Praetor
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Praetor ( , ), also pretor, was the
title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the firs ...
granted by the government of
Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC ...
to a man acting in one of two official capacities: (i) the commander of an
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...

army
, and (ii) as an elected ''
magistratus The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. During the Timeframe, period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome was the principal executive magistrate.Abbott, 8 His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest, Legis ...
'' (magistrate), assigned to discharge various duties. The functions of the magistracy, the ''praetura'' (praetorship), are described by the adjective: the ''praetoria potestas'' (praetorian power), the ''praetorium imperium'' (praetorian authority), and the ''praetorium ius'' (praetorian law), the legal precedents established by the ''praetores'' (praetors). ''Praetorium'', as a
substantive A noun (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...
, denoted the location from which the praetor exercised his authority, either the headquarters of his ''
castra In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run through res publica, public Representation (politics), representation of the Roman people. Beginning ...

castra
'', the courthouse (tribunal) of his judiciary, or the city hall of his provincial governorship.


History of the title

The status of the ''praetor'' in the early republic is unclear. The traditional account from Livy claims that the praetorship was created by the Sextian-Licinian Rogations in 367 BC, but it was well known both to Livy and other Romans in the late republic that the chief magistrates were first called ''praetor''. For example, Festus "refers to 'the praetors, who are now consuls'". The form of the republic changed substantially over its history and the accounts of the republic's development in the early imperial period are marred with anachronisms projecting then-current practices into the past. In the earliest periods of the republic, ''praetor'' "may not have meant anything more than leader in the most basic sense", deriving from ''praeire'' (to proceed) or ''praeesse'' (to be preeminent). These early praetors may have simply been clan leaders leading "military forces privately and free from state control" with a multitude of private leaders leading private armies. These early military leaders were eventually institutionalised into fixed magistrate bodies elected by the people with clear state control over military activities. This was also probably assisted by "the use of ''recuperatores'' to mediate disputes and fetial priests to control the declaration of war". The effect to make it more difficult for private individuals to start wars against Rome's neighbours. Reforms in 449 BC also may have required "for the first time that all military commanders be confirmed by a popular assembly epresentingthe Roman people". The emergence of the classical praetorship was a long process in which definitely started by 367 BC, when the Sextian-Licinian Rogations were passed, giving the Roman people substantially more power over the selection of their military commanders. While Livy claims that the rogations created the praetorship in 367 BC to relieve the consuls of their judicial responsibilities, "few modern historians would accept
his
his
account as written". Beyond the ancient knowledge that a title of praetor dated to the beginning of the republic, what became the classical praetorship was initially a military office with
imperium In ancient Rome, ''imperium'' was a form of authority held by a Roman citizenship, citizen to control a military or governmental entity. It is distinct from ''auctoritas'' and ''potestas'', different and generally inferior types of power in the R ...

imperium
and "virtually identical in authority and capacity to the consulship". Furthermore, a fully-formed praetorship without colleague, as Livy's account implies, would be a "tremendous violation of Roman practice in which all regular magistracies were created in colleges consisting of at least two". "Scholars increasingly view the ogationsas establishing a college of three (and only three) praetors, two of whom eventually developed into the historical consuls". What became the classical praetorship in its early years also was not viewed as being less than the consuls, as "it was common practice for men to hold the praetorship after a consulship... since oing sowas simply a method of holding ''imperium'' for a second year". Livy reports that until 337 BC the praetor was chosen only from among the patricians. In that year, eligibility for the ''praetura'' was opened to the plebeians, and one of them, Quintus Publilius Philo, won the office. Only in the 125 years after the election of three military leaders did a clear distinction emerge between what became the consuls and what became the praetors due to the "normal Roman practice to reserve one commander in or near the city for purposes of defence and (eventually) for civilian administration". The glory and prestige won by the praetors fighting foreign wars, then still in Italy, is what led to the higher prestige of the consulship. Only in 180 BC with the passage of the ''lex Villia annalis'' was holding the praetorship after the consulship prohibited. Even after the consulship emerged from the praetorship with higher prestige and desirability, praetorian ''imperium'' was still not legally distinct (or inferior to consular ''imperium'') until the very end of the republic. Starting in 241 BC, praetors started to be prorogued, allowing former praetors to act in the place of a praetor (ie '' pro praetore'') with power only "to conduct war in his assigned ''provincia''
ith The Ith () is a ridge in Germany's Central Uplands which is up to 439 m high. It lies about 40 km southwest of Hanover and, at 22 kilometres, is the longest line of crags in North Germany. Geography Location The Ith is immediately ...
no other concerns or duties". Prorogation, in effect, granted private individuals a legally fictitious power to act in the place of the normal magistrates, allowing them to continue to act within their assigned task (''provincia''). Prorogation allowed a magistrate, whose ''imperium'' did not expire with his term until crossing the pomerium or being stripped by the people, to continue in his assigned task or ''provincia''.


