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28.10 feet (8.56 m) on 19 Mar 1936[3]

The Potomac River watershed covers the District of Columbia and parts of four states

The Potomac River (/pəˈtoʊmək/ ( listen)) is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river (main stem and North Branch) is approximately 405 miles (652 km) long,[4] with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles (38,000 km2).[5] In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed. The river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D.C., on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, and the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point" (thus various bays and shoreline indentations lie in Virginia). Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank. The South Branch Potomac River lies completely within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.

Contents

1 Course 2 History 3 Water supply and water quality 4 Legal issues 5 Flora of the Potomac River Basin 6 Fauna of the Potomac River and its Basin

6.1 Fish

6.1.1 Bowfin (Amiidae) 6.1.2 Catfishes (Ictaluridae) 6.1.3 Eels (Anguillidae) 6.1.4 Gars (Lepisosteidae) 6.1.5 Herrings (Clupeidae) 6.1.6 Killifishes (Fundulidae) 6.1.7 Pupfish (Cyprinodontidae) 6.1.8 Lampreys (Petromyzontidae) 6.1.9 Minnows (Cyprinidae) 6.1.10 Mudminnows (Umbridae) 6.1.11 Perches (Percidae) 6.1.12 Percopsids (Percopsidae) 6.1.13 Pikes (Esocidae) 6.1.14 Pirate perch (Aphredoderidae) 6.1.15 Poeciliids (Poeciliidae) 6.1.16 Pupfish (Cyprinodontidae) 6.1.17 Sculpins (Cottidae) 6.1.18 Silversides (Atherinopsidae) 6.1.19 Smelts (Osmeridae) 6.1.20 Snakeheads (Channidae) 6.1.21 Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) 6.1.22 Suckers (Catostomidae) 6.1.23 Sunfishes (Centrarchidae) 6.1.24 Temperate basses (Moronidae) 6.1.25 Trout and whitefish (Salmonidae) 6.1.26 Mullets (Mugilidae) 6.1.27 Drums (Sciaenidae) 6.1.28 Soles (Soleidae) 6.1.29 Sharks (Carcharhinidae)

6.2 Mammals 6.3 Birds 6.4 Reptiles

6.4.1 Turtles 6.4.2 Snakes 6.4.3 Lizards

6.5 Amphibians

6.5.1 Salamanders 6.5.2 Frogs and toads

7 North Branch Potomac River 8 South Branch Potomac River

8.1 South Branch nomenclature 8.2 South Branch headwaters and course 8.3 North Fork South Branch Potomac River 8.4 South Fork South Branch Potomac River

9 Upper Potomac River 10 Tidal Potomac River 11 Images

11.1   Upper Potomac 11.2   Tidal Potomac 11.3   Other

12 See also 13 Notes and references

13.1 Notes 13.2 References 13.3 Works cited

14 External links

Course[edit]

The Potomac River in Washington, D.C., with Arlington Memorial Bridge in the foreground and Rosslyn, Arlington, Virginia in the background

The Potomac River runs 405 miles (652 km) from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout, Maryland, and drains 14,679 square miles (38,020 km2). The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles (486 km).[4] The average daily flow during the water years 1930-2017 was 11,416 cubic feet (323.3 m3) /s.[1] The highest average daily flow ever recorded on the Potomac at Washington, D.C., was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet (12,100 m3) /s.[1] The lowest average daily flow ever recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet (17.02 m3) /s in September 1966[1] The river has two sources. The source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant, Tucker, and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland County, Virginia. The river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.

The Potomac River from the confluence of its North and South Branches to the Chesapeake Bay

North Branch Potomac River (Maryland/West Virginia)

South Branch Potomac River (West Virginia/Virginia)

Town Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Little Cacapon River (West Virginia)

Fifteenmile Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Paw Paw Bridge; WV 9 and MD 51 (West Virginia and Maryland)

Sideling Hill Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Cacapon River (West Virginia)

Sir Johns Run (West Virginia)

Grasshopper Run (West Virginia)

Hancock Bridge; US 522 (West Virginia and Maryland)

Warm Spring Run (West Virginia)

Tonoloway Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Sleepy Creek (West Virginia/Virginia)

Licking Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Cherry Run (West Virginia)

Back Creek (West Virginia/Virginia)

Little Conococheague Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Conococheague Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Williamsport Pike Bridge; US 11 (West Virginia and Maryland)

Maryland Veterans Memorial Bridge; I-81 (West Virginia and Maryland)

Opequon Creek (West Virginia/Virginia)

Rumsey (Shepherdstown) Bridge; WV 480 and MD 34 (WV and MD)

Rattlesnake Run (West Virginia)

Packhorse Ford; (West Virginia and Maryland)

Antietam Creek (Pennsylvania/Maryland)

Shenandoah River (West Virginia/Virginia)

Potomac Water Gap between Blue Ridge Mt (VA/WV) and Elk Ridge Mt (MD)

Harpers Ferry Whitewater Pool (Maryland)

White Horse Rapids (Maryland)

Potomac Water Gap between Short Hill Mt (VA) and South Mt (MD)

Sandy Hook Bridge; US 340 (Virginia and Maryland)

Brunswick Bridge; SR 287 (Virginia) and MD 17 (Maryland)

Israel Creek (Maryland)

Catoctin Creek (Virginia)

Little Catoctin Creek (Maryland)

Catoctin Creek (Maryland)

Potomac Water Gap between Furnace Mt (VA) and Pine Rock (MD)

Point of Rocks Bridge; US 15 (Virginia and Maryland)

Heaters Island WMA (Maryland)

White's Ford; (Virginia and Maryland)

Nolands Ferry (historic)

Tuscarora Creek (Maryland)

Monocacy River (Maryland)

Little Monocacy River (Maryland)

Mason Island WMA (Maryland)

White's Ferry; SR 655 (Virginia) and MD 107 (Maryland)

Ball's Bluff (Virginia) and Harrison Island (Maryland)

Broad Run (Maryland)

Edwards Ferry (historic)

Goose Creek (Virginia)

Selden Island (Maryland)

Broad Run (Virginia)

Horsepen Creek (Virginia)

Horsepen Branch (Maryland)

McKee-Beshers Wildlife MGT Area (Maryland)

Sharpshin Island (Maryland)

Sugarland Run (Virginia)

Old Sugarland Run (Virginia)

Rowsers Ford; (Virginia and Maryland)

Seneca Redstone Quarry (historic) (Maryland)

Seneca Creek (Maryland)

Seneca Rapids (Maryland)

Blockhouse Point Promontory (Maryland)

Muddy Branch (Maryland)

Nichols Run (Virginia)

Watts Branch (Maryland)

Gladys Island (Potomac River) (Maryland)

Cool Spring Branch (Maryland)

Conn's Ferry (historic)

Conn Island (Potomac River) (Maryland)

Limekiln Branch (Maryland)

Aqueduct Dam (supplies water to the Washington Aqueduct) AQU[›] (Maryland)

Beginning of Potomac Gorge (Virginia/Maryland)

Great Falls (Maryland)

Carroll Branch (Maryland)

O-Deck Rapids (Maryland)

Olmsted Island (formerly Great Falls Island) (Maryland)

Glade Hill (boulders and sediment left by the ancestral Potomac River)GHL[›] (VA)

Mine Run Branch (Virginia)

Fishladder Rapids (Maryland)

Bear Island and Billy Goat Trail, Section A (Maryland)

Sherwin Island (formerly Cupid's Bower Island) (Maryland)

S-Turn Rapids (Maryland)

Rocky Island Rapids (Maryland)

Rocky Island(s) and Hidden Gorge (Maryland)

Ruins of Matildaville (Virginia)

Beginning of Mather Gorge (Virginia/Maryland)

Wet Bottom Rapids (Maryland)

Sandy Landing (boat ramp; take-out only) (Virginia)

Difficult Run (Virginia)

Difficult Run Rapids (Maryland)

Cow Hoof Rock and Black Pond (site of most recent paleo-falls >30 kya) BLK[›] (VA)

Offutt Island (Maryland)

Offutt Island Rapids (Maryland)

Bullneck Run (Virginia)

Rock Run (Maryland)

Turkey Island (Maryland)

Calico Rapids-Yellow Rapids (Maryland)

Scott's Run (Virginia)

Scott's Run Nature Preserve (Virginia)

Stubblefield Rapids and Knickpoint (paleo falls ~200 kya) (Maryland)

End of Mather Gorge (Virginia/Maryland)

American Legion/Cabin John Bridge; I-495 (Capital Beltway) (VA and MD)

Plummers Island (Maryland)

Plummers Island Thrust Fault (inactive) PIF[›] (Virginia/Maryland)

Dead Run (Virginia)

Dead Run Rapids (Maryland)

Turkey Run (Potomac River) (Virginia)

Cabin John Creek (Maryland)

Minnehaha Branch (Maryland)

Sycamore Island (Maryland)

