HOME
The Info List - Portuguese Malacca


--- Advertisement ---



Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
was the territory of Malacca
Malacca
that, for 130 years (1511–1641), was a Portuguese colony.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The capture of Malacca 1.2 A Portuguese port in a hostile region 1.3 Chinese military retaliation against Portugal 1.4 Chinese boycott and counterattacks 1.5 Dutch conquest and the end of Portuguese Malacca

2 Fortaleza de Malaca

2.1 Gateways 2.2 Destruction

3 Malacca
Malacca
Town during the Portuguese Era

3.1 Tranqueira 3.2 Yler 3.3 Sabba

4 Portuguese immigration 5 Portuguese administration of Malacca 6 See also 7 References

History[edit] According to the 16th-century Portuguese historian Emanuel Godinho de Erédia, the site of the old city of Malacca
Malacca
was named after the Phyllanthus Emblica
Phyllanthus Emblica
( Malacca
Malacca
Tree or Pokok Melaka), fruit-bearing trees along the banks of a river called Airlele (Ayer Leleh). The Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China (present-day Bukit Cina). Eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri (i.e. Parameswara) the first King of Malacca
Malacca
in 1411. The capture of Malacca[edit] Further information: Capture of Malacca
Malacca
(1511) The news of Malacca's wealth attracted the attention of Manuel I, King of Portugal
Portugal
and he sent Admiral Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
to find Malacca, to make a trade compact with its ruler as Portugal's representative east of India. The first European to reach Malacca
Malacca
and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca
Malacca
in 1509. Although he was initially well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah, trouble however quickly ensued.[1] The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa
Goa
Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa.[2] The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca.[1] In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
set sail from Goa
Goa
to Malacca
Malacca
with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[1] The Viceroy made a number of demands—one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city.[2] The Sultan refused all the demands. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca
Malacca
fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad also weighed down the Malaccan side.[1] Following the defeat of the Malacca
Malacca
Sultanate on 15 August 1511 in the capture of Malacca, Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
sought to erect a permanent form of fortification in anticipation of the counterattacks by Sultan Mahmud. A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, on the former site of the Sultan's palace. Albuquerque remained in Malacca
Malacca
until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack.[1] Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. A Portuguese port in a hostile region[edit]

"Construction of Malacca
Malacca
City: Intramuros Anno 1604" by Manuel Godinho de Eredia

As the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. Also, with hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy, Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
faced severe hostility. They endured years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital. He rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java
Java
who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist. Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan Island
Bintan Island
and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca
Malacca
caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca
Malacca
was launched, however once again failed with the cost of the Demak Sultan's life. He was later remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed (the Java
Java
Sea) to North (Malay Peninsula). The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Riau, Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south. His realm was the Johor
Johor
Sultanate, the successor of Malacca. Several attempts to remove Malacca
Malacca
from Portuguese rule were made by the Sultan of Johor. A request sent to Java
Java
in 1550 resulted in Queen Kalinyamat, the regent of Jepara, sending 4,000 soldiers aboard 40 ships to meet the Johor
Johor
sultan's request to take Malacca. The Jepara troops later joined forces with the Malay alliance and managed to assemble around 200 warships for the upcoming assault. The combined forces attacked from the north and captured most of Malacca, but the Portuguese managed to retaliate and force back the invading forces. The Malay alliance troops were thrown back to the sea, while the Jepara
Jepara
troops remained on shore. Only after their leaders were slain did the Jepara
Jepara
troops withdraw. The battle continued on the beach and in the sea resulting in more than 2,000 Jepara
Jepara
soldiers being killed. A storm stranded two Jepara
Jepara
ships on the shore of Malacca, and they fell prey to the Portuguese. Fewer than half of the Jepara
Jepara
soldiers managed to leave Malacca. In 1567, Prince Husain Ali I Riayat Syah from the Sultanate of Aceh launched a naval attack to oust the Portuguese from Malacca, but this once again ended in failure. In 1574 a combined attack from Aceh Sultanate and Javanese Jepara
Jepara
tried again to capture Malacca
Malacca
from the Portuguese, but ended in failure due to poor coordination. Competition from other ports such as Johor
Johor
saw Asian traders bypass Malacca
Malacca
and the city began to decline as a trading port.[3] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the Asian trade network. Rather than a centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange, or a Malay state to police the Strait of Malacca
Malacca
that made it safe for commercial traffic, trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.[3] Chinese military retaliation against Portugal[edit]

Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
tin coins of King Emmanuel (1495-1521) and John III (1521-1557) period were discovered during an excavation near the Malacca
Malacca
River mouth by W. Edgerton, Resident Councilor of Malacca
Malacca
in 1900.