Praetura

The elected praetor was a '' magistratus curulis'', exercised ''
imperium In ancient Rome, ''imperium'' was a form of authority held by a Roman citizenship, citizen to control a military or governmental entity. It is distinct from ''auctoritas'' and ''potestas'', different and generally inferior types of power in the R ...

imperium
'', and consequently was one of the '' magistratus majores''. He had the right to sit in the ''
sella curulis A curule seat is a design of chair noted for its uses in Ancient Rome and Europe through to the 20th century. Its status in early Rome as a symbol of political or military power carried over to other civilizations, as it was also used in this regard ...
'' and wear the ''
toga praetexta The toga (, ), a distinctive garment of ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body. It was usually woven from white wool, and was worn over a tunic. In Roman historiography, R ...

toga praetexta
''.Livy, He was attended by six
lictor A lictor (possibly from la, ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard A bodyguard (or close protection officer/operative) is a type of security guard, government law enforcement officer, or servicemember w ...

lictor
s. A praetor was a
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a '' magistratus'' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judici ...
with ''
imperium In ancient Rome, ''imperium'' was a form of authority held by a Roman citizenship, citizen to control a military or governmental entity. It is distinct from ''auctoritas'' and ''potestas'', different and generally inferior types of power in the R ...

imperium
'' within his own sphere, subject only to the veto of the consuls (who outranked him). The ''potestas'' and ''imperium'' (power and authority) of the consuls and the praetors under the
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature ...
should not be exaggerated. They did not use independent judgment in resolving matters of state. Unlike today's executive branches, they were assigned high-level tasks directly by senatorial decree under the authority of the
SPQR SPQR, an abbreviation for (; en, "The Roman Senate and Roman people, People"; or more freely "The Senate and Roman people, People of Rome"), is an emblematic abbreviated phrase referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic. It ap ...

SPQR
. Livy describes the assignments given to either consuls or praetors in some detail. As magistrates, they had standing duties to perform, especially of a religious nature. However, a consul or praetor could be taken away from his current duties at any time to head a task force, and there were many, especially military. Livy mentions that, among other tasks, these executive officers were told to lead troops against perceived threats (domestic or foreign), investigate possible subversion, raise troops, conduct special sacrifices, distribute windfall money, appoint commissioners and even exterminate locusts. Praetors could delegate at will. The one principle that limited what could be assigned to them was that their duties must not concern them with ''minima'', "little things". They were by definition doers of ''maxima''. This principle of Roman law became a principle of later European law: '' Non curat minima praetor'', that is, the details do not need to be legislated, they can be left up to the courts.


Praetors and their duties


Republican

A second praetorship was created around 241 BC, more clearly separating this office from that of the consulship. There were two reasons for this: to relieve the weight of judicial business and to give the Republic a
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a '' magistratus'' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judici ...
with ''
imperium In ancient Rome, ''imperium'' was a form of authority held by a Roman citizenship, citizen to control a military or governmental entity. It is distinct from ''auctoritas'' and ''potestas'', different and generally inferior types of power in the R ...

imperium
'' who could field an army in an emergency when both
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
s were fighting a far-off war.


''Praetor peregrinus''

By the end of the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of Punic Wars, three wars fought between Roman Republic, Rome and Ancient Carthage, Carthage, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the early 3rd century BC. For 23 years, in the long ...
, a fourth magistrate entitled to hold ''
imperium In ancient Rome, ''imperium'' was a form of authority held by a Roman citizenship, citizen to control a military or governmental entity. It is distinct from ''auctoritas'' and ''potestas'', different and generally inferior types of power in the R ...

imperium
'' appears, the ''praetor qui inter peregrinos ius dicit'' ("the praetor who administers justice among foreigners"). Although in the later Empire the office was titled ''praetor inter cives et peregrinos'' ("among citizens and foreigners", that is, having jurisdiction in disputes between citizens and noncitizens), by the time of the 3rd century BC, Rome's territorial annexations and foreign populations were unlikely to require a new office dedicated solely to this task. T. Corey Brennan, in his two-volume study of the praetorship, argues that during the military crisis of the 240s the second praetorship was created to make another holder of ''imperium'' available for command and provincial administration ''inter peregrinos''. During the Hannibalic War, the ''praetor peregrinus'' was frequently absent from Rome on special missions. The urban praetor more often remained in the city to administer the judicial system.


