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The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
(later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens
Frederic George Stephens
and Thomas Woolner
Thomas Woolner
to form the seven-member "brotherhood". Their principles were shared by other artists, including Marie Spartali Stillman
Marie Spartali Stillman
and Ford Madox Brown. A later, medievalising strain inspired by Rossetti included Edward Burne-Jones and extended into the twentieth century with artists such as John William Waterhouse. The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael
Raphael
and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael
Raphael
in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called "Sir Sloshua". To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, "sloshy" meant "anything lax or scamped in the process of painting ... and hence ... any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind".[1] The brotherhood sought a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento
Quattrocento
Italian art. The group associated their work with John Ruskin,[2] an English critic whose influences were driven by his religious background. The group continued to accept the concepts of history painting and mimesis, imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. The Pre-Raphaelites defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical, The Germ, to promote their ideas. The group's debates were recorded in the Pre-Raphaelite Journal.

Contents

1 Beginnings 2 Early doctrines 3 First exhibitions and publications 4 Public controversy 5 Later developments and influence 6 List of artists

6.1 Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 6.2 Associated artists and figures 6.3 Loosely associated artists

7 Illustration and poetry 8 Collections 9 Portrayal in popular culture 10 See also 11 Notes and sources 12 Further reading 13 External links

Beginnings[edit]

Illustration by Holman Hunt of Thomas Woolner's poem "My Beautiful Lady", published in The Germ, 1850

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street, London in 1848. At the first meeting, the painters John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Hunt were present. Hunt and Millais were students at the Royal Academy of Arts and had met in another loose association, the Cyclographic Club, a sketching society. At his own request Rossetti became a pupil of Ford Madox Brown
Ford Madox Brown
in 1848.[3] At that date, Rossetti and Hunt shared lodgings in Cleveland Street, Fitzrovia, Central London. Hunt had started painting The Eve of St. Agnes
The Eve of St. Agnes
based on Keats's poem of the same name, but it was not completed until 1867.[4] As an aspiring poet, Rossetti wished to develop the links between Romantic poetry and art. By autumn, four more members, painters James Collinson and Frederic George Stephens, Rossetti's brother, poet and critic William Michael Rossetti, and sculptor Thomas Woolner, had joined to form a seven-member-strong brotherhood.[4] Ford Madox Brown was invited to join, but the more senior artist remained independent but supported the group throughout the PRB period of Pre-Raphaelitism and contributed to The Germ. Other young painters and sculptors became close associates, including Charles Allston Collins, Thomas Tupper, and Alexander Munro. The PRB intended to keep the existence of the brotherhood secret from members of the Royal Academy.[5] Early doctrines[edit] The brotherhood's early doctrines, as defined by William Michael Rossetti, were expressed in four declarations:

to have genuine ideas to express; to study Nature attentively, so as to know how to express them; to sympathise with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parading and learned by rote; and most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures and statues.[6]

The principles were deliberately non-dogmatic, since the brotherhood wished to emphasise the personal responsibility of individual artists to determine their own ideas and methods of depiction. Influenced by Romanticism, the members thought freedom and responsibility were inseparable. Nevertheless, they were particularly fascinated by medieval culture, believing it to possess a spiritual and creative integrity that had been lost in later eras. The emphasis on medieval culture clashed with principles of realism which stress the independent observation of nature. In its early stages, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
believed its two interests were consistent with one another, but in later years the movement divided and moved in two directions. The realists were led by Hunt and Millais, while the medievalists were led by Rossetti and his followers, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris. The split was never absolute, since both factions believed that art was essentially spiritual in character, opposing their idealism to the materialist realism associated with Courbet and Impressionism. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
was greatly influenced by nature and its members used great detail to show the natural world using bright and sharp focus techniques on a white canvas. In attempts to revive the brilliance of colour found in Quattrocento
Quattrocento
art, Hunt and Millais developed a technique of painting in thin glazes of pigment over a wet white ground in the hope that the colours would retain jewel-like transparency and clarity. Their emphasis on brilliance of colour was a reaction to the excessive use of bitumen by earlier British artists, such as Reynolds, David Wilkie and Benjamin Robert Haydon. Bitumen produces unstable areas of muddy darkness, an effect the Pre-Raphaelites despised. In 1848, Rossetti and Hunt made a list of "Immortals", artistic heroes whom they admired, especially from literature, some of whose work would form subjects for PRB paintings, notably including Keats and Tennyson.[7] First exhibitions and publications[edit] The first exhibitions of Pre-Raphaelite work occurred in 1849. Both Millais's Isabella (1848–1849) and Holman Hunt's Rienzi (1848–1849) were exhibited at the Royal Academy. Rossetti's Girlhood of Mary Virgin was shown at a Free Exhibition on Hyde Park Corner. As agreed, all members of the brotherhood signed their work with their name and the initials "PRB". Between January and April 1850, the group published a literary magazine, The Germ edited by William Rossetti which published poetry by the Rossettis, Woolner, and Collinson and essays on art and literature by associates of the brotherhood, such as Coventry Patmore. As the short run-time implies, the magazine did not manage to achieve sustained momentum. (Daly 1989) Public controversy[edit]

