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The Pottawatomi /ˌpɑːtəˈwɑːtəmiː/,[1] also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi
Potawatomi
(among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and Western Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Midwest to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Midwest and today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 French period (1615–1763) 2.2 British period (1763–1783) 2.3 United States
United States
treaty period (1783–1830)

2.3.1 Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Potawatomi 2.3.2 Chicago
Chicago
Potawatomi 2.3.3 Des Plaines and Fox River Potawatomi 2.3.4 Illinois River
Illinois River
Potawatomi 2.3.5 Kankakee River
Kankakee River
( Iroquois
Iroquois
and Yellow Rivers) Potawatomi 2.3.6 St. Joseph and Elkhart Potawatomi 2.3.7 Tippecanoe and Wabash River
Wabash River
Potawatomi 2.3.8 Fort Wayne Potawatomi

2.4 American removal period (1830–1840)

3 Bands 4 Population 5 Clans 6 Ethnobotany 7 Location 8 Language 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Name[edit] Main article: List of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
ethnonyms The English "Potawatomi" is derived from the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Boodewaadamii(g) (syncoped in the Ottawa as Boodewaadmii(g)). The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
name for themselves (autonym) is Bodéwadmi (without syncope: Bodéwademi; plural: Bodéwadmik), a cognate of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
form. Their name means "those who keep/tend the hearth-fire," which refers to the hearth of the Council of Three Fires. The word comes from "to keep/tend the hearth-fire," which is bodewadm (without syncope: bodewadem) in the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
language; the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Ottawa forms are boodawaadam and boodwaadam, respectively. Alternatively, the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
call themselves Neshnabé (without syncope: Eneshenabé; plural: Neshnabék), a cognate of Ojibwe Anishinaabe(g), meaning "original people". History[edit]

Regalia at the Field Museum in Chicago

The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
are first mentioned in French records, which suggest that in the early 17th century, they lived in what is now southwestern Michigan. During the Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
they fled to the area around Green Bay to escape attacks by both the Iroquois
Iroquois
and the Neutral Nation, who were seeking expanded hunting grounds. As an important part of Tecumseh's Confederacy, Potawatomi
Potawatomi
warriors took part in Tecumseh's War, the War of 1812
War of 1812
and the Peoria War. Their alliances switched repeatedly between Great Britain and the United States as power relations shifted between the nations, and they calculated effects on their trade and land interests. At the time of the War of 1812, a band of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
inhabited the area near Fort Dearborn, where Chicago
Chicago
developed. Led by the chiefs Blackbird and Nuscotomeg (Mad Sturgeon), a force of about 500 warriors attacked the United States
United States
evacuation column leaving Fort Dearborn; they killed most of the civilians and 54 of Captain Nathan Heald's force, and wounded many others. George Ronan, the first graduate of West Point
West Point
to be killed in combat, died in this ambush. The incident is referred to as the " Fort Dearborn
Fort Dearborn
Massacre". A Potawatomi
Potawatomi
chief named Mucktypoke (Makdébki, Black Partridge), counseled his fellow warriors against the attack. Later he saved some of the civilian captives who were being ransomed by the Potawatomi.[2] French period (1615–1763)[edit] The French period of contact began with early explorers who reached the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
in western Michigan. They also found the tribe located along the Door Peninsula
Door Peninsula
of Wisconsin. By the end of the French period, the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
had begun a move to the Detroit
Detroit
area, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin.[2]

Madouche during the Fox Wars Millouisillyny Onanghisse (Wnaneg-gizs "Shimmering Light") at Green Bay Otchik at Detroit

British period (1763–1783)[edit] The British period of contact began when France
France
ceded its lands after the defeat in the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(aka Seven Years' War). Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac's Rebellion
was an attempt by Native Americans to push the British and other European settlers out of their territory. The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
captured every British frontier garrison but the one at Detroit.[2] The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
nation continued to grow and expanded westward from Detroit, most notably in the development of the St. Joseph villages adjacent to the Miami in southwestern Michigan. The Wisconsin communities continued and moved south along the Lake Michigan shoreline.[2]

Nanaquiba (Water Moccasin) at Detroit Ninivois at Detroit Peshibon at St. Joseph Washee (from Wabzi, "the Swan") at St. Joseph during Pontiac's Rebellion