Further information: Fernão Pires de Andrade
Fernão Pires de Andrade
and Tomé Pires The Malay Malacca
Malacca
Sultanate was a tributary state and ally to Ming Dynasty China. When Portugal
Portugal
conquered Malacca
Malacca
in 1511, the Chinese responded with violent force against the Portuguese. Following the attack, the Chinese refused to accept a Portuguese embassy.[4] The Chinese Imperial Government imprisoned and executed multiple Portuguese diplomatic envoys after torturing them in Guangzhou. A Malaccan envoy had informed the Chinese of the Portuguese seizure of Malacca, which the Chinese responded to with hostility toward the Portuguese. The Malaccan envoy told the Chinese of the deception the Portuguese used, disguising plans for conquering territory as mere trading activities, and told his tale of deprivations at the hands of the Portuguese.[5] Malacca
Malacca
was under Chinese protection and the Portuguese invasion angered the Chinese.[6] Due to the Malaccan Sultan lodging a complaint against the Portuguese invasion to the Chinese Emperor, the Portuguese were greeted with hostility from the Chinese when they arrived in China.[7] The Sultan's complaint caused "a great deal of trouble" to Portuguese in China.[8] The Chinese were very "unwelcoming" to the Portuguese.[9] The Malaccan Sultan, based in Bintan after fleeing Malacca, sent a message to the Chinese, which combined with Portuguese banditry and violent activity in China, led the Chinese authorities to execute 23 Portuguese and torture the rest of them in jails. After the Portuguese set up posts for trading in China and committed piratical activities and raids in China, the Chinese responded with the complete extermination of the Portuguese in Ningbo
Ningbo
and Quanzhou[10] Pires, a Portuguese trade envoy, was among those who died in the Chinese dungeons.[11] However, with gradual improvement of relations and aid given against the Wokou
Wokou
pirates along China's shores, by 1557 Ming China finally agreed to allow the Portuguese to settle at Macau
Macau
in a new Portuguese trade colony.[12] The Malay Sultanate of Johor
Johor
also improved relations with the Portuguese and fought alongside them against the Aceh Sultanate. Chinese boycott and counterattacks[edit] Chinese traders boycotted Malacca
Malacca
after it fell under Portuguese control, some Chinese in Java
Java
assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city from Portugal
Portugal
using ships. The Java
Java
Chinese participation in retaking Malacca
Malacca
was recorded in "The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon".[13] The Chinese traders did business with the Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese.[14] Dutch conquest and the end of Portuguese Malacca[edit] Further information: Battle of Malacca
Malacca
(1641) By the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(Dutch: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC) began contesting Portuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformed Malacca
Malacca
into an impregnable fortress, the Fortaleza de Malaca, controlling access to the sea lanes of the Straits of Malacca
Malacca
and the spice trade there. The Dutch started by launching small incursions and skirmishes against the Portuguese. The first serious attempt was the siege of Malacca
Malacca
in 1606 by the third VOC fleet from Holland with eleven ships, commanded by Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge
Cornelis Matelief de Jonge
that led to the naval battle of Cape Rachado. Although the Dutch were routed, the Portuguese fleet of Martim Afonso de Castro, the Viceroy of Goa, suffered heavier casualties and the battle rallied the forces of the Sultanate of Johor
Johor
into an alliance with the Dutch and later on with the Aceh Sultanate. Around that same time period, the Sultanate of Aceh
Sultanate of Aceh
had grown into a regional power with a formidable naval force and regarded Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
as potential threat. In 1629, Iskandar Muda
Iskandar Muda
of the Aceh Sultanate sent several hundred ships to attack Malacca, but the mission was a devastating failure. According to Portuguese sources, all of his ships were destroyed and lost some 19,000 men in the process. The Dutch with their local allies assaulted and finally wrested Malacca
Malacca
from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch-Johor-Aceh efforts effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, reducing their influence in the archipelago. The Dutch settled in the city as Dutch Malacca, however the Dutch had no intention to make Malacca
Malacca
their main base, and concentrated on building Batavia (today Jakarta) as their headquarters in the orient instead. The Portuguese ports in the spice-producing areas of Mollucas also fell to the Dutch in the following years. With these conquests, the last Portuguese colonies in Asia remained confined to Portuguese Timor, Goa, Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
in Portuguese India
Portuguese India
and Macau
Macau
until the 20th century. Fortaleza de Malaca[edit]

Present day Porta de Santiago.