Little Falls Dam and Dalecarlia Reservoir (Maryland and DC)

High Island (Maryland)

Little Falls (Maryland)

Little Falls Branch (Maryland)

Western boundary of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line; Potomac Estuary begins PES[›]

Chain Bridge; SR 123(VA) and Canal Road(DC) + Clara Barton Pkwy(MD/DC)

Pimmit Run (Virginia)

Gulf Branch (Virginia)

Donaldson Run (Virginia)

Windy Run (Virginia)

Spout Run (Virginia)

Maddox Branch (District of Columbia)

Three Sisters Island (District of Columbia)

Foundry Branch (District of Columbia)

Ruins of Aqueduct Bridge (District of Columbia)

Francis Scott Key Bridge; US 29 (Virginia and District of Columbia)

Rock Creek (District of Columbia/Maryland)

End of Potomac Gorge (Virginia/Maryland)

Limit of navigation; Eastern boundary of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line

Theodore Roosevelt IslandTRI[›] (District of Columbia)

Theodore Roosevelt Bridge; I-66 / US 50 (Virginia and District of Columbia)

Rocky Run (Virginia) (paved over)

Columbia Island (District of Columbia)

Arlington Memorial Bridge (District of Columbia)

Tidal Basin and Washington Channel (District of Columbia)

George Mason Memorial Bridge; I-395 south / US 1 south (VA and DC)

Rochambeau Memorial Bridge; I-395 (HOV) / US 1 (VA and DC)

Arland D. Williams Jr. Memorial Bridge; I-395 north / US 1 north (VA and DC)

Roaches Run Waterfowl Sanctuary (Virginia)

Tiber Creek (District of Columbia) (paved over)

Hains Point (District of Columbia)

Anacostia River (District of Columbia/Maryland)

Four Mile Run (Virginia)

Oxon Creek (District of Columbia/Maryland)

Jones Point Light (historic) (Virginia)

Woodrow Wilson Bridge; I-95 / I-495 (Capital Beltway) (VA and MD)

Hunting Creek (Virginia)

Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve (Virginia)

Broad Creek (Potomac River) (Maryland)

Henson Creek (Maryland)

Swan Creek (Maryland)

Piscataway Creek (Maryland)

Little Hunting Creek (Virginia)

Mount Vernon Estate (Virginia)

Dogue Creek (Virginia)

Accotink Creek (Virginia)

Pohick Creek (Virginia)

Pomonkey Creek (Maryland)

Mason Neck Wildlife Refuge (Virginia)

Occoquan River (Virginia)

Featherstone National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia)

Neabsco Creek (Virginia)

Powells Creek (Virginia)

Mattawoman Creek (Maryland)

Chicamuxen Creek (Maryland)

Quantico Creek (Virginia)

Chopawamsic Island (Virginia)

Chopawamsic Creek (Virginia)

Tank Creek (Virginia)

Aquia Creek (Virginia)

Crow's Nest Natural Area Preserve (Virginia)

Potomac Creek (Virginia)

Nanjemoy Creek (Maryland)

Chotank Creek (Virginia)

Port Tobacco River (Maryland)

Popes Creek (Maryland)

Gambo Creek (Virginia)

Clifton Creek (Maryland)

Governor Harry W. Nice Memorial Bridge; US 301 (Virginia and Maryland)

Piccowaxen Creek (Maryland)

Upper Machodoc Creek (Virginia)

Wicomico River (Maryland)

Cobb Island (Maryland)

St. Clement's Island (Maryland)

Monroe Creek (Virginia)

Mattox Creek (Virginia)

Popes Creek (Virginia)

St. Marys River (Maryland)

Yeocomico River (Virginia)

Coan River (Virginia)

Hull Creek (Virginia)

Point Lookout Light (Maryland)

Smith Point Light (Virginia)

Debouchment of the Potomac Estuary (Maryland)

Chesapeake Bay (Virginia/Maryland)

    

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Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D.C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream. The estuary also widens, reaching 11 statute miles (17 km) wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout, Maryland, and Smith Point, Virginia, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. History[edit]

In 1608, Captain John Smith explored the river now known as the Potomac and made drawings of his observations which were later compiled into a map and published in London in 1612. This detail from that map shows his rendition of the river that the local tribes had told him was called the "Patawomeck".

"Potomac" is a European spelling of Patowmeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank.[6] Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese"[7][8] and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans".[9] The spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" (as on Captain John Smith's map) to "Patomake", "Patowmack", and numerous other spellings in the 18th century and now "Potomac".[8] The river's name was officially decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931.[10]

Tundra swans were the predominant species of swan on the Potomac River when the Algonquins dwelled along its shores, and continue to be the most populous variety today.[11]

The river itself is at least two million years old, likely extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods.[12] The Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck.

View of the Potomac from Mount Vernon

Map of the Potomac River and its environs circa 1862 by Robert Knox Sneden.

Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, surveyed, and spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D.C., the nation's capital city, also lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown. General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D.C., twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam (September 17, 1862) and Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863). Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital. The river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but also gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac.[13] The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and also connected Cumberland to Washington, D.C.[14] This allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the Great Falls of the Potomac River, as well as many other, smaller rapids. Washington, D.C. began using the Potomac as its principal source of drinking water with the opening of the Washington Aqueduct in 1864, using a water intake constructed at Great Falls.[15]

This westward-looking aerial photograph shows the Shenandoah River (left) flowing into the Potomac River (right) at Harpers Ferry, WV. The Potomac then continues eastward toward the Chesapeake Bay.

In March 1996 an agreement was signed which made the Potomac a "sister river" of the Ara River, one of the principal rivers of Tokyo.[16] President Bill Clinton designated the Potomac as one of the American Heritage Rivers in 1998.[17] Water supply and water quality[edit] An average of approximately 486 million US gallons (1,840,000 m3) of water per day is withdrawn daily in the Washington area for water supply.[5]

The Potomac River surges over the deck of Chain Bridge during the historic 1936 Flood. The bridge was so severely damaged by the raging water, and the debris it carried, that its superstructure had to be re-built; the new bridge was opened to traffic in 1939. (This photograph was taken from a vantage point on Glebe Road in Arlington County, Virginia. The houses on the bluffs in the background are located on the Potomac Palisades of Washington, DC.)

As a result of damaging floods in 1936 and 1937, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed a series of dams that were intended to regulate the river and to provide a more reliable water supply. One dam was to be built at Little Falls, just north of Washington, backing its pool up to Great Falls. Just above Great Falls, a much larger dam was proposed whose reservoir would extend to Harpers Ferry.[18] Several other dams were proposed for the Potomac and its tributaries. When detailed studies were issued by the Corps in the 1950s, they met sustained opposition, led by U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, resulting in the plans' abandonment.[19] The only dam project that did get built was Jennings Randolph Lake on the North Branch. The Corps built a supplementary water intake for the Washington Aqueduct at Little Falls in 1959.[20]

This chart displays the Annual Mean Discharge of the Potomac River measured at Little Falls, Maryland for Water Years 1931-2017 (in cubic feet per second). Source of data: USGS[1]

In 1940 Congress passed a law authorizing creation of an interstate compact to coordinate water quality management among states in the Potomac basin. Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the District of Columbia agreed to establish the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin. The compact was amended in 1970 to include coordination of water supply issues and land use issues related to water quality.[21]

Eutrophication in the Potomac River is evident from this bright green water in Washington, D.C., caused by a dense bloom of cyanobacteria, April 2012

Beginning in the 19th century, with increasing mining and agriculture upstream and urban sewage and runoff downstream, the water quality of the Potomac River deteriorated. This created conditions of severe eutrophication. It is said that President Abraham Lincoln used to escape to the highlands on summer nights to escape the river's stench. In the 1960s, with dense green algal blooms covering the river's surface, President Lyndon Johnson declared the river "a national disgrace" and set in motion a long-term effort to reduce pollution from sewage and restore the beauty and ecology of this historic river. One of significant pollution control projects at the time was the expansion of the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant, which serves Washington and several surrounding communities.[22] Enactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act led to construction or expansion of additional sewage treatment plants in the Potomac watershed. Controls on phosphorus, one of the principal contributors to eutrophication, were implemented in the 1980s, through sewage plant upgrades and restrictions on phosphorus in detergents.[21] By the end of the 20th century, there was notable success, as massive algal blooms vanished and recreational fishing and boating rebounded. Still, the aquatic habitat of the Potomac River and its tributaries remain vulnerable to eutrophication, heavy metals, pesticides and other toxic chemicals, over-fishing, alien species, and pathogens associated with fecal coliform bacteria and shellfish diseases. In 2005 two federal agencies, the US Geological Survey and the Fish and Wildlife Service, began to identify fish in the Potomac and tributaries that exhibited "intersex" characteristics, as a result of endocrine disruption caused by some form of pollution.[23] On November 13, 2007, the Potomac Conservancy, an environmental group, issued the river a grade of "D-plus", citing high levels of pollution and the reports of "intersex" fish.[24] Since then, the river has improved with a reduction in nutrient runoff, return of fish populations and land protection along the river. As a result, the same group issued a grade of "B-minus" in 2016.[25] Legal issues[edit]

Map of land use in the watershed

For 400 years Maryland and Virginia have disputed control of the Potomac and its North Branch, since both states' original colonial charters grant the entire river rather than half of it as is normally the case with boundary rivers. In its first state constitution adopted in 1776, Virginia ceded its claim to the entire river but reserved free use of it, an act disputed by Maryland. Both states acceded to the Compact of 1785 and the 1877 Black-Jenkins Award which grants Maryland the river bank-to-bank from the low water mark on the Virginia side, while permitting Virginia full riparian rights short of obstructing navigation.

