PRAGMATIC ETHICS is a theory of normative philosophical ethics .
Ethical pragmatists, such as
* 1 Contrast with other normative theories * 2 Relationship to pragmatism * 3 Criticisms * 4 Moral ecology * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading
CONTRAST WITH OTHER NORMATIVE THEORIES
Much as it is appropriate for scientists to act as though a hypothesis were true despite expecting future inquiry to supplant it, ethical pragmatists acknowledge that it can be appropriate to practice a variety of other normative approaches (e.g. consequentialism , deontological ethics , and virtue ethics ), yet acknowledge the need for mechanisms which allow society to advance beyond such approaches, a freedom for discourse which does not take any such theory as assumed. Thus, aimed at social innovation , the practice of pragmatic ethics supplements the practice of other normative approaches with what John Stuart Mill called "experiments of living".
* It focuses on society, rather than on lone individuals, as the
entity which achieves morality. In Dewey's words, "all conduct is ...
* It does not hold any known moral criteria as beyond potential for
RELATIONSHIP TO PRAGMATISM
Establishing that this normative theory entails pragmatism (or vice
versa) remains an open challenge. The Blackwell Guide to Ethical
Theory refers to this theory as pragmatic and finds it in the writings
Moral ecology is a variation of pragmatic ethics which additionally supposes that morality evolves like an ecosystem , and ethical practice should therefore include strategies analogous to those of ecosystem management (e.g. protecting a degree of moral diversity). The term "moral ecology" has been used since at least 1985 to imply a symbiosis whereby the viability of any existing moral approach would be diminished by the destruction of all alternative approaches. According to Tim Dean, current scientific evidence confirms that humans do take diverse approaches to morality, and such polymorphism gives humanity resilience against a wider range of situations and environments (which makes moral diversity a natural consequence of frequency-dependent selection ).
* ^ A B Liszka, James. "What Is Pragmatic Ethics?". Retrieved 2011-07-01. * ^ Mill (1863) * ^ A B C D E Lafollette (2000) * ^ Dewey (1922) * ^ Almeder, R. (1983). "Scientific Progress and Peircean Utopian Realism". Erkenntnis (20): 253–280. * ^ Bateman, Newton; Paul Selby; Frances M. Shonkwiler; Henry L Fowkes (1908). Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. Chicago, IL: Munsell Publishing Company. p. 259. * ^ "Apology 30e". * ^ Bellah (1985) * ^ Hertzke (1998) * ^ "Tim Dean, Evolution & Moral Ecology". Philo Agora. Retrieved 2012-06-27. * ^ Dean, T. (2012). "Evolution and Moral Diversity". The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication. 7. doi :10.4148/biyclc.v7i0.1775 .
* Bellah, Robert Neelly (1985). Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25419-0 . * Dewey, John (1922). Human Nature and Conduct. New York: Henry Holt and Company . ISBN 978-0-486-42097-4 . * Hertzke, Allen D.; McRorie, Chris (1998). "The Concept of Moral Ecology". In Lawler, Peter Augustine; McConkey, Dale. Community and Political Thought Today. Westort, CT: Praeger . * LaFollette, Hugh (2000). "Pragmatic ethics". In LaFollette, Hugh. The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Wiley-Blackwell . pp. 400–419. * Mill, John Stuart (1863). On Liberty. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. ISBN 0-486-42130-9 .
* Bernstein, R. (1983) Beyond Objectivism and Relativism. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. * Dewey, John (1988) . Human Nature and Conduct. Southern Illinois University Press. * Dewey, John (1985) . Ethics. Southern Illinois University Press. * Dewey, John (1970) . Reconstruction in Philosophy. Henry Holt. * Gibbard, Allan (2009). "7 A pragmatic justification of morality". In Voorhoeve, Alex. Conversations on ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–178. ISBN 978-0-19-921537-9 . * Lekan, T. (2003) Making Morality: Pragmatist Reconstruction in Ethical Theory (The Vanderbilt Library of American Philosophy) Vanderbilt University Press . ISBN 978-0-8265-1421-9 * Margolis, J. (1986) Pragmatism without Foundations: Reconciling Realism and Relativism. Oxford, OX, UK ; New York: Blackwell Publishers. * Margolis, J. (1996) Life without Principles. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
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