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Portuguese Angola
Angola
refers to Angola
Angola
during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa. In the same context, it is also occasionally referred to as Portuguese West Africa. Initially ruling along the coast and engaging in military conflicts with the Kingdom of Kongo, in the 18th century Portugal
Portugal
gradually managed to colonise the interior highlands, however full control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century, when agreements with other European powers during the Scramble for Africa
Scramble for Africa
fixed the colony's interior borders. In 1975, Portuguese Angola
Angola
became the independent People's Republic of Angola.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Colony

1.1.1 The beginning of the war 1.1.2 Campaign in the Eastern Front

1.2 Federated state 1.3 Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
and independence

2 Government 3 Geography 4 Economy 5 Education 6 Sports 7 Famous people 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography

History[edit] The history of Portuguese presence on the territory of contemporary Angola
Angola
lasted from the arrival of the explorer Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
in 1484[1] until the decolonization of the territory in 1975. During these five centuries, several entirely different situations have to be distinguished. Colony[edit]

Queen Nzinga
Queen Nzinga
in peace negotiations with the Portuguese governor in Luanda, 1657.

Main article: Colonial history of Angola When Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
and other explorers reached the Kongo Kingdom
Kongo Kingdom
at the end of the 15th century, Angola
Angola
as such did not exist. Its present territory comprised a number of separate peoples, some organized as kingdoms or tribal federations of varying sizes. The Portuguese were interested in trade, principally in slaves. They therefore maintained a peaceful and mutually profitable relationship with the rulers and nobles of the Kongo Kingdom, whom they Christianized and taught Portuguese, allowing them a share of the benefits from the slave trade. They established small trading posts on the lower Congo, in the area of the present Democratic Republic. A more important trading settlement on the Atlantic coast was erected at Soyo
Soyo
in the territory of the Kongo Kingdom. It is now Angola's northernmost town, apart from the Cabinda exclave. In 1575, the settlement of Luanda
Luanda
was established on the coast south of the Kongo Kingdom, and in the 17th century the settlement of Benguela, even farther to the south. From 1580 to the 1820s, well over a million people from present-day Angola
Angola
were exported as slaves to the so-called New World, mainly to Brazil, but also to North America.[2] According to Oliver and Atmore, "for 200 years, the colony of Angola
Angola
developed essentially as a gigantic slave-trading enterprise".[3] Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
sailors, explorers, soldiers and merchants had a long-standing policy of conquest and establishment of military and trading outposts in Africa
Africa
with the conquest of Muslim-ruled Ceuta
Ceuta
in 1415 and the establishment of bases in present-day Morocco
Morocco
and the Gulf of Guinea. The Portuguese had Catholic beliefs and their military expeditions included from the very beginning the conversion of foreign peoples. In the 17th century, conflicting economic interests led to a military confrontation with the Kongo Kingdom. Portugal
Portugal
defeated the Kongo Kingdom in the Battle of Mbwila on October 29, 1665, but suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Kitombo when they tried to invade Kongo in 1670. Control of most of the central highlands was achieved in the 18th century. Further reaching attempts at conquering the interior were undertaken in the 19th century [4] However, full Portuguese administrative control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century. In 1884, the United Kingdom, which up to that time refused to acknowledge that Portugal
Portugal
possessed territorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognising Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo. However, the treaty, meeting with opposition there and in Germany, was not ratified. Agreements concluded with the Congo Free State, the German Empire
German Empire
and France
France
in 1885-1886 fixed the limits of the province, except in the south-east, where the frontier between Barotseland
Barotseland
(north-west Rhodesia) and Angola
Angola
was determined by an Anglo-Portuguese agreement of 1891 and the arbitration award of the King of Italy
King of Italy
in 1905.[1] During the period of Portuguese colonial rule of Angola, cities, towns and trading posts were founded, railroads were opened, ports were built, and a Westernised
Westernised
society was being gradually developed, despite the deep traditional tribal heritage in Angola
Angola
which the minority European rulers were neither willing nor interested in eradicating. Since the 1920s, Portugal's administration showed an increasing interest in developing Angola's economy and social infrastructure.[5] The beginning of the war[edit] Main articles: Angolan War of Independence
Angolan War of Independence
and Portuguese Colonial War In 1951, the Portuguese Colony
Colony
of Angola
Angola
became an overseas province of Portugal. In the late 1950s the National Front for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
(FNLA) and the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
(MPLA) began to organize strategies and action plans to fight Portuguese rule and the remunerated system which affected many of the native African people from the countryside, who were relocated from their homes and made to perform compulsory work, almost always unskilled hard labor, in an environment of economic boom.[6] Organized guerrilla warfare began in 1961, the same year that a law was passed to improve the working conditions of the largely unskilled native workforce, which was demanding more rights. In 1961, the Portuguese government indeed abolished a number of basic legal provisions which discriminated against black people, like the Estatuto do Indigenato (Decree-Law 43: 893 of September 6, 1961). However, the conflict, conversely known as the Colonial War or the War of Liberation, erupted in the North of the territory when UPA rebels based in Republic of the Congo massacred both white and black civilians in surprise attacks in the countryside. After visiting the United Nations, Holden Roberto returned to Kinshasa
Kinshasa
and organized Bakongo
Bakongo
militants.[7]