Satellite view of the Potomac River passing through two water gaps below Harpers Ferry

Oblique air photo, facing southwest, of the Potomac River flowing through water gaps in the Blue Ridge Mountains. Virginia on the left, Maryland on the right, West Virginia in upper right, including Harpers Ferry (partially obscured by Maryland Heights of Elk Ridge Mountain) at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers.

From 1957 to 1996, the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) routinely issued permits applied for by Virginia entities concerning use of the Potomac. However, in 1996 the MDE denied a permit submitted by the Fairfax County Water Authority to build a water intake 725 feet (220 m) offshore, citing potential harm to Maryland's interests by an increase in Virginia sprawl caused by the project. After years of failed appeals within the Maryland government's appeal processes, in 2000 Virginia took the case to the Supreme Court of the United States, which exercises original jurisdiction in cases between two states. Maryland claimed Virginia lost its riparian rights by acquiescing to MDE's permit process for 63 years (MDE began its permit process in 1933). A Special Master appointed by the Supreme Court to investigate recommended the case be settled in favor of Virginia, citing the language in the 1785 Compact and the 1877 Award. On December 9, 2003, the Court agreed in a 7-2 decision.[26] The original charters are silent as to which branch from the upper Potomac serves as the boundary, but this was settled by the 1785 Compact. When West Virginia seceded from Virginia in 1863, the question of West Virginia's succession in title to the lands between the branches of the river was raised, as well as title to the river itself. Claims by Maryland to West Virginia land north of the South Branch (all of Mineral and Grant Counties and parts of Hampshire, Hardy, Tucker and Pendleton Counties) and by West Virginia to the Potomac's high-water mark were rejected by the Supreme Court in two separate decisions in 1910.[27][28] Flora of the Potomac River Basin[edit]

Flora of the Potomac River Basin

Virginia Bluebells growing wild on Theodore Roosevelt Island.

Wildflowers of the Potomac River Basin

Blue Ridge Blueberry

Shrubs of the Potomac River Basin

Sugar Maple

Trees of the Potomac River Basin

Broad Cattail

Herbs of the Potomac River Basin

Broomsedge Bluestem

Grasses of the Potomac River Basin

Trumpet Honeysuckle

Vines and Groundcover of the Potomac River Basin

Fauna of the Potomac River and its Basin[edit] Fish[edit]

After an absence lasting many decades, the American Shad has recently returned to the Potomac.

A variety of fish inhabit the Potomac, including bass, muskellunge, pike, walleye. The northern snakehead, an invasive species resembling the native bowfin, lamprey, and American eel, was first seen in 2004.[29][30] Many types of sunfish are also present in the Potomac and its headwaters.[31] Although rare, bull sharks can be found.[32] After having been depressed for many decades, the river's population of American Shad is currently re-bounding as a result of the ICPRB's successful "American Shad Restoration Project" that was begun in 1995. In addition to stocking the river with more than 22 million shad fry, the Project supervised construction of a fishway that was built to facilitate the passage of adults around the Little Falls Dam on the way to their traditional spawning grounds upstream.[33]

Freshwater fish of the Potomac River

Bowfin (Amiidae)[edit]

Bowfin Amia calva

Catfishes (Ictaluridae)[edit]

White bullhead catfish Ameiurus catus Yellow bullhead catfish Ameiurus natalis Brown bullhead catfish Ameiurus nebulosus Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Tadpole madtom Noturus gyrinus Margined madtom Noturus insignis Blue catfish* Ictalurus furcatus* Flathead catfish* Pylodictis olivaris*

Eels (Anguillidae)[edit]

American eel Anguilla rostrata

Gars (Lepisosteidae)[edit]

Longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus

Herrings (Clupeidae)[edit]

Blueback herring Alosa aestivalis Hickory shad Alosa mediocris Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus American shad Alosa sapidissima Gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense

Killifishes (Fundulidae)[edit]

Banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus Mummichog killifish Fundulus heteroclitus Spotfin killifish Fundulus luciae Striped killifish Fundulus majalis Rainwater killifish Lucania parva

Pupfish (Cyprinodontidae)[edit]

Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus

Lampreys (Petromyzontidae)[edit]

Least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera American brook lamprey Lampetra appendix Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

Minnows (Cyprinidae)[edit]

Central stoneroller Campostoma anomalum Goldfish Carassius auratus Redside dace Clinostomus elongatus Rosyside dace Clinostomus funduloides Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Satinfin shiner Cyprinella analostana Spotfin shiner Cyprinella spiloptera Common carp Cyprinus carpio Cutlips minnow Exoglossum maxillingua Eastern silvery minnow Hybognathus regius Striped shiner Luxilus chrysocephalus Common shiner Luxilus cornutus Allegheny pearl dace Margariscus margarita River chub Nocomis micropogon Golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas Comely shiner Notropis amoenus Emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Bridle shiner Notropis bifrenatus Silverjaw minnow Notropis buccatus Ironcolor shiner Notropis chalybaeus Spottail shiner Notropis hudsonius Swallowtail shiner Notropis procne Rosyface shiner Notropis rubellus Bluntnose minnow Pimephales notatus Fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Eastern blacknose dace Rhinichthys atratulus Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus Fallfish Semotilus corporalis Bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus Mimic shiner Notropis volucellus

Mudminnows (Umbridae)[edit]

Eastern mudminnow Umbra pygmaea

Perches (Percidae)[edit]

Greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides Rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum Fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare Swamp darter Etheostoma fusiforme Johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum Tessellated darter Etheostoma olmstedi Glassy darter Etheostoma vitreum Banded darter Etheostoma zonale Yellow perch Perca flavescens Logperch Percina caprodes Stripeback darter Percina notogramma Shield darter Percina peltata Walleye Sander vitreum

Percopsids (Percopsidae)[edit]

Trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus

Pikes (Esocidae)[edit]

Redfin pickerel Esox americanus Northern pike Esox lucius Muskellunge Esox masquinongy Chain pickerel Esox niger

Pirate perch (Aphredoderidae)[edit]

Pirate perch Aphredoderus sayanus Guppy Poecilia reticulata

Poeciliids (Poeciliidae)[edit]

Eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki

Pupfish (Cyprinodontidae)[edit]

Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus

Sculpins (Cottidae)[edit]

Mottled sculpin Cottus bairdii Blue Ridge sculpin Cottus caeruleomentum Potomac sculpin Cottus girardi

Silversides (Atherinopsidae)[edit]

Inland silverside Menidia beryllina

Smelts (Osmeridae)[edit]

Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax

Snakeheads (Channidae)[edit]

Northern snakehead* Channa argus*

Sturgeons (Acipenseridae)[edit]

Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhinchus

Suckers (Catostomidae)[edit]

Quillback Carpiodes cyprinus White sucker Catostomus commersoni Creek chubsucker Erimyzon oblongus Northern hogsucker Hypentelium nigricans Golden redhorse Moxostoma erythrurum Shorthead redhorse Moxostoma macrolepidotum Torrent sucker Thoburnia rhothoeca

Sunfishes (Centrarchidae)[edit]

Mud sunfish Acantharcus pomotis Rock bass Amblopites rupestris Flier sunfish Centrarchus macropterus Blackbanded sunfish Enneacanthus chaetodon Bluespotted sunfish Enneacanthus gloriosus Banded sunfish Enneacanthus obesus Redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus Green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus Pumpkinseed sunfish Lepomis gibbosus Warmouth sunfish Lepomis gulosus Bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus Longear sunfish Lepomis megalotis Redear sunfish Lepomis microlophus Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides White crappie Pomoxis annularis Black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Temperate basses (Moronidae)[edit]

White perch Morone americana Striped bass Morone saxatilis

Trout and whitefish (Salmonidae)[edit]

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

  * denotes naturalized species; Sources:

Dnr.state.md: Fish key of native species http://www.potomacriver.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/MasterFreshFishList0213.pdf

Tidal freshwater fish of the Potomac River

Mullets (Mugilidae)[edit] Striped mullet Mugil cephalus Drums (Sciaenidae)[edit] Spot Leiostomus xanthurus Spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus Atlantic Croaker Micropogonias undulatus Red drum Sciaenops ocellata Soles (Soleidae)[edit] Hogchoker Trinectes maculatus Sharks (Carcharhinidae)[edit] Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas

Sources:

Dnr.state.md: Fish key of native species http://www.potomacriver.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/MasterFreshFishList0213.pdf

Mammals[edit]

Several hundred Bottle-nosed Dolphins live six months of the year (from mid-April through mid-October) in the Potomac. Depicted here, a mother with her young.