United States
United States
treaty period (1783–1830)[edit] The United States
United States
Treaty period of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
history began with the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
and established the United States' interest in the lower Great Lakes. It lasted until the treaties for Indian Removal
Indian Removal
were signed. The US recognized the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
as a single tribe. They often had a few tribal leaders whom all villages accepted. The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
had a decentralized society, with several main divisions based on geographic locations: Milwaukee
Milwaukee
or Wisconsin
Wisconsin
area, Detroit
Detroit
or Huron River, the St. Joseph River, the Kankakee River, Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers, the Illinois River
Illinois River
and Lake Peoria, and the Des Plaines and Fox Rivers. The chiefs listed below are grouped by geographic area. See also: Treaty with the Potawatomi Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Potawatomi[edit]

Manamol[2] Siggenauk (Siginak: "Le Tourneau" or "Blackbird")[2]

Chicago
Chicago
Potawatomi[edit]

Billy Caldwell,[2] also known as Sauganash
Sauganash
(Zhaaganaash: "Englishman") (1780–1841)

Des Plaines and Fox River Potawatomi[edit]

Aptakisic (fl. 1830s) (Abtagizheg "Half Day")[3] Mukatapenaise (Mkedébnés "Blackbird")[2] Waubansee (He Causes Paleness)[2] Waweachsetoh[2] along with La Gesse, Gomo or Masemo (Resting Fish)

Illinois River
Illinois River
Potawatomi[edit]

Shabbona

Mucktypoke[2] (Makdébki: "Black Partridge") Senachewine[2] (d. 1831) (Petacho or Znajjewan "Difficult Current") was the brother of Gomo who was chief among the Lake Peoria Potawatomi

Kankakee River
Kankakee River
( Iroquois
Iroquois
and Yellow Rivers) Potawatomi[edit]

Main Poc,[2] also known as Webebeset ("Crafty One") Micsawbee[4] 19th century Notawkah[2] (Rattlesnake) on the Yellow River Nuscotomeg[2] (Neshkademég, "Mad Sturgeon") on the Iroquois
Iroquois
and Kankakee Rivers Mesasa (Mezsézed, "Turkey Foot")[2]

St. Joseph and Elkhart Potawatomi[edit]

Chebass[2] (Zhshibés: "Little Duck") on the St. Joseph River Five Medals (Wa-nyano-zhoneya: "Five-coin")[2] on the Elkhart River Onaska[4] on the Elkhart River Topinbee (He who sits Quietly) (??-1826)[2]

Tippecanoe and Wabash River
Wabash River
Potawatomi[edit]

Aubenaubee[2][4] (1761–1837/8) on the Tippecanoe River Askum[2] (More and More) on the Eel River George Cicott[4] (1800?–1833) Keesass on the Wabash River Kewanna[4] (1790?–1840s?) (Prairie Chicken) Eel River Kinkash[2] (see Askum) Magaago Monoquet[2][4] (1790s–1830s) on the Tippecanoe River Tiosa[4] on the Tippecanoe River Winamac (Winmég, "Catfish")[4]—allied with the British during the War of 1812 Winamac (Winmég, "Catfish")[4]—allied with the Americans during the War of 1812

Fort Wayne Potawatomi[edit]

Metea lithograph (1842)

Metea[4] (1760?–1827) (Mdewé, "Sulks") Wabnaneme[2][4] on the Pigeon River

American removal period (1830–1840)[edit] The removal period of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
history began with the treaties of the late 1820s, when the United States
United States
created reservations. Billy Caldwell and Alexander Robinson negotiated for the United Nations of Chippewa, Ottawa and Potowatomi in the Second Treaty of Prairie du Chien (1829), by which they ceded most of their lands in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Michigan. Some Potawatomi
Potawatomi
became religious followers of the "Kickapoo Prophet", Kennekuk. Over the years, the US reduced the size of the reservations under pressure for land by incoming European Americans.[citation needed] The final step followed the Treaty of Chicago, negotiated in 1833 for the tribes by Caldwell and Robinson. In return for land cessions, the US promised new lands, annuities and supplies to enable the peoples to develop new homes. The Illinois
Illinois
Potawatomi
Potawatomi
were removed to Nebraska and the Indiana
Indiana
Potawatomi
Potawatomi
to Kansas, both west of the Mississippi River. Often annuities and supplies were reduced, or late in arrival, and the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
suffered after their relocations. Those in Kansas later were removed to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. The removal of the Indiana
Indiana
Potawatomi
Potawatomi
was documented by a Catholic priest, Benjamin Petit, who accompanied the Indians on the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Trail of Death. Petit died while returning to Indiana. His diary was published in 1941 by the Indiana
Indiana
Historical Society.[citation needed] Many Potawatomi
Potawatomi
found ways to remain, primarily those in Michigan. Others fled to their Odawa neighbors or to Canada
Canada
to avoid removal to the west.