Portuguese soldiers in Angola

Holden Roberto
Holden Roberto
launched an incursion into Angola
Angola
on March 15, 1961, leading 4,000 to 5,000 militants. His forces took farms, government outposts, and trading centers, killing everyone they encountered. At least 1,000 whites and an unknown number of blacks were killed.[8] Commenting on the incursion, Roberto said, "this time the slaves did not cower". They massacred everything.[9] The effective military in Angola
Angola
were composed of approximately 6,500 men: 5,000 black Africans and 1,500 white Europeans sent from Portugal. After these events the Portuguese Government, under the dictatorial Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar
António de Oliveira Salazar
and later Marcelo Caetano, sent thousands of troops from Europe to perform counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. In 1963 Holden Roberto
Holden Roberto
established the Revolutionary Government of Angola
Angola
in Exile (Portuguese: Governo revolucionário de Angola
Angola
no exílio, GRAE) in Kinshasa
Kinshasa
in an attempt to claim on the international scene the sole representation of forces fighting Portuguese rule in Angola. The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
Angola
(UNITA) also started pro-independence guerrilla operations in 1966. Despite the overall military superiority of the Portuguese Army in the Angolan theatre, the independence guerrilla movements were never fully defeated. However, by 1972, after the Frente Leste, a successful military campaign in the East of Angola, complemented by a pragmatic hearts and minds policy, the conflict in Angola
Angola
was effectively won for the Portuguese. From 1966 to 1970, the pro-independence guerrilla movement MPLA expanded their previously-limited insurgency operations to the East of Angola. This vast countryside area was far away from the main urban centers and close to foreign countries where the guerrillas were able to take shelter. The UNITA, a smaller pro-independence guerrilla organization established in the East, supported the MPLA. Until 1970, the combined guerrilla forces of MPLA
MPLA
and UNITA
UNITA
in the East Front were successful in pressuring Portuguese Armed Forces
Portuguese Armed Forces
(FAP) in the area to the point that the guerrillas were able to cross the Cuanza River and could threaten the territory of Bié, which included an important urban center in the agricultural, commercial and industrial town of Silva Porto. In 1970, the guerrilla movement decided to reinforce the Eastern Front by relocating troops and armament from the North to the East. Campaign in the Eastern Front[edit] Main article: Frente Leste In 1971, the FAP started a successful counter-insurgency military campaign that expelled the three guerrilla movements operating in the East to beyond the frontiers of Angola. The last guerrillas lost hundreds of soldiers and left tons of equipment behind, disbanding chaotically to neighboring countries or in some cases, joining or surrendering to the Portuguese. In order to gain the confidence of the local rural populations, and to create conditions for their permanent and productive settlement in the region, the Portuguese authorities organized massive vaccination campaigns, medical check-ups, and water, sanitation and alimentary infrastructure as a way to better contribute to the economic and social development of the people and dissociate the population from the guerrillas and their influence. On 31 December 1972, the Development Plan of the East (Plano de Desenvolvimento do Leste) included in its first stage, 466 development enterprises (150 were completed and 316 were being built). Nineteen health centers had been built and 26 were being constructed. 51 new schools were operating and 82 were being constructed[10][11]