Mammals of the Potomac River Basin

Bats

Little brown bat Myotis lucifugus Indiana bat Myotis sodalis Eastern small-footed bat Myotis leibii Northern long-eared bat Myotis septentrionalis Silver-haired bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Tricolored bat Perimyotis subflavus Big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus Red bat Lasiurus borealis Hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus Evening bat Nycticeius humeralis

Bears

Black bear Ursus americanus

Beavers

American beaver Castor canadensis

Cats

Bobcat Lynx rufus

Foxes and Coyotes

Red fox Vulpes vulpes Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Coyote Canis latrans

Hoofed mammals

Sika deer* Cervus nippon * White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus American bison Bos bison

Jumping Mice

Meadow jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius Woodland jumping mouse Napaeozapus insignis

Lemmings

Southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi

Marine Mammals

Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus

Moles

Hairy-tailed mole Parascalops breweri Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus Southeastern star-nosed mole Condylura cristata parva

Muskrats

Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus

New World Mice and Rats

Marsh rice rat Oryzomys palustris Deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus White-footed deer mouse Peromyscus leucopus Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister

Nutria

Nutria* Myocastor coypus*

Old World Mice and Rats

Black rat* Rattus rattus* Norway rat* Rattus norvegicus* House mouse* Mus musculus*

Opossums

Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana

Porcupines

Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum

Rabbits and Hares

Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Appalachian cottontail Sylvilagus obscurus

Raccoons

Raccoon Procyon lotor

Shrews

Masked shrew Sorex cinereus Southeastern shrew Sorex longirostris Southern Water shrew Sorex palustris punctulatus Smoky shrew Sorex fumeus Long-tailed shrew Sorex dispar Southern pygmy shrew Sorex hoyi winnemana Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda Least shrew Cryptotis parva

Skunks

Eastern spotted skunk Spilogale putorius Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis

Squirrels and Chipmunks

Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus Groundhog (aka Woodchuck) Marmota monax Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger Delmarva fox squirrel Sciurus niger cinereus Red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans

Voles

Southern red-backed vole Clethrionomys gapperi Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus Southern Rock vole Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis Woodland vole Microtus pinetorum

Weasels, Minks and Otters

Fisher Martes pennanti Ermine Mustela erminea Least weasel Mustela nivalis Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Mink Neovison vison Northern river otter Lutra canadensis

  * denotes naturalized species Sources:

Mammals of Maryland; Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved February 8, 2018.] Mammals of Virginia; Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Retrieved February 8, 2018. Mammals of West Virginia: A Field Checklist (2001); West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Section. Retrieved February 8, 2018.]

Early European colonists who settled along the Potomac found a diversity of large and small mammals living in the dense forests nearby. bison, elk, wolves ( gray and red) and panthers (cougars) were still present at that time, but had been hunted to extirpation by the middle of the 19th century. Among the denizens of the Potomac's banks, beavers and otters met a similar fate, while small populations of minks and martens survived into the 20th century in some secluded areas. There is no record of early settlers having observed marine mammals in the Potomac, but several sightings of Atlantic Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were reported during the 19th century. In July of 1844. a pod of 14 adults and young was followed up the river by men in boats as high as the Aqueduct Bridge (approximately the same location occupied by Key Bridge today).[34] Since 2015, perhaps as a result of warmer temperatures, rising water levels in the Chesapeake Bay and improving water quality in the Potomac, unprecedented numbers of Atlantic Bottle-nosed Dolphins have been observed in the river. According to Dr Janet Mann of Georgetown University's Potomac-Chesapeake Dolphin Project, more than 500 individual members of the species have been identified in the Potomac during this period.[35] Birds[edit]

A Great Blue Heron

Birds of the Potomac River Basin

Reptiles[edit] Turtles[edit]

Eastern Box Turtles are frequently spotted along the towpath of the C&O Canal.

Turtles of the Potomac River Basin

Bog (=Muhlenberg) turtle Glyptemys (=Clemmys) muhlenbergii Chinese softshell turtle * Pelodiscus sinensis * Coastal plain cooter Pseudemys concinna floridana Cumberland slider Trachemys scripta troostii Eastern box turtle Terrapene carolina carolina Eastern chicken turtle Deirochelys reticularia reticularia Eastern mud turtle Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum Eastern musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus Eastern painted turtle Chrysemys picta picta Eastern river cooter Pseudemys concinna concinna Eastern spiny softshell turtle Apalone spinifera spinifera Green sea turtle Chelonia mydas Gulf Coast spiny softshell turtle * Apalone spinifera aspera * Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Kemp's ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys kempii Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta Mississippi map turtle* Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii * Northern map turtle Graptemys geographica Northern diamond-backed terrapin Malaclemys terrapin terrapin Northern red-bellied cooter Pseudemys rubriventris Red-eared slider * Trachemys scripta elegans * Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina Spotted turtle Clemmys guttata Striped mud turtle Kinosternon baurii Stripe-necked musk turtle Sternotherus minor peltifer Wood turtle Glyptemys insculpta Yellow-bellied slider Trachemys scripta scripta

  * denotes naturalized species Sources: https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf http://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Documents/herpchecklist.pdf

Snakes[edit]

Snakes of the Potomac River Basin

Northern Copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen Timber Rattlesnake Crotalus horridus Northern Watersnake Nerodia sipedon sipedon Red-bellied Watersnake Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster Queen Snake Regina septemvittata Eastern Smooth Earthsnake Virginia valeriae valeriae Mountain Earthsnake Virginia valeriae pulchra Northern brown snake Storeria dekayi dekayi Northern Red-bellied Snake Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata Eastern garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis Common Ribbonsnake Thamnophis sauritus sauritus Southern Ring-necked Snake Diadophis punctatus punctatus Northern Ring-necked Snake Diadophis punctatus edwardsi Eastern worm snake Carphophis amoenus amoenus Smooth green snake Opheodrys vernalis Northern Rough Greensnake Opheodrys aestivus aestivus Eastern Hog-nosed Snake Heterodon platirhinos Rainbow Snake Farancia erytrogramma erytrogramma Northern Black Racer Coluber constrictor constrictor Red Cornsnake Pantherophis guttatus Eastern Ratsnake Pantherophis alleghaniensis Mole Kingsnake Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata Eastern Kingsnake Lampropeltis getula getula Eastern Milksnake Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum Coastal Plain Milksnake Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides Northern Scarletsnake Cemophora coccinea copei

Sources: http://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Documents/herpchecklist.pdf A Guide to the Snakes of Virginia (Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Wildlife Diversity Division, Special Publication No. 2.1) 2002; by Michael J Pinder (Author)

Lizards[edit]

Lizards of the Potomac River Basin

Eastern Fence Lizard Sceloporus undulatus Eastern Six-lined Racerunner Aspidoscelis sexlineata sexlineata Little Brown Skink Scincella lateralis Northern Coal Skink Plestiodon anthracinus anthracinus Common Five-lined Skink Plestiodon fasciatus Broad-headed Skink Plestiodon laticeps

Sources:

https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf http://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Documents/herpchecklist.pdf

Amphibians[edit] Salamanders[edit]

Eastern Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) can be found sheltering under rocks along the banks of the Potomac.