Iowa, Wabash River Maumksuck (Mangzed, "Big Foot") at Lake Geneva Mecosta (Mkozdé, "Having a Bear's Foot")

Leopold Pokagon

Chief Menominee
Chief Menominee
(1791?–1841) Twin Lakes of Marshall County Pamtipee of Nottawasippi Mackahtamoah (Mkedémwi, "Black Wolf") of Nottawasippi Pashpoho of Yellow River
Yellow River
near Rochester, Indiana Pepinawah Leopold Pokagon
Leopold Pokagon
(c. 1775–1841) Simon Pokagon
Simon Pokagon
(c. 1830-1899) Sauganash
Sauganash
(Billy Caldwell) removed his band ultimately to what would become Council Bluffs, Iowa
Council Bluffs, Iowa
in 1838, where they lived at what was known as Caldwell's Camp. Father Pierre-Jean De Smet
Pierre-Jean De Smet
established a mission there that was active 1837-1839. Shupshewahno (19th century–1841) or Shipshewana
Shipshewana
(Vision of a Lion) at Shipshewana
Shipshewana
Lake.[5] Topinbee (The Younger) on the St. Joseph River Wabanim (Wabnem, "White Dog") on the Iroquois
Iroquois
River Michicaba (Snapping Turtle) on the Iroquois
Iroquois
River Wanatah Weesionas (see Ashkum) Wewesh

Bands[edit]

Ed Pigeon, Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish cultural coordinator and language instructor, with son, 2006

Rain dance, Kansas, c. 1920

There are several active bands of Potawatomi.

United States

Federally recognized Potawatomi
Potawatomi
tribes in the United States:

Citizen Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Nation, Oklahoma Forest County Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Community, Wisconsin; Hannahville Indian Community, Michigan; Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi (also known as the Gun Lake tribe), based in Dorr in Allegan County, Michigan; Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi, based in Calhoun County, Michigan; Pokagon Band of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians, Michigan
Michigan
and Indiana; and Prairie Band of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Nation, Kansas.

Canada
Canada
- First Nations with Potawatomi
Potawatomi
people

Caldwell First Nation, Point Pelee
Point Pelee
and Pelee Island, Ontario Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation, Bruce Peninsula, Ontario; Saugeen First Nation, Ontario
Ontario
(Bruce Peninsula); Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point, Ontario; Moose Deer Point First Nation, Ontario Walpole Island First Nation
Walpole Island First Nation
on an unceded island between the United States and Canada Wasauksing First Nation, Parry Island, Ontario

Population[edit]

Year Total United States Canada

1667[6] 4,000

1765[7] 1,500

1766[7] 1,750

1778[7] 2,250

1783[7] 2,000

1795[7] 1,200

1812[7] 2,500

1820[7] 3,400

1843[7]

1,800

1854[6] 4,440 4,040 400

1889[8] 1,582 1,416 166

1908[7] 2,742 2,522 220

1910[6] 2,620 2,440 180

1990[9] 23,000 17,000 4,000

1997[10] 25,000

1998[6] 28,000

Clans[edit] Main article: Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
clan system Chauvignerie (1736) and Morgan (1877) mentions among the Potawatomi doodems (clans) being:

Bené (Turkey) Gagagshi (Crow) Gnew (Golden Eagle) Jejakwe' (Thunderer, i.e. Crane) Mag (Loon) Mekchi (Frog)

Mek (Beaver) Mewi'a (Wolf) Mgezewa (Bald Eagle) Mkedésh-gékékwa (Black Hawk) Mko (Bear) Mshéwé (Elk)

Mshike' (Turtle) Nme' (Sturgeon) Nmébena (Carp) Shage'shi (Crab) Wabozo (Rabbit) Wakeshi (Fox)

Ethnobotany[edit] They regard Epigaea repens
Epigaea repens
as their tribal flower and consider it to have come directly from their divinity.[11] Allium tricoccum
Allium tricoccum
is consumed in traditional Potawatomi
Potawatomi
cuisine.[12]They mix an infusion of the root of Uvularia grandiflora
Uvularia grandiflora
with lard and use it as salve to massage sore muscles and tendons.[13] They use Symphyotrichum novae-angliae as a fumigating reviver.[14] Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtilloides
is part of their traditional cuisine, and is eaten fresh, dried, and canned.[15] They also use the root bark of the plant for an unspecified aliment.[16] Location[edit]

Trail of Death marker in Warren County, Indiana.