The early core of the fortress system was a quadrilateral tower called Fortaleza de Malaca. Measurement was given as 10 fathoms per side with a height of 40 fathoms. It was constructed at the foot of the fortress hill, next to the sea. To its east was constructed a circular wall of mortar and stone with a well in the middle of the enclosure. Over the years, constructions began to fully fortify the fortress hill. The pentagonal system began at the farthest point of the cape near south east of the river mouth, towards the west of the Fortaleza. At this point two ramparts were built at right angles to each other lining the shores. The one running northward toward the river mouth was 130 fathoms in length to the bastion of São Pedro while the other one ran for 75 fathoms to the east, curving inshore, ending at the gate and bastion of Santiago. From the bastion of São Pedro the rampart turned north east 150 fathoms past the Custom House Terrace gateway ending at the northernmost point of the fortress, the bastion of São Domingos. From the gateway of São Domingos, an earth rampart ran south-easterly for 100 fathoms ending at the bastion of the Madre de Deus. From here, beginning at the gate of Santo António, past the bastion of the Virgins, the rampart ended at the gateway of Santiago. Overall the city enclosure was 655 fathoms and 10 palms (short) of a fathom. Gateways[edit] Four gateways were built for the city;

Porta de Santiago The gateway of the Custom House Terrace Porta de São Domingos Porta de Santo António

Of these four gateways only two were in common use and open to traffic: the Gate of Santo António linking to the suburb of Yler and the western gate at the Custom House Terrace, giving access to Tranqueira and its bazaar. Destruction[edit] After almost 300 years of existence, in 1806, the British, unwilling to maintain the fortress and wary of letting other European powers taking control of it, ordered its slow destruction. The fort was almost totally demolished but for the timely intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles
Stamford Raffles
visiting Malacca
Malacca
in 1810. The only remnants of the earliest Portuguese fortress in Southeast Asia is the Porta de Santiago, now known as the A Famosa. Malacca
Malacca
Town during the Portuguese Era[edit] Outside of the fortified town centre lie the three suburbs of Malacca. The suburb of Upe (Upih), generally known as Tranqueira (modern day Tengkera) from the rampart of the fortress. The other two suburb were Yler (Hilir) or Tanjonpacer (Tanjung Pasir) and the suburb of Sabba. Tranqueira[edit]

The Fort of Tranquera at Malacca
Malacca
by Carl Friedrich Reimer, 1786.

Tranqueira was the most important suburb of Malacca. The suburb was rectangular in shape, with a northern walled boundary, the straits of Malacca
Malacca
to the south and the river of Malacca
Malacca
(Rio de Malaca) and the fortaleza's wall to the east. It was the main residential quarters of the city. However, in war, the residents of the quarters would be evacuated to the fortress. Tranqueira was divided into a further two parishes, São Tomé and São Estêvão. The parish of S.Tomé was called Campon Chelim (Malay: Kampung Keling). It was described that this area was populated by the Chelis of Choromandel. The other suburb of São Estêvão was also called Campon China (Kampung Cina). Erédia described the houses as made of timber but roofed by tiles. A stone bridge with sentry crosses the river Malacca
Malacca
to provide access to the Malacca
Malacca
Fortress via the eastern Custome House Terrace. The centre of trade of the city was also located in Tranqueira near the beach on the mouth of the river called the Bazaar of the Jaos (Jowo/Jawa i.e. Javanese). In the present day, this part of the city is called Tengkera. Yler[edit] The district of Yler (Hilir) roughly covered Buquet China (Bukit Cina) and the south-eastern coastal area. The Well of Buquet China was one of the most important water sources for the community. Notable landmarks included the Church of the Madre De Deus and the Convent of the Capuchins of São Francisco. Other notable landmarks included Buquetpiatto (Bukit Piatu). The boundaries of this unwalled suburb were said to extend as far as Buquetpipi and Tanjonpacer. Tanjonpacer (Malay: Tanjung Pasir) was later renamed Ujong Pasir. A community descended from Portuguese settlers is still located here in present-day Malacca. However, this suburb of Yler is now known as Banda Hilir. Modern land reclamations (for the purpose of building the commercial district of Melaka Raya) have, however, denied Banda Hilir the access to the sea that it formerly had. Sabba[edit] The houses of this suburb were built along the edges of the river. Some of the original Muslim Malay inhabitants of Malacca
Malacca
lived in the swamps of Nypeiras tree, where they were known to make Nypa (Nipah) wine by distillation for trade. This suburb was considered the most rural, being a transition to the Malacca
Malacca
hinterland, where timber and charcoal traffic passed through into the city. Several Christian parishes also lay outside the city along the river; São Lázaro, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Hope. While Muslim Malays inhabited the farmlands deeper into the hinterland. In later periods of Dutch, British and modern day Malacca, the name of Sabba was made obsolete. However, its area encompassed parts of what is now Banda Kaba, Bunga Raya and Kampung Jawa; and the modern city centre of Malacca Portuguese immigration[edit] The Portuguese also shipped over many Orfãs d'El-Rei to Portuguese colonies overseas in Africa and India, and also to Portuguese Malacca. Orfãs d'El-Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry Portuguese settlers. Portuguese administration of Malacca[edit] Malacca
Malacca
was administered by a Governor (a Captain-Major), who was appointed for a term of three-years, as well as a Bishop and church dignitaries representing the Episcopal See, municipal officers, Royal Officials for finance and justice and a local native Bendahara
Bendahara
to administer the native Muslims and foreigners under the Portuguese jurisdiction.

