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The praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(Latin: praefectura praetorio Italiae, in its full form (until 356) praefectura praetorio Italiae, Illyrici et Africae) was one of four Praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was divided. It comprised the Italian peninsula, the Western Balkans, the Danubian provinces and parts of North Africa. The Prefecture's seat moved from Rome
Rome
to Milan and finally, Ravenna.

Contents

1 Structure and history 2 List of known praefecti praetorio Italiae et Africae

2.1 Western Empire 2.2 Germanic rule 2.3 East Roman rule

3 References

Structure and history[edit] The prefecture was established in the division of the Empire after the death of Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
in 337, and was made up of dioceses. Initially these were the Diocese of Africa, the Diocese of Italy, the Diocese of Pannonia, the Diocese of Dacia
Diocese of Dacia
and the Diocese of Macedonia (the last two were until c. 327 united in the Diocese of Moesia). Eventually the Diocese of Italy
Italy
was split in two, the Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy
Italy
(Italia suburbicaria: " Italy
Italy
under the City", also referred to as "Diocese of the City of Rome") and the Diocese of Annonarian Italy
Italy
(Italia annonaria: "provisioning Italy"). In 347, the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was established, comprising the dioceses of Pannonia, Dacia and Macedonia. Vulcaius Rufinus was the prefect, 347-352. The new prefecture was abolished in 361 by Julian and reestablished in 375 by Gratian. Its territory was contested between the two halves of the Empire, until the final partition in 395, when the Diocese of Pannonia
Diocese of Pannonia
was split off from the Illyricum and joined to the Western Empire and the prefecture of Italy as the Diocese of Illyricum. Despite the end of the Western Empire in 476, the Germanic successor states under Odoacer
Odoacer
and Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great
continued to use the Roman administrative machinery, as well as being nominal subjects of the Eastern emperor at Constantinople. The Prefecture thus survived, and came again into Roman hands after Justinian's Gothic War. However, with the Lombard invasion in 568, Roman rule became reduced to fragmented and isolated territories, and the Prefecture gave its place to the Exarchate of Ravenna, established by the emperor Maurice. Prefects continue however to be attested until well into the 7th century. The last attested holder occurs in 639, and a couple of seals bearing the title eparchos ("prefect" in Greek) survive from the late 7th century, although it has been suggested that they are a misprint for exarchos ("exarch").[1] List of known praefecti praetorio Italiae et Africae[edit]

Aemilianus (328)

+ Lucius Pupius Pacatianus (334-335)

Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius (341) Marcus Maecius Memmius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus (342-344) Vulcacius Rufinus (first time, 344-347) Gaius Ceionius Rufius Volusianus Lampadius (355) Taurus (356-361) Claudius Mamertinus (361-365) Vulcacius Rufinus (second time, 365-368) Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus (first time, c. 368-375) Decimius Hilarianus Hesperius (378-380) Flavius Afranius Syagrius (382) Flavius Hypatius (382-383) Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus (second time, 383) Nonius Atticus (383-384) Vettius Agorius Praetextatus
Vettius Agorius Praetextatus
(384) Neoterius (385) Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus (third time, 387) Virius Nicomachus Flavianus
Virius Nicomachus Flavianus
(390-392)

Western Empire[edit]

Nummius Aemilianus Dexter (395) Eusebius (395-396) Mallius Theodorus (397-399) Valerius Messala Avienus (399-400) Rufus Synesius Hadrianus (400-405) Flavius Macrobius Longinianus (1st time, 406) Curtius (407-408) Flavius Macrobius Longinianus (2nd time, 408) Mallius Theodorus (408-409) Caecilianus (409) Jovius (409) Melitius (410-412) Seleucus (prefect for Africa, 412) Ioannes (412-413) Rufus Synesius Hadrianus (413-414) Seleucus (414-415) Junius Quartus Palladius (416-421) Anicius Auchenius Bassus (possibly, 426) Anicius Auchenius Bassus (435) Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus (c. 438) Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
(439) Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus (443-448) Caecina Decius Basilius (458) Caelius Aconius Probianus (461-463) Caecina Decius Basilius (463-465) Felix Himelco (473)

Germanic rule[edit] Under Odoacer:

Nar. Manlius Boethius
Manlius Boethius
(between 480 and 486) (he served as consul in 487) Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius
Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius
iunior (483) (he had served as consul in 480) Caecina Mavortius Basilius Decius iunior (486-493) (he served as consul in 486)

Under the Ostrogoths:

Liberius (494-500) Flavius Albinus iunior (?500-503)[2] (he had served as consul in 493) Cassiodorus
Cassiodorus
the Elder (500-?) Anicius Probus Faustus iunior (509-512) (he had served as consul in 490) Rufius Magnus Faustus Avienus (527-528) (he had served as consul in 502) Faustus (521/522) or 529[3] Cassiodorus
Cassiodorus
the Younger (533-537) (he had served as consul in 514) Fidelis (537-538) Reparatus (538-539)

East Roman rule[edit]

Athanasius (539-542) Maximinus (c. 542) Flavius Marianus Michaelius Gabrielius Petrus Iohannes Narses Aurelianus Limenius Stephanus Aurelianus, (554/568)

References[edit]

^ Nesbitt, John W.; Oikonomides, Nicolas, eds. (1994). Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art, Volume 2: South of the Balkans, the Islands, South of Asia Minor. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. p. 16. ISBN 0-88402-226-9.  ^ Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, II, 51-2 ^ Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, II, P452

v t e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Etruscan civilization

Lega dei popoli

Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC) Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

Roman Italy Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) Corsica and Sardinia
Corsica and Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture
of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Medieval and Early Modern states

Early Italian Kingdom (476-774)

Odoacer's rule (476–493) Ostrogothic rule (493–553) Vandal rule (435–534) Lombard rule (568–774)

Duchy of Benevento Duchy of Friuli Duchy of Ivrea Duchy of Spoleto Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman Kingdom of Italy (774/962–1806), Papal States and other independent states

March of Ancona Duchy of Aosta Patria del Friuli
Patria del Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) Bishopric of Bressanone Duchy of Castro Commune of Rome Marquisate of Ceva Republic of Cospaia Duchy of Ferrara Marquisate of Finale City of Fiume and its District Republic of Florence Duchy of Florence March of Friuli Republic of Genoa Republic of Noli County of Gorizia Princely County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca County of Guastalla Duchy of Guastalla March of Istria Duchy of Ivrea Republic of Lucca Margravate of Mantua Duchy of Mantua Duchy of Massa and Carrara Duchy of Merania Duchy of Milan Duchy of Mirandola Duchy of Modena and Reggio March of Montferrat Duchy of Montferrat County of Nizza Duchy of Parma Principality of Piedmont Principality of Piombino Republic of Pisa Duchy of Reggio Marquisate of Saluzzo County of Savoy Duchy of Savoy Republic of Siena Duchy of Spoleto Terra Sancti Benedicti Bishopric of Trento March of Turin March of Tuscany Grand Duchy of Tuscany County of Tirolo Duchy of Urbino March of Verona Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire (584-751)

Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(584–751)

Duchy of Rome
Rome
(533–751) Duchy of Perugia
Duchy of Perugia
(554–752) Duchy of the Pentapolis
Duchy of the Pentapolis
(554–752)

Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

Republic of Venice (697–1797)

Dogado Stato da Màr Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

Byzantine

Duchy of Amalfi Duchy of Gaeta Catepanate of Italy Longobardia Theme of Lucania Duchy of Naples Theme of Sicily and Byzantine Sicily Duchy of Sorrento

Arab

Emirate of Bari Emirate of Sicily

Lombard

Principality of Benevento Principality of Salerno Principality of Capua

Norman

County of Apulia and Calabria County of Aversa County of Sicily Principality of Taranto

Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica (9th century–1420)

Giudicati

Agugliastra Arborea Cagliari Gallura Logudoro

Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
and Corsica Corsican Republic
Corsican Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816)

State of the Presidi Duke of San Donato Duchy of Sora Principality of Taranto Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) Malta
Malta
under the Order Gozo Malta
Malta
Protectorate Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1792–1815)

Republics

Alba Ancona Bergamo Bologna Brescia Cisalpinia Cispadania Crema Italy Liguria Lucca Parthenopea Piedmont Rome Subalpinia Tiberinia Transpadania

Monarchies

Benevento Etruria Guastalla Italy Lucca and Piombino Massa and Carrara Naples Pontecorvo Tuscany Elba Corsica

Post-Napoleonic states

Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) Duchy of Lucca
Duchy of Lucca
(1815–1847) Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
(1814–1829) Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
(1814–1859) Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
(1814–1859) Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
(1815–1859) Italian United Provinces
Italian United Provinces
(1831) Provisional Government of Milan (1848) Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco
(1848–1849) Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

Post-unification

Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

Italian Empire
Italian Empire
(1869–1946)

Free State of Fiume
Free State of Fiume
(1920–1924) Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
(1943–1945) Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947-1954)

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna
Ravenna
and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia I Raetia II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum mediterraneum Noricum ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus Nova Epirus Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya
Libya
Superior Libya
Libya
Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian
Justinian
I's administrative reorganiz

.