Christ in the House of His Parents, by John Everett Millais, 1850

In 1850, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
became the subject of controversy after the exhibition of Millais' painting Christ in the House of His Parents was considered to be blasphemous by many reviewers, notably Charles Dickens.[8] Dickens considered Millais' Mary to be ugly.[9] Millais had used his sister-in-law, Mary Hodgkinson, as the model for Mary in his painting. The brotherhood's medievalism was attacked as backward-looking and its extreme devotion to detail was condemned as ugly and jarring to the eye.[10] According to Dickens, Millais made the Holy Family look like alcoholics and slum-dwellers, adopting contorted and absurd "medieval" poses. A rival group of older artists, The Clique, used its influence against the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
and its principles were publicly attacked by the President of the Academy, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake.[citation needed] After the controversy, Collinson left the brotherhood and the remaining members met to discuss whether he should be replaced by Charles Allston Collins
Charles Allston Collins
or Walter Howell Deverell, but were unable to make a decision. From that point the group disbanded, though its influence continued. Artists who had worked in the style initially continued but no longer signed works "PRB".[citation needed]

Ophelia, by John Everett Millais

The brotherhood found support from the critic John Ruskin, who praised its devotion to nature and rejection of conventional methods of composition. The Pre-Raphaelites were influenced by Ruskin's theories. He wrote to The Times
The Times
defending their work and subsequently met them. Initially, he favoured Millais, who travelled to Scotland in the summer of 1853 with Ruskin and Ruskin's wife, Euphemia Chalmers Ruskin, née Gray (now best known as Effie Gray). The main object of the journey was to paint Ruskin's portrait.[11] Effie became increasingly attached to Millais,[12] creating a crisis. In subsequent annulment proceedings, Ruskin himself made a statement to his lawyer to the effect that his marriage had been unconsummated. [13] The marriage was annulled on grounds of non-consummation, leaving Effie free to marry Millais,[14] but causing a public scandal. Millais began to move away from the Pre-Raphaelite style after his marriage, and Ruskin ultimately attacked his later works. Ruskin continued to support Hunt and Rossetti and provided funds to encourage the art of Rossetti's wife Elizabeth Siddal. By 1853 the original PRB had virtually dissolved,[15] with only Holman Hunt remaining true to its stated aims. But the term "Pre-Raphaelite" stuck to Rossetti and others, including William Morris
William Morris
and Edward Burne-Jones, with whom he became involved in Oxford
Oxford
in 1857.[16] Hence the term Pre-Raphaelite is associated with the much wider and long-lived art movement, including the dreamy, yearning images of women produced by Rossetti and several of his followers. Later developments and influence[edit]