Captains-Major of Malacca
Malacca
(1512–1641)

Captains-major From Until

Rui de Brito Patalim 1512 1514

Jorge de Albuquerque (1st time) 1514 1516

Jorge de Brito 1516 1517

Nuno Vaz Pereira 1517 1518

Afonso Lopes da Costa 1518 1519

Garcia de Sá
Garcia de Sá
(1st time) 1519 1521

Jorge de Albuquerque (2nd time) 1521 1525

Pero de Mascarenhas 1525 1526

Jorge Cabral 1526 1528

Pero de Faria 1528 1529

See also[edit]

Portuguese Settlement, Malacca Portuguese Well

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 23. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.  ^ a b Mohd Fawzi bin Mohd Basri; Mohd Fo'ad bin Sakdan; Azami bin Man (2002). Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah Sejarah Tingkatan 1. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. p. 95. ISBN 983-62-7410-3.  ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300, 2nd Edition. London: Macmillan. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.  ^ Kenneth Warren Chase (2003). Firearms: a global history to 1700 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-521-82274-2. Retrieved 14 December 2011. The Portuguese spent several years trying to establish formal relations with China, but Melaka had been part of the Chinese tributary system, and the Chinese had found out about the Portuguese attack, making them suspicious. The embassy was formally rejected in 1521.  ^ Nigel Cameron (1976). Barbarians and mandarins: thirteen centuries of Western travelers in China. Volume 681 of A phoenix book (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-226-09229-1. Retrieved 18 July 2011. envoy, had most effectively poured out his tale of woe, of deprivation at the hands of the Portuguese in Malacca; and he had backed up the tale with others concerning the reprehensible Portuguese methods in the Moluccas, making the case (quite truthfully) that European trading visits were no more than the prelude to annexation of territory. With the tiny sea power at this time available to the Chinese  ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau
Macau
History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 11. ISBN 988-8028-54-5. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Pires came as an ambassador to Beijing to negotiate trade terms and settlements with China. He did make it to Beijing, but the mission failed because first, while Pires was in Beijing, the dethroned Sultan of Malacca
Malacca
also sent an envoy to Beijing to complain to the emperor about the Portuguese attack and conquest of Malacca. Malacca
Malacca
was part of China's suzerainty when the Portuguese took it. The Chinese were apparently not happy with what the Portuguese did there.  ^ Ahmad Ibrahim; Sharon Siddique; Yasmin Hussain, eds. (1985). Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 11. ISBN 9971-988-08-9. Retrieved 18 July 2011. in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain.  ^ John Horace Parry (June 1, 1981). The discovery of the sea. University of California Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-520-04237-9. Retrieved 14 December 2011. In 1511 ... Alboquerque himself sailed ... to attack Malacca
Malacca
... The Sultan of Malacca
Malacca
fled down the coast, to establish himself in the marshes of Johore, whence he sent petitions for redress to his remote suzerain, the Chinese Emperor. These petitions later caused the Portuguese, in their efforts to gain admission to trade at Canton, a great deal of trouble  ^ John Horace Parry (June 1, 1981). The discovery of the sea. University of California Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-520-04237-9. Retrieved 14 December 2011. When the Portuguese tried to penetrate, in their own ships, to Canton itself, their reception by the Chinese authorities—understandably, in view of their reputation at Malacca—was unwelcoming, and several decades elapsed before they secured a tolerated toehold at Macao.  ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 18 July 2011. The inexusable behavior of the Portuguese, combined with the ill-chosen language of the letters which Pires presented to the celestial emperor, supplemented by a warning from the Malay sultan of Bintan, persuaded the Chinese that Pires was indeed up to no good  ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1–2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. Retrieved 18 July 2011. The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton  ^ Wills, John E., Jr. (1998). "Relations with Maritime Europe, 1514–1662," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 2, 333–375. Edited by Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank, and Albert Feuerwerker. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24333-5, 343-344. ^ C. Guillot; Denys Lombard; Roderich Ptak, eds. (1998). From the Mediterranean to the China Sea: miscellaneous notes. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 179. ISBN 3-447-04098-X. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Chinese authors have argued, the Malacca-Chinese were not treated too favorably by the Portuguese ... it is generally true that Chinese ships tended to avoid Malacca
Malacca
after 1511, sailing to other ports instead. Presumably these ports were mainly on the east coast of the Malayan peninsula and on Sumatra. Johore, in the deep south of the peninsula, was another place where many Chinese went ... After 1511, many Chinese who were Muslims sided with other Islamic traders against the Portuguese; according to The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon, Chinese settlers living on northern Java
Java
even became involved in counter-attacks on Malacca. Javanese vessels were indeed sent out but suffered a disastrous defeat. Demak and Japara alone lost more than seventy sail.  ^ Peter Borschberg, National University of Singapore. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Fundação Oriente (2004). Peter Borschberg, ed. Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka area and adjacent regions (16th to 18th century). Volume 14 of South China and maritime Asia (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 12. ISBN 3-447-05107-8. Retrieved 14 December 2011. still others withdrew to continue business with the Javanese, Malays and Gujaratis...When the Islamic world considered counter-attacks against Portuguese Melaka, some Chinese residents may have provided ships and capital. These Chinese had their roots either in Fujian, or else may have been of Muslim descent. This group may have consisted of small factions that fled Champa after the crisis of 1471. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

v t e

Malaysia articles

History

Timeline Prehistoric Portuguese Malacca Dutch Malacca British Malaya

Straits Settlements Federated Malay States Unfederated Malay States

British Borneo

Kingdom of Sarawak Crown Colony
Colony
of Labuan North Borneo

Japanese occupation of Malaya
Japanese occupation of Malaya
/ Borneo British Military Administration (Malaya / Borneo) Malayan Union Federation of Malaya

Independence

Malayan Emergency Crown Colony
Colony
of Singapore

Self-government

Crown Colony
Colony
of Sarawak

Self-government

Crown Colony
Colony
of North Borneo

Self-government

Malaysia
Malaysia
Agreement 1962 Singapore referendum Cobbold Commission

18-point agreement 20-point agreement

Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation Sarawak Communist Insurgency Proclamation

Malaysia
Malaysia
Day

PAP–UMNO relations 1964 race riots Singapore in Malaysia Second Malayan Emergency 13 May Incident 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis 1997 Asian financial crisis

Geography

Cities, towns and villages Districts Divisions East Malaysia Environment Fauna Flora World Heritage Sites Islands Lakes Mountains National parks Peninsular Malaysia Rivers States

Politics

Cabinet Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Judiciary Law Law enforcement Military Monarchies Parliament Political parties Prime Minister State legislative assemblies Head of state

Economy

Agriculture Banks

Central bank

Energy Federal budget Ringgit (currency) States by GDP Science and technology Stock exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transport Unions

Society

Crime Demographics

Malaysians

Education

Post-secondary Universities

Ethnic groups Health Income disparity Languages Poverty Religion Water supply and sanitation Women International rankings

Culture

Architecture Cinema Cuisine Folklore

Mythology

Literature Malay lordship Media Music Names Public holidays Sport

Symbols

Animal Anthem Emblem Flag Flower Pledge

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese disc

.