The Info List - Portuguese Ceylon

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Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Portuguese: Ceilão Português, Sinhala: පෘතුගීසි ලංකාව Puruthugisi Lankawa) was the control of the Kingdom of Kotte
Kingdom of Kotte
by the Portuguese Empire, in present-day Sri Lanka, after the country's Crisis of the Sixteenth Century and into the Kandyan period. The Portuguese presence in the island lasted from 1505 to 1658. Their arrival was largely accidental, as they sought control of commerce, rather than territory. Their appearance coincided with the political upheaval of the Wijayaba Kollaya, and they were drawn into the internal politics of the island as they sought to establish control over the lucrative cinnamon trade that originated there. The Portuguese used these internal divisions to their advantage during the Sinhalese–Portuguese War. Direct Portuguese rule inside the island did not begin until after the death of Dharmapala of Kotte, who died without an heir. He bequeathed the Kingdom of Kotte
Kingdom of Kotte
to the Portuguese monarch in 1580.[1] That allowed the Portuguese sufficient claim to the Kingdom of Kotte
Kingdom of Kotte
upon Dharmapala's death in 1597. Portuguese rule began with much resistance by the local population.[2] Eventually, the Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
sought help from the Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
in their efforts to rid the island of the Portuguese. The Dutch Empire initially entered into agreement with the Kingdom of Kandy. After the collapse of the Iberian economy in 1627, the Dutch–Portuguese War saw the Dutch conquest of most of Portugal's Asian colonies. Eventually, Portugal's Ceylonese territories were ceded to the Netherlands. Nevertheless, elements of Portuguese culture from this colonial period remain to this day, in Sri Lanka.

Part of a series on the

History of Kandy

Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy

Founding Sinhalese–Portuguese War Kandyan Treaty of 1638 Portuguese Ceylon Treaty of Batticaloa Kandyan Wars

Colonial Kandy

Kandyan Convention Matale Rebellion South East Asia Command


Modern Kandy

See also

An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon List of Kandyan monarchs History of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

v t e


1 History

1.1 Jaffna kingdom–Portuguese War 1.2 Sinhalese–Portuguese War 1.3 Portuguese rule 1.4 Dutch–Portuguese War

2 Administration

2.1 Portuguese Captains (1518–1551) 2.2 Portuguese Captain-majors (1551–1594) 2.3 Portuguese Captain-generals (1594–1658)

3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

History[edit] The first contact between Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Portuguese happened in 1505-6. It was largely accidental and it wasn't until 12 years later that the Portuguese sought to establish a fortified trading settlement.[3] Jaffna kingdom–Portuguese War[edit] Main article: Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom Sinhalese–Portuguese War[edit] Main article: Sinhalese–Portuguese War Portuguese rule[edit] Direct Portuguese rule began after the death of Dharmapala of Kotte who bequeathed the Kingdom of Kotte
Kingdom of Kotte
to the Portuguese monarch.[4] By 1600 the Portuguese had consolidated the main centers of rebellion, the Kelani and Kalu ganga basins, leaving the border regions to Sinhalese resistance.[5]


In the two decades after the establishment of Portuguese rule there were four major revolts:[6]

Kangara arachchi Revolt, 1603 1st Kuruvita rala Revolt, 1603 2nd Kuruvita rala Revolt, 1616–19 Nikapitiye Bandara Revolt, 1616–17

Dutch–Portuguese War[edit] Main article: Dutch–Portuguese War Administration[edit] Portuguese Captains (1518–1551)[edit] Main article: List of Captains of Portuguese Ceylon Portuguese Captain-majors (1551–1594)[edit] Main article: List of Captain-majors of Portuguese Ceylon Portuguese Captain-generals (1594–1658)[edit] Main article: List of Governors of Portuguese Ceylon See also[edit]

Dutch Ceylon British Ceylon


^ De Silva (1981), p. 114 ^ De Silva (1981), p. 100 ^ De Silva (1981), p. 100 ^ De Silva (1981), p. 114 ^ De Silva (1981), p. 115 ^ De Silva (1981), p. 114


De Silva, K. M. (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. India: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04320-0.  C. Gaston Pereira, Kandy
fights the Portuguese. Sri Lanka: Vijitha Yapa Publications, July 2007. ISBN 978-955-1266-77-6 Channa Wicremasekera, Kandy
at War. Sri Lanka: Vijitha Yapa Publications, 2004. ISBN 955-8095-52-4 Michael Roberts, Sinhala Consciousness in the Kandyan Period. Sri Lanka: Vijitha Yapa Publications, 2004. ISBN 955-8095-31-1, Abeysinghe, Tikiri (2005). Jaffna under the Portuguese. Colombo: Stamford Lake. p. 66. ISBN 955-1131-70-1.  Kunarasa, K (2003). The Jaffna Dynasty. Johor Bahru: Dynasty of Jaffna King’s Historical Society. p. 122. ISBN 955-8455-00-8.  Gnanaprakasar, Swamy (2003). A Critical History of Jaffna (review of Yalpana Vaipava Malai). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 122. ISBN 81-206-1686-3.  Senaka Weeraratna, Repression of Buddhism in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
by the Portuguese (1505–1658)

External links[edit]

Ceylon and the Portuguese, 1505–1658 (1920). Author: Pieris, P. E. (Paulus Edward), 1874-; Naish, Richard Bryant, 1891- Subject: Sri Lanka -- History Portuguese History in Ceylon

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Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

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 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

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 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

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17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

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1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
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