''Praetor urbanus''

The ''praetor urbanus'' presided in civil cases between citizens. The Senate required that some senior officer remain in Rome at all times. This duty now fell to the ''praetor urbanus''. In the absence of the consuls, he was the senior magistrate of the city, with the power to summon the Senate and to organize the defense of the city in the event of an attack. He was allowed to leave the city for no more than ten days at a time. He was therefore given appropriate duties in Rome. He superintended the
Ludi ApollinaresThe ''Ludi Apollinares'' were solemn games (''ludi ''Ludi'' (Latin plural) were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the SPQR, Roman people (''populus Romanus''). ''Ludi'' were held in conjunction with, or sometimes as the major f ...
and was also the chief magistrate for the administration of justice and promulgated the
Praetor's Edict The Praetor's Edict ''(Edictum praetoris)'' in ancient Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Co ...
. These Edicts were statements of praetor's policy as to judicial decisions to be made during his term of office. The praetor had substantial discretion regarding his Edict, but could not legislate. In a sense the continuing Edicts came to form a corpus of precedents. The development and improvement of
Roman Law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Ju ...
owes much to the wise use of this praetorial discretion.


Additional praetors

The expansion of Roman authority over other lands required the addition of praetors. Two were created in 227 BC, for the administration of
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographic ...

Sicily
and
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penins ...

Sardinia
, and two more when the two
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...

Hispanic
provinces were formed in 197 BC. The dictator
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Ancient Romans, Roman List of Roman generals, general and Politician, statesman. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of Rom ...
transferred administration of the provinces to former consuls and praetors, simultaneously increasing the number of praetors elected each year to eight, as part of his constitutional reforms.
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...

Julius Caesar
raised the number to ten, then fourteen, and finally to sixteen.


Imperial

Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...

Augustus
made changes that were designed to reduce the Praetor to being an imperial administrator rather than a magistrate. The electoral body was changed to the Senate, which was now an instrument of imperial ratification. To take a very simplistic view, the establishment of the principate can be seen as the restoration of monarchy under another name. The Emperor therefore assumed the powers once held by the kings, but he used the apparatus of the republic to exercise them. For example, the emperor presided over the highest courts of appeal. The need for administrators remained just as acute. After several changes, Augustus fixed the number at twelve. Under
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor. He reigned from AD 14 until 37, succeeding his stepfather, the first Roman emperor Augustus. Tiberius was born in Rome in 42 BC. His father was the po ...

Tiberius
, there were sixteen. As imperial administrators, their duties extended to matters that the republic would have considered ''minima''. Two praetors were appointed by
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. Born to Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaul, where his father was s ...

Claudius
for matters relating to Fideicommissa (
trusts A trust is a legal relationship in which the legal title to property is entrusted to a person or legal entity with a fiduciary duty to hold and use it for another's benefit. In the Anglo-American common law, the party who entrusts the property ...
), when the business in that department of the law had become considerable, but
Titus Titus Caesar Vespasianus ( ; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thro ...

Titus
reduced the number to one; and
Nerva Nerva (; originally Marcus Cocceius Nerva; 8 November 30 – 27 January 98) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different tit ...
added a Praetor for the decision of matters between the
Fiscus Fiscus, from which comes the English term ''fiscal,'' was the name of the personal chest of the emperors of Rome. The word is literally translated as "basket" or "purse" and was used to describe those forms of revenue collected from the provinces ...

Fiscus
(
treasury A treasury is either *A government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive ( ...

treasury
) and individuals.
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variet ...

Marcus Aurelius
appointed a Praetor for matters relating to ''tutela'' ( guardianship).


Praetors as judges

Roman court cases fell into the two broad categories of civil or criminal trials. The involvement of a Praetor in either was as follows.