Portuguese Colonial War

However, the Portuguese authorities were unable to defeat the guerrillas as a whole during the Portuguese Colonial War, particularly in Portuguese Guinea, and suffered heavy casualties in the 13 years of conflict. Throughout the war Portugal
Portugal
faced increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions from most of the international community. The war was becoming even more unpopular in Portuguese society due to its length and costs, the worsening of diplomatic relations with other United Nations
United Nations
members, and the role it played as a factor in the perpetuation of the Estado Novo regime. It was this escalation that would lead directly to the mutiny of members of the FAP in the Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
of 1974 – an event that would lead to the independence of all of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa. Federated state[edit] In June 1972, the Portuguese National Assembly approved a new version of its Organic Law on Overseas Territories, in order to grant its African overseas territories a wider political autonomy and to tone down the increasing dissent both internally and abroad. It changed Angola's status from an overseas province to an “autonomous state” with authority over some internal affairs, while Portugal
Portugal
was to retain responsibility for defense and foreign relations. However, the intent was by no means to grant Angolan independence, but was instead to "win the hearts and minds" of the Angolans, convincing them to remain permanently a part of an intercontinental Portugal. Renaming Angola
Angola
(like Mozambique) in 1972 "Estado" (state) was part of an apparent effort to give the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
a sort of federal structure, conferring some degree of autonomy to the "states". In fact, the structural changes and increase in autonomy were extremely limited. The government of the "State of Angola" was the same as the old provincial government, except for some cosmetic changes to personnel and titles. As in Portugal
Portugal
itself, the government of the "State of Angola" was entirely composed of people aligned with the Estado Novo regime's establishment. While these changes were taking place, a few guerrilla nuclei stayed active inside the territory, and continued to campaign outside of Angola
Angola
against Portuguese rule. The idea of having the independence movements take part in the political structure of the revamped territory's organization was absolutely unthinkable (on both sides).[12] Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
and independence[edit] Main articles: Carnation Revolution, Alvor Agreement, and People's Republic of Angola On April 25, 1974, the Portuguese government
Portuguese government
of the Estado Novo regime under Marcelo Caetano, the corporatist and authoritarian regime established by António de Oliveira Salazar
António de Oliveira Salazar
that had ruled Portugal since the 1930s, was overthrown in the Carnation Revolution, a military uprising in Lisbon. In May of that year the new revolutionary government of Portugal
Portugal
proclaimed a truce with the pro-independence African guerrillas in an effort to promote peace talks and independence.[13] The military-led coup returned democracy to Portugal, ending the unpopular Colonial War where thousands of Portuguese soldiers had been conscripted into military service, and replacing the authoritarian Estado Novo (New State) regime and its secret police which repressed elemental civil liberties and political freedoms. It started as a professional class[14] protest of Portuguese Armed Forces captains against the 1973 decree law Dec. Lei n.o 353/73.[15][16] These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens, overwhelmingly white but some mestiço (mixed race) or black, from Portugal's African territories, creating hundreds of thousands destitute refugees — the retornados.[17] Angola
Angola
became a sovereign state on 11 November 1975 in accordance with the Alvor Agreement and the newly independent country was proclaimed the People's Republic of Angola. Government[edit]

Proposed flag for Portuguese Angola.

In the 20th century, Portuguese Angola
Angola
was subject to the Estado Novo regime. In 1951, the Portuguese authorities changed the statute of the territory from Colony
Colony
to an Overseas Province of Portugal. Legally, the territory was as much a part of Portugal
Portugal
as Lisbon
Lisbon
but as an overseas province enjoyed special derogations to account for its distance from Europe. Most members of the government of Angola
Angola
were from Portugal, but a few were Africans. Nearly all members of the bureaucracy were from Portugal, as most Africans did not have the necessary qualifications to obtain positions. The government of Angola, as it was in Portugal, was highly centralized. Power was concentrated in the executive branch, and all elections where they occurred were carried out using indirect methods. From the Prime Minister's office in Lisbon, authority extended down to the most remote posts of Angola
Angola
through a rigid chain of command. The authority of the government of Angola
Angola
was residual, primarily limited to implementing policies already decided in Europe. In 1967, Angola also sent a number of delegates to the National Assembly in Lisbon. The highest official in the province was the governor-general, appointed by the Portuguese cabinet on recommendation of the Overseas Minister. The governor-general had both executive and legislative authority. A Government Council advised the governor-general in the running of the province. The functional cabinet consisted of five secretaries appointed by the Overseas Minister on the advice of the governor. A Legislative Council had limited powers and its main activity was approving the provincial budget. Finally, an Economic and Social Council had to be consulted on all draft legislation, and the governor-general had to justify his decision to Lisbon
Lisbon
if he ignored its advice. In 1972, the Portuguese National Assembly changed Angola's status from an overseas province to an “autonomous state” with authority over some internal affairs; Portugal
Portugal
was to retain responsibility for defense and foreign relations. Elections were held in Angola
Angola
for a legislative assembly in 1973.[13] Geography[edit] Portuguese Angola
Angola
was a territory covering 1,246,700 km², an area greater than France
France
and Spain
Spain
put together. It had 5,198 km of terrestrial borders and a coastline with 1,600 km. Its geography was diverse. From the coastal plain, ranging in width from 25 kilometres in the south to 100-200 kilometers in the north, the land rises in stages towards the high inland plateau covering almost two-thirds of the country, with an average altitude of between 1,200 and 1,600 metres. Angola's two highest peaks were located in these central highlands. They were Moco Mountain
Moco Mountain
(2,620 m) and Meco Mountain (2,538 m).

