsons, Koch, Freeman and Wodtko (2010). _Celtic from the
West: Alternative Perspectives from Archaeology, Genetics, Language
and Literature_. Oxbow Books and Celtic Studies Publications. p. 384.
ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link
* ^ "Rethinking the
BronzeAge and the Arrival of Indo-European in
Atlantic Europe" (PDF). University of
WalesCentre for Advanced Welsh
and Celtic Studies and Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford.
Retrieved 24 May 2010.
* ^ The Agricola, Tacitus.
* ^ Collis, John. The
Celts– Origins, Myths and Inventions.
* ^ James. Simon. The Atlantic
British MuseumPress, 1999
* ^ Ball, Martin J. & James Fife (ed.) (1993). _The Celtic
Languages_. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01035-7 .
* ^ The
* Ball, Martin J. & James Fife (ed.). 1993. The Celtic Languages.
London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01035-7 .
* _British History Encyclopedia._ 1999. Paragon House. ISBN
* Collis, John. 2003. _The
Celts– Origins, Myths and Inventions_.
* Cunliffe, Barry (2012). _Britain Begins_. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-967945-4 .
* James, Simon. 1999. _The Atlantic Celts_.
* Pearson, Mike; Cleal, Ros; Marshall, Peter; Needham, Stuart;
Pollard, Josh; Richards, Colin; Ruggles, Clive; Sheridan, Alison;
Thomas, Julian ; et al. (2007). "The Age of Stonehenge". _Antiquity_.
811 (313): 617–639. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link )
* Pettitt, Paul; White, Mark (2012). _The British Palaeolithic:
Human Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World_. Abingdon, UK:
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-67455-3 .
* Alonso, Santos, Carlos Flores, Vicente Cabrera, Antonio Alonso,
Pablo Martín, Cristina Albarrán, Neskuts Izagirre, Concepción de la
Rúa and Oscar García. 2005. The place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosomediversity landscape. _European Journal of Human Genetics
* Ashton, Nick. 2003. "Hunting for the first humans in Britain",
_British Archaeology_, Iss 70, May 2003
* Cunliffe, Barry 2001. _Facing the Ocean: The Atlantic and Its
Peoples, 8000 BC to AD 1500_. Oxford University Press.
* Cunliffe, Barry. 2002. _The Extraordinary Voyage of
* Darvill, Timothy C. 1987. _Prehistoric Britain_. London: B.T.
Batsford ISBN 0-7134-5179-3
* Hawkes, Jaquetta and Christopher. 1943. _Prehistoric Britain_.
* Miles, David. 2016. "The Tale of the Axe: How the Neolithic
Revolution Transformed Britain". London. Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN
* Oppenheimer, Stephen. 2006. _The Origins of the British_. London:
* Pryor, Francis. 1999. _Farmers in Prehistoric Britain_. Stroud,
Gloucestershire and Charleston, SC: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-1477-1
* Pryor, Francis. 2003. _Britain BC: Life in Britain and Ireland
before the Romans_. London, Harper-Collins. ISBN 0-00-712692-1
* Sykes, Brian. 2001. _The Seven Daughters of Eve: The Science That
Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry._ Bantam, London. ISBN 0-593-04757-5
* Sykes, Brian. 2006. _Saxons, Vikings, and Celts: The Genetic Roots
of Britain and Ireland_. New York, Norton Weiss, Deborah A.; Jager,
Rolf F.; Bradman, Neil; Thomas, Mark G. (2002). "Y Chromosome Evidence
for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration". _Molecular Biology and Evolution_. 19
(7): 1008–1021. PMID 12082121 . doi
* Ancient Human Occupation of Britain Project