Medea
Medea
by Evelyn De Morgan, 1889, in quattrocento style

Artists influenced by the brotherhood include John Brett, Philip Calderon, Arthur Hughes, Gustave Moreau, Evelyn De Morgan,[17] Frederic Sandys
Frederic Sandys
(who came into the Pre-Raphaelite circle in 1857)[17] and John William Waterhouse. Ford Madox Brown, who was associated with them from the beginning, is often seen as most closely adopting the Pre-Raphaelite principles. One follower who developed his own distinct style was Aubrey Beardsley, who was pre-eminently influenced by Burne-Jones.[17] After 1856, Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
became an inspiration for the medievalising strand of the movement. He was the link between the two types of Pre-Raphaelite painting (nature and Romance) after the PRB became lost in the later decades of the century. Rossetti, although the least committed to the brotherhood, continued the name and changed its style. He began painting versions of femme fatales using models like Jane Morris, in paintings such as Proserpine, The Blue Silk Dress, and La Pia de' Tolomei. His work influenced his friend William Morris, in whose firm Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. he became a partner, and with whose wife Jane he may have had an affair. Ford Madox Brown and Edward Burne-Jones
Edward Burne-Jones
also became partners in the firm. Through Morris's company, the ideals of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood influenced many interior designers and architects, arousing interest in medieval designs and other crafts leading to the Arts and Crafts movement headed by William Morris. Holman Hunt was involved with the movement to reform design through the Della Robbia Pottery
Della Robbia Pottery
company. After 1850, Hunt and Millais moved away from direct imitation of medieval art. They stressed the realist and scientific aspects of the movement, though Hunt continued to emphasise the spiritual significance of art, seeking to reconcile religion and science by making accurate observations and studies of locations in Egypt
Egypt
and Palestine for his paintings on biblical subjects. In contrast, Millais abandoned Pre-Raphaelitism after 1860, adopting a much broader and looser style influenced by Reynolds. William Morris
William Morris
and others condemned his reversal of principles.

James Archer, The Death of King Arthur, 1860

Pre-Raphaelitism had a significant impact in Scotland and on Scottish artists. The figure in Scottish art most associated with the Pre-Raphaelites was the Aberdeen-born William Dyce
William Dyce
(1806–64). Dyce befriended the young Pre-Raphaelites in London and introduced their work to Ruskin.[18] His later work was Pre-Raphaelite in its spirituality, as can be seen in his The Man of Sorrows and David in the Wilderness (both 1860), which contain a Pre-Raphaelite attention to detail.[19] Joseph Noel Paton
Joseph Noel Paton
(1821-1901) studied at the Royal Academy schools in London, where he became a friend of Millais and he subsequently followed him into Pre-Raphaelitism, producing pictures that stressed detail and melodrama such as The Bludie Tryst (1855). His later paintings, like those of Millais, have been criticised for descending into popular sentimentality.[20] Also influenced by Millais was James Archer (1823-1904) and whose work includes Summertime, Gloucestershire (1860)[20] and who from 1861 began a series of Arthurian-based paintings including La Morte d'Arthur and Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere.[21] Pre-Raphaelism also inspired painters like Lawrence Alma-Tadema.[22] The movement influenced many later British artists into the 20th century. Rossetti came to be seen as a precursor of the wider European Symbolist movement. In the late 20th century the Brotherhood of Ruralists based its aims on Pre-Raphaelitism, while the Stuckists and the Birmingham Group have also derived inspiration from it. Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery has a world-renowned collection of works by Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelites that, some claim, strongly influenced the young J. R. R. Tolkien,[23] who wrote The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, with influences taken from the same mythological scenes portrayed by the Pre-Raphaelites.

Arthur Hughes, Fair Rosamund, 1854

In the 20th century artistic ideals changed, and art moved away from representing reality. Since the Pre-Raphaelites were fixed on portraying things with near-photographic precision, though with a distinctive attention to detailed surface-patterns, their work was devalued by many painters and critics. After the First World War, British Modernists associated Pre-Raphaelite art with the repressive and backward times in which they grew up. In the 1960s there was a major revival of Pre-Raphaelitism. Exhibitions and catalogues of works, culminating in a 1984 exhibition in London's Tate Gallery, re-established a canon of Pre-Raphaelite work.[24] Among many other exhibitions, there was another large show at Tate Britain
Tate Britain
in 2012–13.[25] List of artists[edit] Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood[edit]

James Collinson
James Collinson
(painter) William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt
(painter) John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
(painter) Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
(painter, poet) William Michael Rossetti (critic) Frederic George Stephens
Frederic George Stephens
(critic) Thomas Woolner
Thomas Woolner
(sculptor, poet)

Associated artists and figures[edit]