The Potawatomi
Potawatomi
first lived in Lower Michigan, then moved to northern Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and eventually settled into northern Indiana
Indiana
and central Illinois. In the early 19th century, major portions of Potawatomi lands were seized by the U.S. government. Following the Treaty of Chicago
Chicago
in 1833, by which the tribe ceded its lands in Illinois, most of the Potawatomi people
Potawatomi people
were removed to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
west of the Mississippi River. Many perished en route to new lands in the west on their journey through Iowa, Kansas
Kansas
and Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(now Oklahoma), following what became known as the "Trail of Death".

Year or Century Location[17]

1615 East of Michilimackinac, MI

Islands of Door Peninsula, WI (1st Fr)

1640 (until) with Hochunk (Winnebago) west of Green Bay, WI

1641 Sault Ste. Marie, MI

1670 Mouth of Green Bay, WI/MI

17th century Milwaukee
Milwaukee
River, WI

1780s on St. Joseph River, MI/IN

Language[edit] Main article: Potawatomi
Potawatomi
language Potawatomi
Potawatomi
(also spelled Pottawatomie; in Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Bodéwadmimwen or Bodéwadmi Zheshmowen or Neshnabémwen) is a Central Algonquian language and is spoken around the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
in Michigan
Michigan
and Wisconsin. It is also spoken by Potawatomi
Potawatomi
in Kansas
Kansas
and in southern Ontario.[18] There are fewer than 1300 people who speak Potawatomi
Potawatomi
as a first language, most of them elderly.[19] The people are working to revitalize the language. The Potawatomi language is most similar to the Odawa language; it also has borrowed a considerable amount of vocabulary from Sauk. Like the Odawa language, or the Ottawa dialect
Ottawa dialect
of the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
language, the Potawatomi language exhibits a great amount of vowel syncope. Many places in the Midwest have names derived from the Potawatomi language, including Waukegan, Muskegon, Oconomowoc, Pottawattamie County, Kalamazoo, and Skokie. See also[edit]

Cherokee Commission
Cherokee Commission
(allotment of Cherokee Outlet reservation) Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Trail of Death Treaty with the Potawatomi Theresa Marsh

References[edit]

^ Clifton, James A. (1978). "Potawatomi." In Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg. 725 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Edmunds, R. David (1988). The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press (Civilization of the American Indian Series); ISBN 0-8061-2069-X ^ D_dretske (25 March 2011). "Lake County, Illinois
Illinois
History: Aptakisic - Half Day".  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k McPherson, Alan (1993). Indian Names in Indiana. ^ Dunn, Jacob Piatt (28 March 2018). "True Indian stories: with glossary of Indiana
Indiana
Indian names". Sentinel printing company – via Google Books.  ^ a b c d "Potawatomi". google.com.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Hodges, Frederick Webb (1908). "Potawatomi" in Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico ^ "Linguistic Families of America" in Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1885-1886, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1891 ^ "Nishnabek Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indian Tribe Portal
Portal
Websites". www.firstnationsseeker.ca.  ^ "Potawatomi".  ^ Smith, Huron H. 1933 Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee
Milwaukee
7:1-230 (p. 118) ^ Smith, Huron H. 1933 Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee
Milwaukee
7:1-230 (p. 104) ^ Smith, Huron H., 1933, Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee
Milwaukee
7:1-230, pages 56, 57 64 ^ Smith, Huron H. (1933). Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 7:1-230 (p. 50). ^ Smith, Huron H., 1933, Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee
Milwaukee
7:1-230, page 99 ^ Smith, Huron H., 1933, Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee
Milwaukee
7:1-230, page 57 ^ Kubiak, William J. (1970). Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Indians: A Pictorial Guide. Baker Book House Company. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2007). Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, p. 74. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1197-X. ^ Hinton, Leanne and Hale, Kenneth (2001). The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice, p. 342. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 0-12-349353-6.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Potawatomi.

 Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). " Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Hannahville Indian Community; Wilson, MI Citizen Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Nation, official website First Nations Compact Histories: Potawatomi
Potawatomi
History Forest County Potawatomi Kettle & Stony Point First Nation Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi (Gun Lake) Moose Deer Point First Nation Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi Pokagon Band of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Author Larry Mitchell Prairie Band Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Nation Treaties with the Potawatomi Treaty Between the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Migration from Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Michigan
Michigan
to Canada

v t e

Native American Tribes in Michigan

Federally recognized

Bay Mills Grand Traverse Hannahville L'Anse Lac Vieux Little River Little Traverse Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Nottawaseppi Huron Pokagon Saginaw Chippewa Sault