Salamanders of the Potomac River Basin

Common Mudpuppy Necturus maculosus maculosus Eastern Hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis Marbled Salamander Ambystoma opacum Jefferson Salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum Spotted Salamander Ambystoma maculatum Eastern Tiger Salamander Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum Red-spotted Newt Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens Eastern Red-backed Salamander Plethodon cinereus Wehrle's Salamander Plethodon wehrlei Northern slimy salamander Plethodon glutinosus Valley and ridge salamander Plethodon hoffmani Seal Salamander Desmognathus monticola monticola Northern Dusky Salamander Desmognathus fuscus Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander Desmognathus ochrophaeus Northern Red Salamander Pseudotriton ruber ruber Eastern Mud Salamander Pseudotriton montanus montanus Northern Spring Salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticus Northern Two-lined Salamander Eurycea bislineata Southern Two-lined Salamander Eurycea cirrigera Long-tailed salamander Eurycea longicauda longicauda Four-toed Salamander Hemidactylium scutatum Green Salamander Aneides aeneus

Sources:

https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf http://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Documents/herpchecklist.pdf

Frogs and toads[edit]

Frogs and toads of the Potomac River Basin

Upland Chorus Frog Pseudacris feriarum New Jersey Chorus Frog Pseudacris kalmi Northern Spring Peeper Pseudacris crucifer Mountain Chorus Frog Pseudacris brachyphona Eastern Cricket Frog Acris crepitans crepitans Green Treefrog Hyla cinerea Gray Treefrog Hyla versicolor Cope's Gray Treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis Barking Treefrog Hyla gratiosa Carpenter Frog Lithobates virgatipes Wood Frog Lithobates sylvaticus Northern Leopard Frog* Lithobates pipiens* Southern Leopard Frog Lithobates sphenocephalus utricularius Pickerel Frog Lithobates palustris Northern Green Frog Lithobates clamitans melanota American Bullfrog Lithobates catesbeiana Eastern spadefoot toad Scaphiopus holbrookii Eastern American Toad Anaxyrus americanus americanus Fowler's Toad Anaxyrus fowleri Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad Gastrophryne carolinensis

  * denotes naturalized species Sources:

https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf http://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Documents/herpchecklist.pdf

North Branch Potomac River[edit]

The North Branch between Cumberland, Maryland, and Ridgeley, West Virginia, in 2007

The source of the North Branch Potomac River is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant, Tucker and Preston counties in West Virginia. From the Fairfax Stone, the North Branch Potomac River flows 27 miles (43 km) to the man-made Jennings Randolph Lake, an impoundment designed for flood control and emergency water supply. Below the dam, the North Branch cuts a serpentine path through the eastern Allegheny Mountains. First, it flows northeast by the communities of Bloomington, Luke, and Westernport in Maryland and then on by Keyser, West Virginia to Cumberland, Maryland. At Cumberland, the river turns southeast. 103 miles (166 km) downstream from its source,[4] the North Branch is joined by the South Branch between Green Spring and South Branch Depot, West Virginia from whence it flows past Hancock, Maryland and turns southeast once more on its way toward Washington, D.C., and the Chesapeake Bay. The following table shows the major tributaries of the North Branch Potomac River, listed in order from the source to its mouth. Numerous other tributary creeks exist.

Tributaries of the North Branch of the Potomac River

Stony River (West Virginia) Abram Creek (West Virginia) Savage River (Maryland) Georges Creek (Maryland)

Laurel Run (Maryland)

New Creek (West Virginia) Limestone Run (West Virginia) Warrior Run (Maryland) Wills Creek (Pennsylvania/Maryland)

Brush Creek (Pennsylvania) Little Wills Creek (Pennsylvania)

Evitts Creek (Maryland and Pennsylvania) Patterson Creek (West Virginia)

Mill Creek (West Virginia)

Dans Run (West Virginia) Green Spring Run (West Virginia)

South Branch Potomac River[edit]

The South Branch near South Branch Depot, West Virginia

Oblique air photo of the confluence of the North and South Branches near Green Spring, West Virginia.

The South Branch Potomac River has its headwaters in northwestern Highland County, Virginia near Hightown along the eastern edge of the Allegheny Front. After a river distance of 139 miles (224 km),[4] the mouth of the South Branch lies east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia where it meets the North Branch Potomac River to form the Potomac.[36] South Branch nomenclature[edit] The Native Americans of the region, and thus the earliest white settlers, referred to the South Branch Potomac River as the Wappatomaka. Variants throughout the river's history included Wappatomica River, Wapacomo River, Wapocomo River, Wappacoma River, Wappatomaka River, South Branch of Potowmac River, and South Fork Potomac River.[37] Places settled in the South Branch valley bearing variants of "Wappatomaka" include Wappocomo farm built in 1774 and the unincorporated hamlet of Wappocomo (sometimes spelled Wapocomo) at Hanging Rocks, both north of Romney on West Virginia Route 28. South Branch headwaters and course[edit] The exact location of the South Branch's source is northwest of Hightown along U.S. Route 250 on the eastern side of Lantz Mountain (3,934 ft) in Highland County. From Hightown, the South Branch is a small meandering stream that flows northeast along Blue Grass Valley Road through the communities of New Hampden and Blue Grass. At Forks of Waters, the South Branch joins with Strait Creek and flows north across the Virginia/West Virginia border into Pendleton County. The river then travels on a northeastern course along the western side of Jack Mountain (4,045 ft), followed by Sandy Ridge (2,297 ft) along U.S. Route 220. North of the confluence of the South Branch with Smith Creek, the river flows along Town Mountain (2,848 ft) around Franklin at the junction of U.S. Route 220 and U.S. Route 33. After Franklin, the South Branch continues north through the Monongahela National Forest to Upper Tract where it joins with three sizeable streams: Reeds Creek, Mill Run, and Deer Run. Between Big Mountain (2,582 ft) and Cave Mountain (2,821 ft), the South Branch bends around the Eagle Rock (1,483 ft) outcrop and continues its flow northward into Grant County. Into Grant, the South Branch follows the western side of Cave Mountain through the 20-mile (32 km) long Smoke Hole Canyon, until its confluence with the North Fork at Cabins, where it flows east to Petersburg. At Petersburg, the South Branch is joined with the South Branch Valley Railroad, which it parallels until its mouth at Green Spring.

Canoers at Hanging Rocks on the South Branch in the 1890s

In its eastern course from Petersburg into Hardy County, the South Branch becomes more navigable allowing for canoes and smaller river vessels. The river splits and forms a series of large islands while it heads northeast to Moorefield. At Moorefield, the South Branch is joined by the South Fork South Branch Potomac River and runs north to Old Fields where it is fed by Anderson Run and Stony Run. At McNeill, the South Branch flows into the Trough where it is bound to its west by Mill Creek Mountain (2,119 ft) and to its east by Sawmill Ridge (1,644 ft). This area is the habitat to bald eagles. The Trough passes into Hampshire County and ends at its confluence with Sawmill Run south of Glebe and Sector. The South Branch continues north parallel to South Branch River Road (County Route 8) toward Romney with a number of historic plantation farms adjoining it. En route to Romney, the river is fed by Buffalo Run, Mill Run, McDowell Run, and Mill Creek at Vanderlip. The South Branch is traversed by the Northwestern Turnpike (U.S. Route 50) and joined by Sulphur Spring Run where it forms Valley View Island to the west of town. Flowing north of Romney, the river still follows the eastern side of Mill Creek Mountain until it creates a horseshoe bend at Wappocomo's Hanging Rocks around the George W. Washington plantation, Ridgedale. To the west of Three Churches on the western side of South Branch Mountain, 3,028 feet (923 m), the South Branch creates a series of bends and flows to the northeast by Springfield through Blue's Ford. After two additional horseshoe bends (meanders), the South Branch flows under the old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad mainline between Green Spring and South Branch Depot, and joins the North Branch to form the Potomac.

Tributaries of the South Branch of the Potomac River

Big Run (West Virginia) Buffalo Creek (West Virginia) Lunice Creek (West Virginia) Mill Creek (West Virginia) Mill Run (West Virginia) North Fork South Branch Potomac River (West Virginia)

Mill Creek (West Virginia) Seneca Creek (West Virginia)

South Fork South Branch Potomac River (West Virginia/Virginia)

Kettle Creek (West Virginia)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Branch Potomac River.

North Fork South Branch Potomac River[edit]

The North Fork South Branch below Seneca Rocks in Pendleton County, West Virginia

The North Fork South Branch Potomac River, 43.6 miles (70.2 km) long,[4] forms just north of the Virginia/West Virginia border in Pendleton County at the confluence of the Laurel Fork and Straight Fork along Big Mountain 3,881 feet (1,183 m). From Circleville, the North Fork flows northeast through Pendleton County between the Fore Knobs 2,949 feet (899 m) to its west and the River Knobs, 2,490 feet (759 m) to its east. At Seneca Rocks, the North Fork is met by Seneca Creek. From Seneca Rocks, the North Fork continues to flow northeast along the western edge of North Fork Mountain 3,389 feet (1033 m) into Grant County. Flowing east through North Fork Gap, the North Fork joins the South Branch Potomac at the town of Cabins, west of Petersburg. South Fork South Branch Potomac River[edit] The South Fork South Branch Potomac River forms just north of U.S. Route 250 in Highland County, Virginia near Monterey, and flows 68.4 miles (110.1 km)[4] north-northeastward to the South Branch Potomac River at Moorefield in Hardy County, West Virginia. From 1896 to 1929, it was named the Moorefield River by the Board on Geographic Names to avoid confusion with the South Branch.

Sunrise view from Jefferson Rock at Harpers Ferry, WV.

Upper Potomac River[edit] This stretch encompasses the section of the Potomac River from the confluence of the North and South Branches to the beginning of tidewater, just below the Little Falls Branch in Washington, D.C.