John Brett (painter) Ford Madox Brown
Ford Madox Brown
(painter, designer) Lucy Madox Brown
Lucy Madox Brown
(painter, writer) Richard Burchett
Richard Burchett
(painter, educator) Edward Burne-Jones
Edward Burne-Jones
(painter, designer) Charles Allston Collins
Charles Allston Collins
(painter) Frank Cadogan Cowper (painter) Fanny Cornforth
Fanny Cornforth
(artist's model) Walter Deverell
Walter Deverell
(painter) Fanny Eaton
Fanny Eaton
(artist's model) Frederick Startridge Ellis (publisher, editor, poet) Effie Gray
Effie Gray
(artist's model) Henry Holiday
Henry Holiday
(painter, stained-glass artist, illustrator) Arthur Hughes (painter, book illustrator) Mary Lizzie Macomber
Mary Lizzie Macomber
(painter) Robert Braithwaite Martineau
Robert Braithwaite Martineau
(painter) Annie Miller
Annie Miller
(artist's model) Jane Morris
Jane Morris
(artist's model) Louisa, Marchioness of Waterford
Louisa, Marchioness of Waterford
(painter and artist's model) May Morris
May Morris
(embroiderer and designer) William Morris
William Morris
(designer, writer) Christina Rossetti
Christina Rossetti
(poet and artist's model) John Ruskin
John Ruskin
(critic) Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys
Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys
(painter) Emma Sandys
Emma Sandys
(painter) Thomas Seddon
Thomas Seddon
(painter) Frederic Shields
Frederic Shields
(painter) Elizabeth Siddal
Elizabeth Siddal
(painter, poet, and artist's model) Simeon Solomon
Simeon Solomon
(painter) Marie Spartali Stillman
Marie Spartali Stillman
(painter) Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne
(poet) Henry Wallis
Henry Wallis
(painter) William Lindsay Windus
William Lindsay Windus
(painter)

Loosely associated artists[edit]

Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
(painter) Sophie Gengembre Anderson
Sophie Gengembre Anderson
(painter) Wyke Bayliss (painter) George Price Boyce
George Price Boyce
(painter) Joanna Mary Boyce
Joanna Mary Boyce
(painter) Sir Frederick William Burton
Frederick William Burton
(painter) Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron
(photographer) James Campbell (painter) John Collier (painter) William Davis (painter) Evelyn De Morgan
Evelyn De Morgan
(painter) Frank Bernard Dicksee
Frank Bernard Dicksee
(painter) John William Godward
John William Godward
(painter) Thomas Cooper Gotch
Thomas Cooper Gotch
(painter) Charles Edward Hallé
Charles Edward Hallé
(painter) Edward Robert Hughes
Edward Robert Hughes
(painter) John Lee (painter) Edmund Leighton
Edmund Leighton
(painter) Frederic, Lord Leighton (painter) James Lionel Michael (minor poet, mentor to Henry Kendall) Charles William Mitchell
Charles William Mitchell
(painter) Joseph Noel Paton
Joseph Noel Paton
(painter) Gustav Pope
Gustav Pope
(painter) Frederick Marriott (painter) Frederick Smallfield
Frederick Smallfield
(painter) James Tissot
James Tissot
(painter) Elihu Vedder
Elihu Vedder
(painter) John William Waterhouse
John William Waterhouse
(painter) Daniel Alexander Williamson (painter) James Abbott McNeill Whistler
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
(painter)

Illustration and poetry[edit] Many members of the ‘inner’ Pre-Raphaelite circle (Dante Gabriel Rossetti, John Everett Millais, William Holman Hunt, Ford Madox Brown, Edward Burne-Jones) and ‘outer’ circle (Frederick Sandys, Arthur Hughes, Simeon Solomon, Henry Hugh Armstead, Joseph Noel Paton, Frederic Shields, Matthew James Lawless) were working concurrently in painting, illustration, and sometimes poetry.[26] Victorian morality judged literature as superior to painting, because of its “noble grounds for noble emotion.”[27] Robert Buchanan (a writer and opponent of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) felt so strongly about this artistic hierarchy that he wrote: “The truth is that literature, and more particularly poetry, is in a very bad way when one art gets hold of another, and imposes upon it its conditions and limitations."[28] This was the hostile environment in which Pre-Raphaelites were defiantly working in various media. The Pre-Raphaelites attempted to revitalize subject painting, which had been dismissed as artificial. Their belief that each picture should tell a story was an important step for the unification of painting and literature (eventually deemed the Sister Arts[29]), or at least a break in the rigid hierarchy promoted by writers like Robert Buchanan.[30] The Pre-Raphaelite desire for more extensive affiliation between painting and literature also manifested in illustration. Illustration is a more direct unification of these media and, like subject painting, can assert a narrative of its own. For the Pre-Raphaelites, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
specifically, there was anxiety about the constraints of illustration.[30] In 1855, Rossetti wrote to William Allingham about the independence of illustration: “I have not begun even designing for them yet, but fancy I shall try the ‘Vision of Sin’ and ‘Palace of Art’ etc. – those where one can allegorize on one’s own hook, without killing for oneself and everyone a distinct idea of the poet’s."[30] This passage makes apparent Rossetti’s desire to not just support the poet’s narrative, but to create an allegorical illustration that functions separately from the text as well. In this respect, Pre-Raphaelite illustrations go beyond depicting an episode from a poem, but rather function like subject paintings within a text. Collections[edit]