Kwanza River

Most of Angola’s rivers rose in the central mountains. Of the many rivers that drain to the Atlantic Ocean, the Cuanza and Cunene were the most important. Other major streams included the Kwango River, which drains north to the Congo River
Congo River
system, and the Kwando
Kwando
and Cubango Rivers, both of which drain generally southeast to the Okavango Delta. As the land drops from the plateau, many rapids and waterfalls plunge downward in the rivers. Portuguese Angola
Angola
had no sizable lakes, besides those formed by dams and reservoirs built by the Portuguese administration. The Portuguese authorities established several national parks and natural reserves across the territory: Bicauri, Cameia, Cangandala, Iona, Mupa, Namibe
Namibe
and Quiçama. Iona was Angola's oldest and largest national park, it was proclaimed as a reserve in 1937 and upgraded to a national park in 1964. Angola
Angola
was indeed a territory that underwent a great deal of progress after 1950. The Portuguese government
Portuguese government
built dams, roads, schools, etc. There was also an economic boom that led to a huge increase of the European population. The white population increased from 44,083 in 1940 to 172,529 in 1960. With around 1,000 immigrants arriving each month. On the eve of the end of the colonial period, the ethnic European residents numbered 400,000 (1974) (excluding enlisted and commissioned soldiers from the mainland) and the mixed race population was at around 100,000 (many were Cape Verdian
Cape Verdian
migrants working in the territory). The total population was around 5.9 million at that time. Luanda
Luanda
grew from a town of 61,208 with 14.6% of those inhabitants being white in 1940, to a major cosmopolitan city of 475,328 in 1970 with 124,814 Europeans (26.3%) and around 50,000 mixed race inhabitants. Most of the other large cities in Angola
Angola
had around the same ratio of Europeans at the time, with the exception of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango), Moçâmedes (Namibe) and Porto Alexandre (Tombua) in the south where the white population was more established. All of these cities had European majorities from 50% to 60%. The capital of the territory was Luanda,[18][19] officially called São Paulo de Luanda. Other cities and towns were:

Topographic map of Angola.

Porto Amboim Vila Teixeira da Silva São Felipe de Benguela[20] Vila Robert Williams Duque de Bragança Vila General Machado Vila João de Almeida Vila Mariano Machado Nova Lisboa[21] Silva Porto Vila da Ponte Lobito[22] Sá da Bandeira[23] Vila Luso Malanje[24] Forte República São Salvador do Congo Serpa Pinto Moçâmedes[25] Vila Salazar Vila Pereira d'Eça Vila Henrique de Carvalho Santo António do Zaire Novo Redondo Porto Alexandre Carmona[26]

The exclave of Cabinda was to the north.[27] Portuguese Congo (Cabinda) was established a Portuguese protectorate by the 1885 Treaty of Simulambuco. Sometime during the 1920s, it became incorporated into the larger colony (later the overseas province) of Portuguese Angola. The two colonies had initially been contiguous, but later became geographically separated by a narrow corridor of land, which Portugal ceded to Belgium allowing Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
access to the Atlantic Ocean. Following the decolonisation of Portuguese Angola
Angola
with the 1975 Alvor Agreement, the short-lived Republic of Cabinda
Republic of Cabinda
unilaterally declared its independence. However, Cabinda was soon overpowered and re-annexed by the newly proclaimed People's Republic of Angola
People's Republic of Angola
and never achieved international recognition. Economy[edit] Main articles: Agriculture in Angola, Fishing in Angola, Mining in Angola, and Slavery in Angola Portuguese explorers and settlers had founded trading posts and forts along the coast of Africa
Africa
since the 15th century, and reached the Angolan coast in the 16th century. Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda
Luanda
in 1575 as "São Paulo de Loanda", and the region developed as a slave trade market with the help of local Imbangala
Imbangala
and Mbundu peoples who were notable slave hunters. Trade was mostly with the Portuguese colony of Brazil
Brazil
in the New World. Brazilian ships were the most numerous in the ports of Luanda
Luanda
and Benguela. By this time, Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact more like a colony of Brazil, another Portuguese colony. A strong Brazilian influence was also exercised by the Jesuits
Jesuits
in religion and education.[28]