Actions

In an ''actio'', which was civil, the Praetor could either issue an ''interdictum'' (interdict) forbidding some circumstance or appoint a ''iudex'' (
judge A judge is a person who wiktionary:preside, presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a Judicial panel, panel of judges. A judge hears all the witnesses and any other Evidence (law), evidence presented by the barristers or so ...

judge
). Proceedings before the praetor were technically said to be ''in iure''. At this stage, the Praetor would establish a ''formula'' directing the ''iudex'' as to the remedy to be given if he found that certain circumstances were satisfied; for instance, "Let X be ''iudex''. If it appears that the defendant ought to pay 10,000 sesterces to the plaintiff, let the ''iudex'' condemn the defendant to pay 10,000 sesterces to the plaintiff. If it does not so appear, let the plaintiff absolve him." After they were handed over to the ''iudex'', they were no longer ''in iure'' before the Praetor, but ''apud iudicem''. The ''iudicium'' of the ''iudex'' was binding. By the time of
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia (Roman province), Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ...
, however, this two-stage process had largely disappeared, and the Praetor would either hear the whole case in person or appoint a delegate (a ''iudex pedaneus''), taking steps for the enforcement of the decision; the ''formula'' was replaced by an informal system of
pleadings In law as practiced in countries that follow the English models, a pleading is a formal written statement of a party's claims or defenses to another party's claims in a civil action. The parties' pleadings in a case define the issues to be adjudi ...
. During the time of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run through res publica, public Representation (politics), representation of the Roman people. Beginning with the Overthrow of the ...
, the Urban Praetor allegedly issued an annual
edict An edict is a decree or announcement of a law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by i ...
, usually on the advice of
jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a formal qualification in law or a legal practitioner, although in the United S ...
s (since the Praetor himself was not necessarily educated in the law), setting out the circumstances under which he would grant remedies. The legal provisions arising from the Praetor's Edict were known as ''ius honorarium''; in theory the Praetor did not have power to alter the law, but in practice the Edict altered the rights and duties of individuals and was effectively a legislative document. In the reign of
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri, Abruzzo, Atri in Picenum. His ...

Hadrian
, however, the terms of the Edict were made permanent and the Praetor's ''de facto'' legislative role was abolished.


Quaestiones perpetuae

The Praetors also presided at the ''quaestiones perpetuae'' (which were criminal proceedings), so-called because they were of certain types, with a Praetor being assigned to one type on a permanent basis. The Praetors appointed judges who acted as jurors in voting for guilt or innocence. The verdict was either acquittal or condemnation. These quaestiones looked into ''crimina publica'', "crimes against the public", such as were worthy of the attention of a Praetor. The penalty on conviction was usually death, but sometimes other severe penalties were used. In the late Republic, the public crimes were: * Repetundae *Ambitus *Majestas *Peculatus *Falsum *De Sicariis et Veneficis *De Patricidis The last three were added by the Dictator Sulla in the early 1st century BC.


Outdoor actions

When the Praetor administered justice in a tribunal, he sat on a ''sella curulis'', which was that part of the court reserved for the Praetor and his assessors and friends, as opposed to the ''subsellia'', the part occupied by the ''iudices'' (judges) and others who were present. In court, the Praetor was referred to as acting ''e tribunali'' or ''ex superiore loco'' (lit. from a raised platform or from a higher place) but he could also perform ministerial acts out of court, in which case he was said to be acting ''e plano'' or ''ex aequo loco'' (lit. from the flat ground or from an equal or level place). For instance, he could in certain cases give validity to the act of manumission when he was out-of-doors, such as on his way to the bath or to the theatre.


Later Roman era

By 395 AD, the praetors' responsibilities had been reduced to a purely municipal role. Their sole duty was to manage the spending of money on the exhibition of games or on public works. However, with the decline of the other traditional Roman offices such as that of tribune the praetorship remained an important portal through which aristocrats could gain access to either the Roman Senate, Western or Byzantine Senate, Eastern Senates. The Praetorship was a costly position to hold as praetors were expected to possess a treasury from which they could draw funds for their municipal duties.