William Holman Hunt, The Hireling Shepherd, 1851

There are major collections of Pre-Raphaelite work in United Kingdom museums such as the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, the Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Museum, Manchester Art Gallery, Lady Lever Art Gallery, and Liverpool's Walker Art Gallery. The Art Gallery of South Australia and the Delaware Art Museum
Delaware Art Museum
in the US have the most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite art outside the UK. The Museo de Arte de Ponce
Museo de Arte de Ponce
in Puerto Rico also has a notable collection of Pre-Raphaelite works, including Sir Edward Burne-Jones' The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon, Frederic Lord Leighton's Flaming June, and works by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and Frederic Sandys. There is a set of Pre-Raphaelite murals in the Old Library at the Oxford
Oxford
Union, depicting scenes from the Arthurian
Arthurian
legends, painted between 1857 and 1859 by a team of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Morris, and Edward Burne-Jones. The National Trust houses at Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton, and at Wallington Hall, Northumberland, both have significant and representative collections. Andrew Lloyd Webber is an avid collector of Pre-Raphaelite works, and a selection of 300 items from his collection were shown at an exhibition at the Royal Academy in London in 2003. Kelmscott Manor, the country home of William Morris
William Morris
from 1871 until his death in 1896, is owned by the Society of Antiquaries of London and is open to the public. The Manor is featured in Morris' work News from Nowhere. It also appears in the background of Water Willow, a portrait of his wife, Jane Morris, painted by Dante Gabriel Rossetti in 1871. There are exhibitions connected with Morris and Rossetti’s early experiments with photography. Portrayal in popular culture[edit] The story of the brotherhood, from its controversial first exhibition to being embraced by the art establishment, has been depicted in two BBC
BBC
television series. The first, The Love School, was broadcast in 1975; the second is the 2009 BBC
BBC
television drama serial Desperate Romantics by Peter Bowker. Although much of the latter's material is derived from Franny Moyle's factual book Desperate Romantics: The Private Lives of the Pre-Raphaelites,[31] the series occasionally departs from established facts in favour of dramatic licence and is prefaced by the disclaimer: "In the mid-19th century, a group of young men challenged the art establishment of the day. The pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood were inspired by the real world around them, yet took imaginative licence in their art. This story, based on their lives and loves, follows in that inventive spirit."[32] Ken Russell's television film Dante's Inferno (1967) contains brief scenes on some of the leading Pre-Raphaelites but mainly concentrates on the life of Rossetti, played by Oliver Reed. See also[edit]

Victorian era portal

List of Pre-Raphaelite paintings New English Art Club Early Renaissance painting English school of painting Hogarth Club John Wharlton Bunney Florence Claxton James Smetham The Light of the World Nazarenes

Notes and sources[edit]