Upper Potomac tributaries

Above the Fall Line

North Branch Potomac River (Maryland/West Virginia) South Branch Potomac River (West Virginia/Virginia) Town Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania) Little Cacapon River (West Virginia)

North Fork Little Cacapon River (West Virginia) South Fork Little Cacapon River (West Virginia)

Sideling Hill Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania) Cacapon River (West Virginia)

Capon Springs Run (West Virginia) Dillons Run (West Virginia) Edwards Run (West Virginia) Lost River (West Virginia) Mill Branch (West Virginia) North River (West Virginia)

Grassy Lick Run (West Virginia) Tearcoat Creek (West Virginia)

Bearwallow Creek (West Virginia)

Trout Run (West Virginia)

Sir Johns Run (West Virginia) Warm Spring Run (West Virginia) Tonoloway Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania) Fifteenmile Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania) Sleepy Creek (West Virginia/Virginia)

Meadow Branch (West Virginia)

Cherry Run (West Virginia) Back Creek (West Virginia/Virginia)

Hogue Creek (Virginia) Isaacs Creek (Virginia) Tilhance Creek (West Virginia)

Conococheague Creek (Maryland/Pennsylvania)

Back Creek (Pennsylvania)

Opequon Creek (West Virginia/Virginia)

Middle Creek (West Virginia) Mill Creek (West Virginia/Virginia) Tuscarora Creek (West Virginia)

Antietam Creek (Pennsylvania/Maryland) Shenandoah River (West Virginia/Virginia)

North Fork Shenandoah River (Virginia)

Cedar Creek (Virginia) Smith Creek (Virginia)

South Fork Shenandoah River (Virginia)

Catoctin Creek (Virginia) Catoctin Creek (Maryland) Tuscarora Creek (Maryland) Monocacy River (Maryland)

Bennett Creek (Maryland) Ballenger Creek (Maryland) Bush Creek (Maryland) Linganore Creek (Maryland) Carroll Creek (Maryland) Tuscarora Creek (Maryland) Double Pipe Creek (Maryland) Toms Creek (Pennsylvania) Marsh Creek (Pennsylvania/Maryland) Rock Creek (Pennsylvania/Maryland)

Little Monocacy River (Maryland) Broad Run (Maryland) Goose Creek (Virginia)

Little River (Virginia) Sycolin Creek (Virginia) Tuscarora Creek (Virginia) Cattail Branch (Virginia)

Broad Run (Virginia)

Horsepen Run (Virginia) Cabin Branch (Virginia) Beaverdam Run (Virginia)

Horsepen Branch (Maryland) Sugarland Run (Virginia) Seneca Creek (Maryland)

Dry Seneca Creek (Maryland) Little Seneca Creek (Maryland)

Tenmile Creek (Maryland)

Great Seneca Creek (Maryland)

Old Sugarland Run (Virginia) Muddy Branch (Maryland) Nichols Run (Virginia) Watts Branch (Maryland) Limekiln Branch (Maryland) Carroll Branch (Maryland) Pond Run (Virginia) Clarks Branch (Virginia) Mine Run Branch (Virginia) Difficult Run (Virginia) Bullneck Run (Virginia) Rock Run (Maryland) Scott Run (Virginia) Dead Run (Virginia) Turkey Run (Virginia) Cabin John Creek (Maryland) Minnehaha Branch (Maryland) Little Falls Branch (Maryland)

Tidal Potomac River[edit]

View southwest across the tidal Potomac River from the south end of Cobb Island Road on Cobb Island, Charles County, Maryland

The tidal or Lower Potomac River lies below the Fall Line. This stretch encompasses the Potomac from about one mile (2 km) below the Washington, DC - Montgomery County line, just downstream of the Little Falls of the Potomac River where the tidal river begins, to Chesapeake Bay.

Tidal Potomac tributaries

Below the Fall Line

Pimmit Run (Virginia) Gulf Branch (Virginia) Donaldson Run (Virginia) Windy Run (Virginia) Spout Run (Virginia) Maddox Branch (District of Columbia) Foundry Branch (District of Columbia) Rock Creek (District of Columbia/Maryland) Rocky Run (Virginia) (paved over) Tiber Creek (District of Columbia) (paved over) Roaches Run (Virginia) Washington Channel (District of Columbia) Anacostia River (District of Columbia/Maryland; Buzzard Point)

Stickfoot Branch (District of Columbia) Pope Branch (District of Columbia) Watts Branch (District of Columbia/Maryland) Hickey Run (District of Columbia) Beaverdam Creek (District of Columbia/Maryland) Northwest Branch Anacostia River (Maryland)

Sligo Creek (Maryland)

Northeast Branch Anacostia River (Maryland)

Paint Branch (Maryland)

Four Mile Run (Virginia)

Lubber Run (Virginia) Long Branch (upper) (Virginia) Doctors Run (Doctors Branch) (Virginia) Lucky Run (Virginia) (paved over) Long Branch (lower) (Virginia)

Oxon Creek (District of Columbia/Maryland) Hunting Creek (Virginia)

Cameron Run (Virginia)

Backlick Run (Virginia) Holmes Run (Virginia)

Hooff Run (Virginia)

Broad Creek (Maryland) Henson Creek (Maryland) Swan Creek (Maryland) Piscataway Creek (Maryland) Little Hunting Creek (Virginia) Dogue Creek (Virginia) Accotink Creek (Virginia) Pohick Creek (Virginia) Pomonkey Creek (Maryland) Occoquan River (Virginia)

Bull Run (Virginia) Broad Run (Virginia) Cedar Run (Virginia)

Neabsco Creek (Virginia) Powell's Creek (Virginia) Mattawoman Creek (Maryland) Chicamuxen Creek (Maryland) Quantico Creek (Virginia) Little Creek (Virginia) Chopawamsic Creek (Virginia) Tank Creek (Virginia) Aquia Creek (Virginia) Potomac Creek (Virginia)

Accokeek Creek (Virginia)

Nanjemoy Creek (Maryland) Port Tobacco River (Maryland) Popes Creek (Maryland) Gambo Creek (Virginia) Piccowaxen Creek (Maryland) Upper Machodoc Creek (Virginia) Cuckold Creek (Maryland) Wicomico River (Maryland) Cobb Island (Maryland) Monroe Creek (Virginia) Mattox Creek (Virginia) Popes Creek (Virginia) Breton Bay, Leonardtown (Maryland) St. Marys River (Maryland) Yeocomico River (Virginia) Coan River (Virginia) Hull Creek (Virginia) Sword's Creek (Maryland)

  Images[edit]

  Upper Potomac[edit]

Confluence of Cacapon river (barely visible) with the Potomac

Potomac River at Goose Creek

  Tidal Potomac[edit]

Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C., viewed from across the Tidal Basin of the Potomac

The Pentagon, looking northeast with the Potomac in the distance

 

  Other[edit]  

See also[edit]

Air Florida Flight 90 List of cities and towns along the Potomac River List of crossings of the Potomac River List of islands on the Potomac River List of rivers of Maryland List of rivers of Virginia List of rivers of West Virginia List of tributaries of the Potomac River List of variant names of the Potomac River Potomac Heritage Trail

Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit]