State recognized

Burt Lake Grand River Band of Ottawa Indians Mackinac Swan Creek Black River Confederated Ojibwa Tribes of Michigan

v t e

Native American tribes in  Oklahoma

Federally recognized tribes

Absentee Shawnee Alabama-Quassarte Apache Caddo Cherokee Cheyenne and Arapaho Chickasaw Choctaw Citizen Potawatomi Comanche Delaware Nation Delaware Tribe Eastern Shawnee Fort Sill Apache Iowa Kaw Kialegee Kickapoo Kiowa Miami Modoc Muscogee (Creek) Osage Otoe-Missouria Ottawa Pawnee Peoria Ponca Quapaw Sac and Fox Seminole Seneca-Cayuga Shawnee Thlopthlocco Tonkawa United Keetoowah Wichita Wyandotte

Tribal languages (still spoken)

Alabama Arapaho Caddo Cayuga Cherokee Cheyenne Chickasaw Chiwere ( Iowa
Iowa
and Otoe) Choctaw Comanche Delaware Koasati Hitchiti-Mikasuki Mescalero-Chiricahua Mesquakie (Fox, Kickapoo, and Sauk) Muscogee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Ponca Potawatomi Quapaw Seneca Shawnee Wichita Wyandot Yuchi

v t e

Native American Tribes in Wisconsin

Bad River Fond du Lac Forest County Ho-Chunk Lac Courte Oreilles Lac du Flambeau Menominee Oneida Red Cliff St. Croix Sokaogon Stockbridge-Munsee

v t e

Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War
of 1832

Native people

British Band

Black Hawk Neapope Wabokieshiek

Dakota

Wapasha

Ho-Chunk

Waukon Decorah

Menominee

Oshkosh

Potawatomi

Billy Caldwell Shabbona Waubonsie

Sauk and Meskwaki

Keokuk Wapello

U.S. people

Army

Henry Atkinson Hugh Brady Jefferson Davis Winfield Scott Zachary Taylor

Militia

John Giles Adams Milton Alexander David Bailey Ebenezer Brigham John Dement Henry Dodge William S. Hamilton James D. Henry Abraham Lincoln Alexander Posey Isaiah Stillman James W. Stephenson Samuel Whiteside

Others

George Davenport Henry Gratiot Antoine LeClaire Joseph M. Street Felix St. Vrain Joseph Throckmorton

Places

Illinois Apple River Fort Buffalo Grove Dixon's Ferry Fort Armstrong Fort Beggs Galena Indian Creek Kellogg's Grove Plum River Saukenuk Stillman Creek Stillman's Run Battle Site Waddams Grove Yellow Creek

Michigan
Michigan
Territory (Wisconsin) Bad Axe River Blue Mounds Fort Fort Crawford Fort Defiance Fort Hamilton Fort Jackson Fort Koshkonong Fort Union Gratiot's Grove Helena Hamilton's Diggings Pecatonica River Roxbury Sinsinawa Mound Soldiers Grove Victory Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Heights Battlefield Wisconsin
Wisconsin
River

Engagements

Minor engagements Battle of Stillman's Run Buffalo Grove ambush Plum River raid Indian Creek massacre St. Vrain massacre Attacks at Fort Blue Mounds Spafford Farm massacre Battle of Horseshoe Bend Battle of Waddams Grove Battle of Kellogg's Grove Attack at Ament's Cabin Battle of Apple River Fort Sinsinawa Mound raid Battle of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Heights Battle of Bad Axe

Related topics

Black Hawk Purchase Black Hawk Tree Keokuk's Reserve Treaty of St. Louis (1804) First Treaty of Prairie du Chien Fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien Warrior

v t e

Anishinaabe

Culture

Anishinabek Educational Institute birch bark biting birch bark scrolls clan system Dreamcatcher Drumkeeper Jingle dress Manitou Medicine wheel Grand Medicine Society Nanabozho Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language Ottawa dialect Pow wow Quillwork Ribbon work traditional beliefs Wampum

Political organizations

Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Chiefs of Ontario Council of Three Fires Grand Council of Treaty 3 Grand Council of Treaty 8 Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Inter-tribal Council Inter-tribal Council of Michigan Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Nishnawbe Aski Nation

Independent First Nations Alliance Keewaytinook Okimakanak Council Matawa First Nations Mishkeegogamang First Nation Mocreebec Council of the Cree Nation Mushkegowuk Council Sandy Lake First Nation Shibogama First Nations Council Wabun Tribal Council Weenusk First Nation Windigo First Nations Council

Union of Ont

.