Notes

^ Hilton, Timothy (1970). The Pre-Raphaelites, p. 46. Oxford University Press. ^ Landow, George P. "Pre-Raphaelites: An Introduction". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ McGann, Jerome J. The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, NINES consortium, Creative Commons License; http://www.rossettiarchive.org/docs/s40.rap.html retrieved 16 December 2012. ^ a b Hilton (1970), pp. 28–33. ^ " Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
1848 - 1855 - HiSoUR Art Culture Exhibition". HiSoUR Art Culture Exhibition. 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-12-27.  ^ Quoted by Latham, pp. 11-12; see also his comments ^ https://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/the-pre-raphaelites ^ Slater, Michael (2009). Charles Dickens, p. 309. Yale University Press. ^ Andres, Sophia (2005). The Pre-Raphaelite Art of the Victorian Novel: Narrative Challenges to Visual Gendered Boundaries, p. 9. Ohio State University Press. ^ The Times, Saturday, 3 May 1851; pg. 8; Issue 20792: Exhibition of the Royal Academy. (Private View.), First Notice: "We cannot censure at present, as amply or as strongly as we desire to do, that strange disorder of the mind or the eyes which continues to rage with unabated absurdity among a class of juvenile artists who style themselves "P.R.B.," which being interpreted means Pre- Raphael
Raphael
Brethren. Their faith seems to consist in an absolute contempt for perspective and the known laws of light and shade, an aversion to beauty in every shape, and a singular devotion to the minute accidents of their subjects, including, or rather seeking out, every excess of sharpness and deformity." ^ Dearden, James S. (1999). John Ruskin: A Life in Pictures, pp. 36–37. Sheffield Academic Press. ^ Phyllis Rose, Parallel Lives: Five Victorian Marriages, 1983, pp. 49–94. ^ Lutyens, Mary. (1967). Millais and the Ruskins. London: John Murray. p. 191. ISBN 0719517001.  ^ Dearden (1999), p. 43. ^ Clarke, Michael (2010). The concise Oxford
Oxford
dictionary of art terms - Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780199569922.  ^ Whiteley, Jon (1989). Oxford
Oxford
and the Pre-Raphaelites. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum. ISBN 0907849946.  ^ a b c Hilton (1970), pp. 202–05 ^ D. Macmillan, Scottish Art 1460-1990 (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1990), ISBN 0500203334, p. 348. ^ M. MacDonald, Scottish Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 2000), ISBN 0500203334, p. 100. ^ a b D. Macmillan, Scottish Art 1460-1990 (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1990), ISBN 0500203334, p. 213. ^ R. Barber, The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief (Harvard University Press, 2004), ISBN 0674013905, p. 275. ^ "Fine Art Books Art Instruction Photography Books Visual Arts Periods, Groups & Movements: Pre-Raphaelites". fineartbookstore.com. Retrieved 2017-12-27.  ^ See, for example, Bucher (2004) for a brief discussion on the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites on Tolkien. ^ Barringer, Tim (1999). Reading the Pre-Raphaelites, p. 17. Yale University Press. ^ Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde, Tate Britain, accessed 27 August 2014 ^ Goldman, Paul (2004). Victorian Illustration: The Pre-Raphaelites, the Idyllic School and the High Victorians. Burlington, VT: Lund Humphries. pp. 1–51.  ^ Welland, Dennis S. R. (1953). The Pre-Raphaelites in Literature and Art. London, UK: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. p. 14.  ^ Buchanan, Robert W. (October 1871). "The Fleshly School of Poetry: Mr. D.G. Rossetti". The Contemporary Review.  as cited in Welland, D.S.R. The Pre-Raphaelites in Literature and Art. London, UK: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., 14. ^ "Chapter One: Ruskin's Theories of the Sister Arts — Ut Pictura Poesis". www.victorianweb.org. Retrieved 2017-11-21.  ^ a b c Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1855). Letter from D.G. Rossetti to William Allingham. The Pre-Raphaelites in Literature and Art.  ^ Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
press pack: introduction BBC
BBC
Press Office. Retrieved on 24 July 2009. ^ Armstrong, Stephen (5 July 2009). "BBC2 drama on icons among Pre-Raphaelites". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 

Sources

Barringer, Tim (1998). Reading the Pre-Raphaelites. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07787-4.  Bucher, Gregory (2004). "Review of Matthew Dickerson. 'Following Gandalf. Epic Battles and Moral Victory in The Lord of the Rings'", Journal of Religion & Society, 6, ISSN 1522-5658, webpage accessed 13 October 2007 Daly, Gay (1989). Pre-Raphaelites in Love. New York: Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0-89919-450-8.  Dickerson, Matthew (2003). Following Gandalf : epic battles and moral victory in the Lord of the rings, Grand Rapids, Mich. : Brazos Press, ISBN 1-58743-085-1 Gaunt, William (1975). The Pre-Raphaelite Tragedy (rev. ed.). London: Cape. ISBN 0-224-01106-5.  Hawksley, Lucinda (1999). Essential Pre-Raphaelites. Bath: Dempsey Parr. ISBN 1-84084-524-4.  Latham, David, Haunted Texts: Studies in Pre-Raphaelitism in Honour of William E. Fredeman, William Evan Fredeman, David Latham, eds, 2003, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0802036627, 9780802036629, google books Prettejohn, Elizabeth (2000). The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07057-1.  Ramm, John (2003). "The Forgotten Pre-Raphaelite: Henry Wallis", Antique Dealer & Collectors Guide, 56 (March/April), p. 8–9

