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Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B (PPNB) is a Neolithic
Neolithic
culture centered in upper Mesopotamia. It was typed by Kathleen Kenyon
Kathleen Kenyon
during her archaeological excavations at Jericho
Jericho
in the West Bank. Overview[edit] Cultural tendencies of this period differ from that of the earlier Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A (PPNA) period in that people living during this period began to depend more heavily upon domesticated animals to supplement their earlier mixed agrarian and hunter-gatherer diet. In addition the flint tool kit of the period is new and quite disparate from that of the earlier period. One of its major elements is the naviform core. This is the first period in which architectural styles of the southern Levant
Levant
became primarily rectilinear; earlier typical dwellings were circular, elliptical and occasionally even octagonal. Pyrotechnology was highly developed in this period. During this period, one of the main features of houses is evidenced by a thick layer of white clay plaster floors highly polished and made of lime produced from limestone. It is believed that the use of clay plaster for floor and wall coverings during PPNB led to the discovery of pottery.[1] The earliest proto-pottery was White Ware vessels, made from lime and gray ash, built up around baskets before firing, for several centuries around 7000 BC at sites such as Tell Neba'a Faour (Beqaa Valley).[2] Sites from this period found in the Levant utilizing rectangular floor plans and plastered floor techniques were found at Ain Ghazal, Yiftahel
Yiftahel
(western Galilee), and Abu Hureyra (Upper Euphrates).[3] The period is dated to between ca. 10,700 and ca. 8,000 BP or 7000 - 6000 BCE.

Jericho

Tell Aswad

Neba'a Faour

'Ain Ghazal

Yiftahel

Tell Abu Hureyra

Tell Ramad

Tell Ghoraifé

Tell Judaidah

Tell Tayinat

Alalakh

Map of the modern-day eastern Mediterranean showing important sites that were occupied in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B (clickable map)

Danielle Stordeur's recent work at Tell Aswad, a large agricultural village between Mount Hermon
Mount Hermon
and Damascus
Damascus
could not validate Henri de Contenson's earlier suggestion of a PPNA Aswadian culture. Instead, they found evidence of a fully established PPNB culture at 8700 BC at Aswad, pushing back the period's generally accepted start date by 1,200 years. Similar sites to Tell Aswad
Tell Aswad
in the Damascus
Damascus
Basin of the same age were found at Tell Ramad
Tell Ramad
and Tell Ghoraifé. How a PPNB culture could spring up in this location, practicing domesticated farming from 8700 BC has been the subject of speculation. Whether it created its own culture or imported traditions from the North East or Southern Levant
Levant
has been considered an important question for a site that poses a problem for the scientific community.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Like the earlier PPNA people, the PPNB culture developed from the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
Natufian culture. However, it shows evidence of a northerly origin, possibly indicating an influx from the region of north eastern Anatolia. The culture disappeared during the 8.2 kiloyear event, a term that climatologists have adopted for a sudden decrease in global temperatures that occurred approximately 8,200 years before the present, or c. 6200 BCE, and which lasted for the next two to four centuries. In the following Munhatta and Yarmukian
Yarmukian
post-pottery Neolithic
Neolithic
cultures that succeeded it, rapid cultural development continues, although PPNB culture continued in the Amuq valley, where it influenced the later development of the Ghassulian
Ghassulian
culture. Work at the site of ' Ain Ghazal
Ain Ghazal
in Jordan
Jordan
has indicated a later Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
C period, which existed between 8,200 and 7,900 BP. Juris Zarins has proposed that a Circum Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex developed in the period from the climatic crisis of 6200 BCE, partly as a result of an increasing emphasis in PPNB cultures upon animal domesticates, and a fusion with Harifian hunter gatherers in Southern Palestine, with affiliate connections with the cultures of Fayyum and the Eastern Desert
Eastern Desert
of Egypt. Cultures practicing this lifestyle spread down the Red Sea
Red Sea
shoreline and moved east from Syria into southern Iraq.[12] Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B fossils that were analysed for ancient DNA were found to carry the Y-DNA (paternal) haplogroups E1b1b (2/7; ~29%), CT (2/7; ~29%), E(xE2,E1a,E1b1a1a1c2c3b1,E1b1b1b1a1,E1b1b1b2b) (1/7; ~14%), T(xT1a1,T1a2a) (1/7; ~14%), and H2 (1/7; ~14%). The CT clade was also observed in a Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
C specimen (1/1; 100%).[13] Maternally, the rare basal haplogroup N* has been found among skeletal remains belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B,[14] as have the mtDNA clades L3[15] and K.[16] Ancient DNA analysis has also confirmed ancestral ties between the Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic culture bearers and the makers of the Epipaleolithic Iberomaurusian culture of the Maghreb,[17] the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
Natufian culture
Natufian culture
of the Levant, the Early Neolithic
Neolithic
Ifri n'Amr or Moussa culture of the Maghreb,[18] the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic
Neolithic
culture of East Africa,[19] the Late Neolithic
Neolithic
Kelif el Boroud culture of the Maghreb,[18] and the Ancient Egyptian culture of the Nile Valley,[20] with fossils associated with these early cultures all sharing a common genomic component.[18] See also[edit]

Plastered Human Skull Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A preceded PPNB Pre-history of the Southern Levant Prehistory
Prehistory
of Upper Mesopotamia History of pottery in the Southern Levant

References[edit]

^ Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible:10,000 - 586 BCE, Doubleday: New York, 1992, 45. ^ Chris Scarre. Timeline of the Ancient World, pg. 77. ^ Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible:10,000 - 586 BCE, Doubleday: New York, 1992, 45. ^ Helmer D. ; Gourichon L., Premières données sur les modalités de subsistance dans les niveaux récents de Tell Aswad (Damascène, Syrie) – fouilles 2001-2005., 2008. ^ Vila, E.; Gourichon, L.; Buitenhuis, H.; et al., eds. (2008). "49". Archaeozoology of the Southwest Asia and Adjacent Areas VIII. Actes du 8e colloque de l'ASWA. 1. Lyon: Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient. pp. 119–151.  ^ Helmer D. et Gourichon L., Premières données sur les modalités de subsistances dans les niveaux récents (PPNB moyen à Néolithique à Poterie) de Tell Aswad
Tell Aswad
en Damascène (Syrie), Fouilles 2001-2005, in Vila E. et Gourichon L. (eds), ASWA Lyon June 2006., 2007. ^ Stordeur D. Tell Aswad. Résultats préliminaires des campagnes 2001 et 2002. Neo Lithics 1/03, 7-15, 2003. ^ Stordeur D. Des crânes surmodelés à Tell Aswad
Tell Aswad
de Damascène. (PPNB - Syrie). Paléorient, CNRS Editions, 29/2, 109-116., 2003. ^ Stordeur D. ; Jammous B. ; Khawam R. ; Morero E. L'aire funéraire de Tell Aswad
Tell Aswad
(PPNB). In HUOT J.-L. et STORDEUR D. (Eds) Hommage à H. de Contenson. Syria, n° spécial, 83, 39-62., 2006. ^ Stordeur D., Khawam R. Les crânes surmodelés de Tell Aswad
Tell Aswad
(PPNB, Syrie). Premier regard sur l’ensemble, premières réflexions. Syria, 84, 5-32., 2007. ^ Stordeur D., Khawam R. Une place pour les morts dans les maisons de Tell Aswad
Tell Aswad
(Syrie). (Horizon PPNB ancien et PPNB moyen). Workshop Houses for the living and a place for the dead, Hommage à J. Cauvin. Madrid, 5ICAANE., 2008. ^ Zarins, Juris (1992) "Pastoral Nomadism in Arabia: Ethnoarchaeology and the Archaeological Record," in O. Bar-Yosef and A. Khazanov, eds. "Pastoralism in the Levant" ^ Lazaridis, Iosif; et al. (17 June 2016). "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". bioRxiv 059311 .  -- Table S6.1 - Y-chromosome haplogroups ^ Fernández, Eva; et al. (2014). "Ancient DNA analysis of 8000 BC near eastern farmers supports an early neolithic pioneer maritime colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands". PLoS Genetics. 10 (6): e1004401. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401. PMC 4046922 . PMID 24901650. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Fernández, Eva; et al. (2014). "Ancient DNA analysis of 8000 BC near eastern farmers supports an early neolithic pioneer maritime colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands". PLoS Genetics. 10 (6): e1004401. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401. PMC 4046922 . PMID 24901650. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Fernández Domínguez, Eva. "Polimorfismos de DNA mitocondrial en poblaciones antiguas de la cuenca mediterránea". Universitat de Barcelona. Retrieved 19 October 2017.  ^ van de Loosdrecht et al. (2018-03-15). "Pleistocene North African genomes link Near Eastern and sub-Saharan African human populations". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS): eaar8380. doi:10.1126/science.aar8380. ISSN 0036-8075. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b c Fregel; et al. (2018). "Ancient genomes from North Africa evidence prehistoric migrations to the Maghreb from both the Levant and Europe" (PDF). bioRxiv 191569 .  ^ Skoglund; et al. (September 21, 2017). "Reconstructing Prehistoric African Population Structure". Cell. 171: 59–71. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Schuenemann, Verena J.; et al. (2017). "Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods". Nature Communications. 8: 15694. doi:10.1038/ncomms15694. PMC 5459999 . PMID 28556824. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)

v t e

Ancient Mesopotamia

Geography

Modern

Euphrates Upper Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Marshes Persian Gulf Syrian Desert Taurus Mountains Tigris Zagros Mountains

Ancient

Akkad Assyria Babylonia Chaldea Elam Hittites Media Mitanni Sumer Urartu Cities

History

Pre- / Protohistory

Acheulean Mousterian Trialetian Zarzian Natufian Nemrikian Khiamian Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A (PPNA) Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B (PPNB) Hassuna/Samarra Halaf Ubaid Uruk Jemdet Nasr Kish civilization

History

Early Dynastic Akkadian Ur III Old Babylonian Kassite Neo-Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Achaemenid Seleucid Parthian Roman Sasanian Muslim conquest Timeline of the Assyrian Empire

Languages

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Culture / Society

Architecture Art Cuneiform script Akkadian
Akkadian
literature Sumerian literature Music Religion

Archaeology

Looting Destruction by ISIL Tell

Portal

v t e

Prehistoric Asia

Paleolithic

Homo erectus georgicus Japanese Paleolithic Java Man List of Paleolithic
Paleolithic
sites in China Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Mesopotamia Natufian culture Peking Man Riwat Soanian Sangiran South Asian Stone Age Ubeidiya Xiaochangliang

Neolithic

Fertile Crescent Early Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements Khiamian
Khiamian
culture Trialetian
Trialetian
culture Nemrikian culture Zarzian culture Neolithic
Neolithic
China Neolithic
Neolithic
Tibet Neolithic
Neolithic
Korea Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution Neolithic
Neolithic
South Asia Ohalo Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A (Mesopotamia) Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B (Mesopotamia)

Chalcolithic

Daimabad Halaf culture Uruk period

Bronze Age

Andronovo culture Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Anatolia Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Caucasus Bronze Age
Bronze Age
China Bronze Age
Bronze Age
India Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Korea Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Levant List of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
sites in China Seima-Turbino phenomenon

List of archaeological periods List of time periods

v t e

Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbo

.