Byzantine Empire

Like many other Roman institutions, the praetor ( el, πραίτωρ, ''praitōr'') survived in the Byzantine Empire, Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) undertook a major administrative reform beginning in 535, which involved the reunification of civil and military authority in the hands of the governor in certain provinces, and the abolition of the Roman diocese, dioceses. The Diocese of Thrace had already been abolished by the end of the 5th century by Anastasius, and its ''vicarius'' became the new ''praetor Justinianus'' of Thrace, with authority over all the former Thracian provinces except for Lower Moesia and Scythia Minor, which became part of the ''quaestura exercitus''. Similarly, the governors of Pisidia and Lycaonia, as well as Paphlagonia (enlarged by merging it with Honorias) were upgraded to ''praetores Justiniani'', and received the rank of ''vir spectabilis''. In addition, in Constantinople he replaced the ''praefectus vigilum'', who was hitherto responsible for security, by a ''praetor populi'' (in Greek πραίτωρ [τῶν] δήμων, ''praitōr [tōn] dēmōn''), with wide-ranging police powers. In the early 9th century, the ''praitōr'' was a junior administrative official in the ''Theme (Byzantine district), themata'', subordinate to the governing ''strategos, stratēgos''. Gradually however, the civil functionaries assumed greater power, and by the late 10th century, the ''praitores'' (or ''kritai'', "judges") were placed at the head of the civil administration of a ''thema''. This division of civil and military duties was often abandoned in the 12th century, when the posts of civil ''praitōr'' and military ''dux, doux'' were frequently held in tandem. The provincial post fell out of use after the Fourth Crusade, collapse of the Empire in 1204. According to Helene Ahrweiler, Emperor Nikephoros II (r. 963–969) reinstituted a praetor in Constantinople, as a high-ranking judge. He is possibly identical to the Palaiologan era, Palaiologan-era post of the ''praitōr tou demōu'', whose holders are attested until 1355. According to the ''Book of Offices'' of pseudo-Kodinos, compiled around the same time, the ''praitōr tou demōu'' occupied the 38th place in the imperial hierarchy, between the ''megas tzaousios'' and the ''logothetes ton oikeiakon, logothetēs tōn oikeiakōn'', but held no official function. His court uniform consisted of a gold-brocaded hat (''skiadion''), a plain silk ''kabbadion'' tunic, and a plain, smooth wooden staff (''dikanikion'').


Modern era

Classical Latin Praetor became medieval Latin Pretor; Praetura, Pretura, etc. During the interwar period the 71 counties of Romania#History, counties of Kingdom of Romania, Romania were divided into a various numbers of ''plasă, plăși'' (singular: ''plasă''), headed by a ''Pretor'', appointed by the Prefect (Romania), Prefect. The institution headed by the Pretor was called ''Pretură''. Currently, this office has survived only in the Republic of Moldova, where praetors are the heads of Chişinău's five sectors. In Italy, until 1998, Praetor was a magistrate with particular duty (especially in civil branch). The Italian-speaking Swiss canton of Ticino has ''preturi'' (singular: ''preture'') which is the chief magistrate (civil branch) of a district, heading a ''pretura'' (a court). The ''preturi'' are appointed by the Grand Council of Ticino, canton's parliament.Constitution of Ticino
Article 36 (in Italian)


In popular culture

In the ''Star Trek'' franchise, Praetor is the usual title of the leader of the Romulan Empire. In the ''New Phyrexia'' expansion of the ''Magic: The Gathering'' collectible card game, the five Phyrexian rulers were labeled a
praetors
In the 2016 game ''Doom (2016 video game), Doom'', the armor worn by the protagonist is called the Praetor suit. In the 2017 game ''Xenoblade Chronicles 2'', one of the central antagonists Amalthus holds the title of Praetor in the Praetorium of Indol. In the popular book series by Rick Riordan, ''The Heroes of Olympus'', there is a Senate with two Praetors, one male and one female.


See also

*
Praetor's Edict The Praetor's Edict ''(Edictum praetoris)'' in ancient Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Co ...
* Constitution of the Roman Republic * List of topics related to ancient Rome * Political institutions of Rome * List_of_Roman_Praetors, List of Praetors of the Roman Republic * :Roman praetors


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * *


External links


Peck, Harry Thurston, ''Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898), Praetor''


* [https://web.archive.org/web/20021230100155/http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=Liv1His.sgm&images=images%2Fmodeng&data=%2Ftexts%2Fenglish%2Fmodeng%2Fparsed&tag=public&part=all Livy, Books 1–5], English, University of Virginia searchable etext.
Livy, Books 6–10
English, University of Virginia searchable etext.
Livy, Books 40–45
English, University of Virginia searchable etext.
Cicero, ''de legibus'', Book 3, Latin.
The Latin Library site.
''The Roman Law Library'' by Professor Yves Lassard and Alexandr Koptev
{{Ancient Rome topics Ancient Roman titles Roman law Latin political words and phrases Cursus honorum Roman praetors,