Further reading[edit]

Andres, Sophia. (2005) The Pre-Raphaelite Art of the Victorian Novel: Narrative Challenges to Visual Gendered Boundaries. Ohio State University Press, ISBN 0-8142-5129-3 Bate, P.H. [1901] (1972) The English Pre-Raphaelite painters : their associates and successors, New York : AMS Press, ISBN 0-404-00691-4 Daly, G. (1989) Pre-Raphaelites in Love, New York : Ticknor & Fields, ISBN 0-89919-450-8 des Cars, L. (2000) The Pre-Raphaelites : Romance and Realism, Abrams Discoveries series, New York : Harry N. Abrams, ISBN 0-8109-2891-4 Mancoff, D.N. (2003) Flora symbolica : flowers in Pre-Raphaelite art, Munich ; London ; New York : Prestel, ISBN 3-7913-2851-4 Marsh, J. and Nunn, P.G. (1998) Pre-Raphaelite women artists, London : Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-28104-1 Sharp, Frank C and Marsh, Jan, (2012) The Collected Letters of Jane Morris, Boydell & Brewer, London Staley, A. and Newall, C. (2004) Pre-Raphaelite vision : truth to nature, London : Tate, ISBN 1-85437-499-0 Townsend, J., Ridge, J. and Hackney, S. (2004) Pre-Raphaelite painting techniques : 1848–56, London : Tate, ISBN 1-85437-498-2

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pre-Raphaelite paintings.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Pre-Raphaelitism.

Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery's Pre-Raphaelite Online Resource Pre-Raphaelites exhibition at Tate Britain Liverpool Walker Art Gallery's Pre-Raphaelite collection Pre-Raphaelitism Lecture by John Ruskin The Pre-Raphaelite Society Pre-Raphaelite online resource project at the Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery The Samuel and Mary R. Bancroft Collection of Pre-Raphaelite Art Edward Burne-Jones, Victorian artist-dreamer, full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Pre-Raphaelite murals in the Old Library at the Oxford
Oxford
Union]. This podcast covers their painting. Oxford
Oxford
Brookes University has a series of podcasts on the Pre-Raphaelites in Oxford, with this one on YouTube dedicated to the Union murals.

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The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
(paintings)

William Holman Hunt John Everett Millais Dante Gabriel Rossetti James Collinson William Michael Rossetti Frederic George Stephens Thomas Woolner

Associated artists and figures

George Price Boyce John Brett Ford Madox Brown Richard Burchett Edward Burne-Jones Georgiana Burne-Jones John Collier Charles Allston Collins Frank Cadogan Cowper Evelyn De Morgan Walter Deverell Henry Treffry Dunn William Dyce Henry Holiday Arthur Hughes Edward Robert Hughes Frederic Leighton Robert Braithwaite Martineau Louisa Beresford, Marchioness of Waterford William Morris Alexander Munro Joseph Noel Paton Valentine Cameron Prinsep Christina Rossetti John Ruskin Frederick Sandys Thomas Seddon Elizabeth Siddal James Smetham Rebecca Solomon Simeon Solomon John Roddam Spencer Stanhope Marie Spartali Stillman Algernon Charles Swinburne Henry Wallis John William Waterhouse William Lindsay Windus

Some well-known works (period and post-period)

Ophelia Proserpine Christ in the House of His Parents A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids Ecce Ancilla Domini Mariana The Light of the World Our English Coasts ('Strayed Sheep') The Scapegoat Paolo and Francesca da Rimini The Last of England Work The Awakening Conscience The Hireling Shepherd April Love Found Bocca Baciata Oxford
Oxford
Union murals Lady Lilith Mary Magdalene The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple Beata Beatrix The Shadow of Death A Vision of Fiammetta Pygmalion and the Image series The Beloved Flaming June Cymon and Iphigenia King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid The Day Dream Dante and Beatrice Love's Messenger The Magic Circle The Legend of Briar Rose Lilith The Lady of Shalott Hylas and the Nymphs Lady Godiva

Models

Elizabeth Siddal Fanny Cornforth Effie Gray Sophy Gray Annie Miller Jane Morris Marie Spartali Stillman Alexa Wilding Maria Zambaco Dorothy Dene Fanny Eaton Ruth Herbert