^ AQU: The diversion dam at Great Falls, often called the "Aqueduct Dam", was built in the 1850s by the US Army Corps of Engineers as part of the project assigned to them by Congress to supply clean water from above Great Falls to Washington, DC. Water diverted by the dam flows 12 miles through a 9-foot diameter pipeline to Dalecarlia Reservoir on the outskirts of the city where it is first allowed to settle and then filtered and purified before being distributed to consumers. Since 1927, potable water from Dalecarlia has also been provided to Arlington County and some other sections of nearby northern Virginia through three 20-inch diameter pipelines that cross the Potomac under the deck of Chain Bridge. In addition, there is nearby a 4-foot diameter conduit constructed in 1967 that traverses the Potomac beneath the riverbed which is used primarily for backup purposes.[38][39] ^ GHL: "Evidence of the ancient Potomac River bed can be seen in well-rounded boulders, smoothed surfaces and grooves, and beautifully formed potholes. Look for sandstone boulders along the trail, which were deposited by massive floods. The sandy soils along the river trail, with shells mixed in, are a result of sediment deposits from floods. Some of the oldest sediment deposits in the area can be found on Glade Hill, between the Matildaville and Carriage Road trails. Glade Hill was once an island in the Potomac River, and the deposits found there were left before Mather Gorge formed."[40] ^ PIF: "In the Late Pennsylvanian, the rocks of the Stubblefield Falls domain of the Mather Gorge Formation moved up relative to the Sykesville Formation on the steep, west-dipping Plummers Island fault and mylonite zones (Schoenborn, 2001) within an existing Plummers Island shear zone (figs. 5, 6). Shearing formed S2 cleavage with below-closure muscovite growth and more pervasive S2 cleavage in the Sykesville Formation. By the earliest Permian, all of the rocks in the Potomac terrane had cooled through 235°C (figs. 3, 5). Apatite fission-track data indicate cooling through ~90°C to 100°C in Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time, with increasing ages to the east, suggesting kilometer-scale rotation of the Potomac terrane in the Cretaceous and (or) Tertiary, with the west side up."[41] ^ BLK: "Two samples collected from the terrace dissected by Great Falls indicate that the Falls were established in their current location by 30 ky. A series of 6 samples taken from a vertical transect just below the falls, indicates that vertical incision continued a rate of 0.5 m/ky between 27 and 12 ky, increasing to nearly 1.0 m/ky during the Holocene. These data suggest that the drop over Great Falls is growing with time. A dramatic increase in outcrop weathering and soil depth 3.5 km downstream of the Falls, suggests that prior to establishment of the Great Falls knickzone, a similar feature was likely present near Black Pond. 10-Be data are not yet available for this paleo knick zone; however, a 10-Be model age >200 ky from the top of Plummers island 5 km down stream of Black Pond suggests a much older period of retreat led to the formation of the Black Pond paleo knick zone."[42] ^ PES: "The Potomac Estuary: From the Chain Bridge in Washington, DC, to Point Lookout at the confluence with the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac Estuary is a long and narrow estuary—approximately 189 km. With its many tributaries and bays, however, the Potomac Estuary has a shoreline of 1,800 km. The Estuary meanders in a south, southeasterly direction, except for a sharp bend about halfway downriver. The Estuary has three well-defined and distinct zones. The upper zone, from Chain Bridge to Indian Head, is the tidal freshwater reach, with salinities of less than 0.5 parts per thousand (ppt). The middle reach, between Indian Head and the Route 301 Bridge at Morgantown, is the transition zone. The salinity of this zone varies from 0.5 to 7.0 ppt and is often referred to as the zone of maximum turbidity. The lower zone, from the 301 Bridge to Point Lookout, has salinities ranging from 7 to 16 ppt."[43] ^ TRI: The rocky western (upriver) and central portions of the island are part of the Piedmont Plateau, while the southeastern part is within the Atlantic Coastal Plain. At one point opposite Georgetown, the Atlantic Seaboard fall line between the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain can be seen as a natural phenomenon. The island has about 2.5-mile (4.0 km) of shoreline, and the highest area of the island (where the Mason mansion stood) is about 44 feet (13 m) above sea level.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e "USGS 01646500 POTOMAC RIVER NEAR WASH, DC LITTLE FALLS PUMP STA". USGS. 2018. Archived from the original on February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.  ^ a b "USGS 01646500 POTOMAC RIVER NEAR WASH, DC LITTLE FALLS PUMP STA". USGS. 2018. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2018. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Potomac River Near Washington DC (Little Falls) (BRKM2)". NOAA. 2018. Archived from the original on January 27, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b c d e f U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map Archived April 5, 2012, at WebCite. Retrieved August 15, 2011 ^ a b "Facts & FAQs". Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB), Rockville, MD. September 16, 2009. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-05.  ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-8061-3598-4. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016.  ^ Legends of Loudoun: An account of the history and homes of a border county of Virginia's Northern Neck, Harrison Williams, p. 26. ^ a b Achenbach, Joel (2004). The Grand Idea: George Washington's Potomac and the Race to the West. Simon and Schuster. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-684-84857-0. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016.  ^ Hagemann, James A. (1988). The Heritage of Virginia. The Donning Company, 2nd edition, 297 p. ISBN 0-89865-255-3. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Potomac River ^ "Chesapeake Swan Song exhibition opens April 11 at CBMM". Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum. January 26, 2015. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.  ^ "THE ORIGIN OF THE POTOMAC RIVER VALLEY AND THE CARVING OF GREAT FALLS". United States Geological Survey. 2014. Archived from the original on April 9, 2007. Retrieved November 4, 2014.  ^ Peck, Garrett (2012). The Potomac River: A History and Guide. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-60949-600-5.  ^ Hahn, Thomas (1984). The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal: Pathway to the Nation's Capital. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-1732-2.  ^ Ways, Harry C. (1996). The Washington Aqueduct: 1852-1992. (Baltimore, MD: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District) ^ "(Arakawa - Potomac sister rivers)". Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin. January 27, 2012. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2016.  ^ "President Clinton: Celebrating America's Rivers". American Heritage Rivers. July 30, 1998. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.  ^ Carey, Frank (December 4, 1963). "Potomac Dam Is Opposed By Virginians". Fredericksburg Free-Lance Star. Retrieved 2009-11-13.  ^ Joel Achenbach (May 5, 2002). "America's River". The Washington Post. pp. W12. [dead link] ^ Scott, Pamela (2007), "Capital Engineers: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Development of Washington, D.C., 1790-2004." Archived February 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) Publication No. EP 870-1-67. p. 256. ^ a b ICPRB. "Potomac Timeline." Archived January 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Updated 2008-04-15. ^ District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority. Washington, DC. "History of Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Plant." Archived March 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2010-09-28. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Annapolis, MD (2009). "Intersex fish: Endocrine disruption in smallmouth bass." Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (November 13, 2007). "Potomac Recovery Deemed At Risk". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 1, 2011. Retrieved 2007-11-13.  ^ "Potomac River earns "B-" on latest report card". Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program. March 30, 2016. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.  ^ U.S. Supreme Court. Virginia v. Maryland, 540 U.S. 56 (2003) ^ Maryland v. West Virginia, 217 U.S. 1 (1910) ^ Maryland v. West Virginia, 217 U.S. 577 (1910) ^ Potomac snakeheads not related to others Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press, Baltimore Sun, April 27, 2007. ^ "Northern Snakehead - Frequently Asked Questions". Virginia Department of Natural Resources. September 9, 2014. Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2014.  ^ Jim Cummins (2013). "FISHES OF THE FRESHWATER POTOMAC" (PDF). www.potomacriver.org. Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin. Retrieved February 27, 2018.  ^ "Sharks! Watermen catch two 8-footers on same day". somdnews.com. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ "THE POTOMAC RIVER AMERICAN SHAD RESTORATION PROJECT" (PDF). www.potomacriver.org. Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin. March 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2018.  ^ "The Mysterious Dolphins of the Potomac". 2017. Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2018.  ^ "Potomac-Chesapeake Dolphin Project". 2018. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2018.  ^ Topographic map of the confluence of the North and South branches of the Potomac River Archived March 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Morrison, Charles (1971), Wappatomaka: A Survey of the History and Geography of the South Branch Valley, McClain Printing Co.: Parsons, W.Va.. ^ "Water, Water ... " by Larry Van Dyne, Washingtonian Magazine (March 2007) ^ "Sources of Northern Virginia Drinking Water", Virginia Places ^ Great Falls Geology, National Park Service, April 10, 2015 ^ Michael J. Kunk, et al., Multiple Paleozoic Metamorphic Histories, Fabrics, and Faulting in the Westminster and Potomac Terranes, Central Appalachian Piedmont, Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland, U.S. Geological Survey, 23 November 2016 ^ Paul Bierman, et. al., Great Falls is 30,000 Years Old, Paper No. 35-5, Session No. 35, Geomorphic Process Rates on the Passive Margin, March 26, 2004. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 2, p. 94 ^ Chapter One: Introduction

Works cited[edit]

Rice, James D., Nature and History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson. (2009), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; ISBN 0-8018-9032-2; ISBN 978-0-8018-9032-1 Smith, J. Lawrence, The Potomac Naturalist: The Natural History of the Headwaters of the Historic Potomac (1968), Parsons, WV: McClain Printing Co.; ISBN 0-87012-023-9; ISBN 978-0-87012-023-7

External links[edit]

Find more aboutPotomac Riverat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service - Baltimore/Washington (Sterling, VA) - including Potomac River levels

Potomac River level at Williamsport Potomac River level at Harpers Ferry Potomac River level at Point of Rocks Potomac River level at Little Falls Potomac River level at Wisconsin Avenue

Geology of the National Capital Region: Field Trip Guidebook (2004) edited by Scott Southworth, William Chapin Burton, Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB) Potomac Conservancy Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail Potomac Riverkeeper Potomac Timeline (focus on water quality) by ICPRB Potomac Watershed Partnership Potomac Watershed Roundtable Prince William Conservation Alliance Stewards of the Potomac Highlands South Branch Consortium The River and the Rocks: The Geologic Story of Great Falls and the Potomac River Gorge (Second edition, 1980) by John C. Reed, Jr. et al, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; also available in downloadable pdf format The Seven-Storey River: Geomorphology of the Potomac River Channel Between Blockhouse Point, Maryland, and Georgetown, District of Columbia, With Emphasis on the Gorge Complex Below Great Falls (1997) by E-an Zen, Reston, VA: US Geological Survey West Virginia Division of Natural Resources West Virginia Rivers Coalition Trout and Smallmouth Fishing on the North Branch of the Potomac Wade and Shoreline Fishing the Potomac River for Smallmouth Bass

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Potomac River system

Cities and towns Bridges Islands Tributaries Variant names District of Columbia Maryland Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia Streams shown as: Major tributaries

subtributaries (subsubtributaries) (subsubsubtributaries)

Tidal Potomac River

Gulf Branch Donaldson Run Maddox Branch Windy Run Spout Run Foundry Branch Rock Creek

Piney Branch

Boundary Channel Tiber Creek Rocky Run Washington Channel Anacostia River

Pope Branch Watts Branch Hickey Run Northwest Branch

Sligo Creek

Northeast Branch

Paint Branch

Four Mile Run Oxon Creek Hunting Creek

Cameron Run

Broad Creek Henson Creek Swan Creek Piscataway Creek Little Hunting Creek Dogue Creek Accotink Creek

Daniels Run

Pohick Creek Pomonkey Creek Occoquan River

Bull Run Broad Run Cedar Run

Neabsco Creek Powell Creek Mattawoman Creek Chicamuxen Creek Quantico Creek Little Creek Chopawamsic Creek Tank Creek Aquia Creek Potomac Creek

Accokeek Creek

Nanjemoy Creek Port Tobacco River Popes Creek (Maryland) Gambo Creek Piccowaxen Creek Upper Machodoc Creek Cuckold Creek Wicomico River Monroe Creek Mattox Creek Popes Creek (Virginia) St. Marys River Yeocomico River Coan River Hull Creek

Upper Potomac River

North Branch Potomac River South Branch Potomac River Town Creek Little Cacapon River

North Fork Little Cacapon River South Fork Little Cacapon River

Fifteenmile Creek Sideling Hill Creek Cacapon River

Lost River Trout Run Capon Springs Run Dillons Run Edwards Run Mill Branch North River (Grassy Lick Run) (Tearcoat Creek) (Bearwallow Creek)

Sir Johns Run Warm Spring Run Tonoloway Creek

Little Tonoloway Creek

Sleepy Creek Meadow Branch Licking Creek Cherry Run Back Creek Hogue Creek Isaacs Creek Tilhance Creek Little Conococheague Creek Conococheague Creek Back Creek Opequon Creek Abrams Creek Mill Creek Middle Creek Tuscarora Creek (West Virginia) Antietam Creek Shenandoah River Little Catoctin Creek Catoctin Creek (Virginia) Catoctin Creek (Maryland) Tuscarora Creek (Maryland) Monocacy River

Rock Creek Marsh Creek Alloway Creek Toms Creek (Middle Creek) Double Pipe Creek (Big Pipe Creek) (Little Pipe Creek) Owens Creek Tuscarora Creek Carroll Creek Linganore Creek Israel Creek Double Pipe Creek Bush Creek Ballenger Creek Bennett Creek

Little Monocacy River Goose Creek

Little River

Broad Run (Virginia) Sugarland Run Broad Run (Maryland) Seneca Creek

Dry Seneca Creek Little Seneca Creek (Tenmile Creek) Great Seneca Creek

Difficult Run Cabin John Creek Dead Run Little Falls Branch Pimmit Run Rock Run Watts Branch Muddy Branch

Shenandoah River

North Fork Shenandoah River

Cedar Creek Smith Creek

South Fork Shenandoah River

North River (Middle River) South River

North Branch Potomac River

Stony River Abram Creek Savage River Georges Creek Laurel Run New Creek Limestone Run Warrior Run Wills Creek

Brush Creek Little Wills Creek

Evitts Creek Patterson Creek

Mill Creek

Dans Run Green Spring Run

South Branch Potomac River

North Fork South Branch Potomac River

Laurel Fork Mill Creek Seneca Creek

South Fork South Branch Potomac River

Kettle Creek

Lunice Creek Mill Run Mill Creek Big Run Buffalo Creek

Lakes and reservoirs

Lake Accotink Lake Anne Lake Artemesia Lake Bernard Frank Lake Braddock Breckenridge Reservoir Brushy Fork Lake Burke Lake Dalecarlia Reservoir Georgetown Reservoir Jennings Randolph Lake Kingman Lake Little Seneca Lake McMillan Reservoir Mount Storm Lake Lake Needwood Sleepy Creek Lake Stony River Reservoir Tidal Basin Trout Pond Warden Lake

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Waters of Maryland

Bays/Estuaries

Assawoman Chesapeake Chincoteague Curtis Bay Eastern Fishing Herring Isle of Wight Mallows Newport Pocomoke Sinepuxent Tangier

Rivers

Anacostia Annemessex (Big) Annemessex (Little) Back Bird Blackwater Blackwater (Little) Bohemia Bush Casselman Chester Chicamacomico Choptank Choptank (Little) Christina River Corsica Elk Front Gunpowder Hawlings Jones Falls Magothy Magothy (Little) Manokin Middle Miles Monocacy Monocacy (Little) Nanticoke North North East Patapsco Patuxent Pocomoke Port Tobacco Potomac Rhode St. Martin St. Marys Sassafras Savage Severn South Susquehanna Transquaking Tred Avon Warwick West Wicomico (Potomac) Wicomico Wye Wye East Youghiogheny

Creeks, runs, streams

Antietam Alloway Arundel Cove Ballenger Bear (Patapsco) Bear (Sideling Hill) Bear (Youghiogheny) Beaverdam Bennett Big Hunting Big Pipe Bodkin Bonnie Branch Bread and Cheese Broad (Choptank) Broad (Potomac) Broad (Susquehanna) Broad Run Budds Bush Cabin John Carroll Catoctin Catoctin (Little) Chicamuxen Collington Branch Conococheague Conococheague (Little) Conowingo Cuckold Curtis Deep Run Deer Dividing Dorsey Run Double Pipe Dry Seneca Dueling Dundee Evitts Fifteenmile Fishing Flintstone Frog Mortar Furnace Georges Great Seneca Green Branch Greys Gwynns Falls Harris Henson Herbert Run Herring Run Honga Hunting (Little) Indian (Anacostia) Indian (Patuxent) Israel Laurel Run Licking Linganore Little Falls Branch Little Pipe Little Seneca Lyons Main Marley Marsh Marshyhope Mattawoman Meekins Middle Mill Branch Minnehaha Branch Moores Run Muddy Branch Nanjemoy Nassawango Northeast Branch Anacostia River Northwest Branch Anacostia River Octoraro Owens Oxon Paint Branch Parsons Piney Piscataway Plumtree Branch Pomonkey Principio Rock (Potomac) Rock Run Rockburn Branch Roland Run Romney St. Leonard Saltpeter Sams Sellman Seneca (Middle) Seneca (Potomac) Sideling Hill Slaughter Sligo Soapstone Branch Stony Swanson Tenmile Creek Thoms Cove Toms Tonoloway Town (Patuxent) Town (Potomac) Town (Tred Avon) Towson Run Trappe Tuckahoe Turville Tuscarora (Monocacy) Tuscarora (Potomac) Tuscarora (Little) Watts Branch Western Run Wills Winters Run

Lakes

Allen Pond Artemesia Buckel's Bog Centennial Deep Creek Elkhorn Bernard Frank Jennings Randolph Kittamaqundi Little Seneca Needwood Quarry Lake Roland Woodward Pond Youghiogheny

Reservoirs

Dalecarlia Habeeb Liberty Loch Raven Piney Run Prettyboy Rocky Gorge Triadelphia

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Monongahela National Forest

National Recreation Areas

Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area

Wilderness areas

Big Draft Wilderness Cranberry Wilderness Dolly Sods Wilderness Laurel Fork North Wilderness Laurel Fork South Wilderness Otter Creek Wilderness Roaring Plains West Wilderness Spice Run Wilderness

Mountains and summits

Allegheny Front Allegheny Mountain Back Allegheny Mountain Backbone Mountain Barton Knob Burner Mountain Bickle Knob Champe Rocks Cheat Mountain Gaudineer Knob Mount Porte Crayon North Fork Mountain River Knobs Seneca Rocks Shavers Mountain Spruce Knob Spruce Mountain

Rivers and creeks

Big Run Black Fork Blackwater River Cheat River Cranberry River Dry Fork Elk River Gauley River Glady Fork Greenbrier River Laurel Fork Seneca Creek South Branch Potomac River Shavers Fork Tygart Valley River Williams River

Canyons and valleys

Blackwater Canyon Canaan Valley Germany Valley Smoke Hole Canyon

Lakes and bogs

Lake Sherwood Spruce Knob Lake Summit Lake Cranberry Glades

Observation towers

Bickle Knob Olson Tower

Other features

Bear Rocks Preserve Camp Allegheny Cheat Summit Fort Fernow Experimental Forest Gaudineer Scenic Area Highland Scenic Highway Middle Mountain Cabins Mill Point Federal Prison Sinks of Gandy

US Forest Service

v t e

American Heritage Rivers

Rivers

Blackstone & Woonasquatucket Connecticut Cuyahoga Detroit Hanalei Hudson Lower Mississippi Potomac New Rio Grande St. Johns Upper Mississippi Upper Susquehanna & Lackawanna Willamette

Authority control

WorldCat Identities GND: 4233436-6 NARA: 10043577 VIA