Related

The Germ Hogarth Club Morris & Co. Rossetti and His Circle
Rossetti and His Circle
(1922 book) Dante's Inferno (1967 film) The Love School (1975 series) Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
(2009 series) Effie Gray
Effie Gray
(2014 film)

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John Everett Millais

List of paintings

Paintings

Isabella Christ in the House of His Parents Ferdinand Lured by Ariel Mariana The Return of the Dove to the Ark A Huguenot Ophelia The Order of Release The Proscribed Royalist, 1651 John Ruskin The Rescue Autumn Leaves The Blind Girl Peace Concluded A Dream of the Past: Sir Isumbras at the Ford The Vale of Rest The Black Brunswicker Esther Vanessa Victory O Lord! The Boyhood of Raleigh The North-West Passage The Ruling Passion Bubbles

Related

Effie Gray
Effie Gray
(wife) John Guille Millais
John Guille Millais
(son) Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Love School (1975 miniseries) The Countess (1999 play) Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
(2009 miniseries) Effie Gray
Effie Gray
(2014 film)

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Dante Gabriel Rossetti

List of paintings

Paintings

The Girlhood of Mary Virgin Ecce Ancilla Domini Paolo and Francesca da Rimini Bocca Baciata Oxford
Oxford
Union murals The Beloved Monna Vanna Monna Rosa Pia de' Tolomei Beata Beatrix Dante's Dream Water Willow Veronica Veronese Lady Lilith La Ghirlandata Proserpine A Sea–Spell The Blessed Damozel A Vision of Fiammetta The Day Dream Mnemosyne Found

Family

Elizabeth Siddal
Elizabeth Siddal
(wife) Frances Polidori
Frances Polidori
(mother) Gabriele Rossetti
Gabriele Rossetti
(father) Maria Francesca Rossetti
Maria Francesca Rossetti
(sister) William Michael Rossetti (brother) Christina Rossetti
Christina Rossetti
(sister) Gaetano Polidori
Gaetano Polidori
(grandfather)

Related

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Germ Hogarth Club Morris & Co.

Tristram and Isoude stained glass panels

Great Bookcase Rossetti and His Circle
Rossetti and His Circle
(1922 book) Dante's Inferno (1967 film) The Love School (1975 miniseries) Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
(2009 miniseries)

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William Holman Hunt

Paintings

Rienzi vowing to obtain justice for the death of his young brother, slain in a skirmish between the Colonna and the Orsini factions A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids The Hireling Shepherd Valentine Rescuing Sylvia from Proteus Our English Coasts, 1852 ('Strayed Sheep') The Awakening Conscience The Light of the World The Scapegoat The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple Isabella and the Pot of Basil The Shadow of Death The Miracle of the Holy Fire

Related

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Germ Hogarth Club Diana Holman-Hunt (granddaughter) The Love School (1975 miniseries) Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
(2009 miniseries)

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John Ruskin

Works

The King of the Golden River Modern Painters The Seven Lamps of Architecture The Stones of Venice Unto This Last Fors Clavigera

Related

Effie Gray
Effie Gray
(wife) Guild of St George Ruskin Gallery Brantwood Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art Ruskin Museum Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood John Ruskin
John Ruskin
(painting) Dante's Inferno (1967 film) The Love School (1975 miniseries) The Passion of John Ruskin
John Ruskin
(1994 film) The Countess (1999 play) Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
(2009 miniseries) Effie Gray
Effie Gray
(2014 film)

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Art movements

Medieval

Early Christian Migration Period Anglo-Saxon Visigothic Pre-Romanesque Insular Viking Byzantine Merovingian Carolingian Ottonian Romanesque Norman-Sicilian Gothic (International Gothic)

Renaissance

Italian Renaissance Early Netherlandish German Renaissance Antwerp Mannerists Danube school High Renaissance Romanism Mannerism Fontainebleau Northern Mannerism Flemish Baroque

17th century

Baroque Caravaggisti Classicism Dutch Golden Age

18th century

Rococo Neoclassicism Romanticism

19th century

Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School

20th century

Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Art & Language Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art

21st century

Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art

Related articles

List of art movements Feminist art movement (in the US) Modern art Modernism Late modernism Postmodern art Avant-garde

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148445290 LCCN: n79055680 ISNI: 0000 0000 9993 5375 GND: 41755

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