Mercado de Luanda, Sérgio Telles, 1975

The philosophy of war gradually gave way to the philosophy of trade. The great trade routes and the agreements that made them possible were the driving force for activities between the different areas; warlike states become states ready to produce and to sell.[28] In the Planalto, or high plains, the most important states were those of Bié and Bailundo, the latter being noted for its production of foodstuffs and rubber. The colonial power, Portugal, becoming ever richer and more powerful, would not tolerate the growth of these neighbouring states and subjugated them one by one, enabling Portuguese hegemony over much of the area. During the period of the Iberian Union (1580-1640), Portugal
Portugal
lost influence and power and made new enemies. The Dutch, a major enemy of Castile, invaded many Portuguese overseas possessions, including Luanda. The Dutch ruled Luanda
Luanda
from 1640 to 1648 as Fort Aardenburgh. They were seeking black slaves for use in sugarcane plantations of Northeastern Brazil
Brazil
(Pernambuco, Olinda
Olinda
and Recife), which they had also seized from Portugal. John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen, conquered the Portuguese possessions of Saint George del Mina, Saint Thomas, and Luanda
Luanda
on the west coast of Africa. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
in 1640, Portugal reestablished its authority over the lost territories of the Portuguese Empire.[28]

Pineapple vendors

The Portuguese started to develop townships, trading posts, logging camps, and small processing factories. From 1764 onwards, there was a gradual change from a slave-based society to one based on production for domestic consumption and export. Brazil
Brazil
became independent in 1822 and the slave trade was abolished in 1836. In 1844, Angola's ports were opened to legal foreign shipping. By 1850, Luanda
Luanda
was one of the most developed cities outside Europe in the Portuguese Empire: it was full of trading companies, exporting (together with Benguela) palm and peanut oil, wax, copal, timber, ivory, cotton, coffee, and cocoa, among many other products. Maize, tobacco, dried meat and cassava flour also began to be produced locally. The Angolan bourgeoisie was born.[28] From the 1920s to the 1960s, strong economic growth, abundant natural resources and development of infrastructure, led to the arrival of even more Portuguese settlers from the metropole.[28] Diamond
Diamond
mining began in 1912, when the first gems were discovered by Portuguese prospectors in a stream of the Lunda region, in the northeast. In 1917 the Companhia de Diamantes de Angola
Angola
(Diamang) was granted the concession for diamond mining and prospecting in Portuguese Angola. Diamang had exclusive mining and labor procurement rights in a huge concession in Angola
Angola
and used this monopoly to become the colony's largest commercial operator and also its leading revenue generator. Its wealth was generated by African laborers, many of whom were forcibly recruited to work on the mines with Lunda's aggressive state-company recruitment methods (See also chivalo/shibalo).[29] Work was done with shovels into the 1970s, and as late as 1947, the company saw no benefit to mechanizing its operations, because local labour was so inexpensive.[29] Even the voluntary contract workers, or contratados, were exploited and had to build their own housing and often cheated of their wages. However Diamang, which was exempt from taxes, grew affluent in the 1930s and also realized that in a remote area like Lunda, the supply of workers was not inexhaustible and so the workers there were somewhat better treated than on some of the other mines or on the sugar plantations. On the whole African laborers performed brutal work in poor conditions for very little pay, and they were frequently cheated of that. The American sociologist Edward Ross visited rural Angola
Angola
in 1924 on behalf of the Temporary Slavery Commission of the League of Nations and wrote a scathing report describing the labor system as "virtually state serfdom", that did not allow Africans time to produce their food. In addition, when their wages were embezzled, they had no access to the colonial judicial system.[30] From the mid-1950s until 1974, iron ore was mined in Malanje, Bié, Huambo, and Huíla provinces, and production reached an average of 5.7 million tons per year between 1970 and 1974. Most of the iron ore was shipped to Japan, West Germany, and the United Kingdom, and earned almost US$50 million a year in export revenue. During 1966-67 a major iron ore terminal was built by the Portuguese at Saco, the bay just 12 km North of Moçâmedes (Namibe). The client was the Compania Mineira do Lobito, the Lobito
Lobito
Mining Company, which developed an iron ore mine inland at Cassinga. The construction of the mine installations and a 300 km railway were commissioned to Krupp
Krupp
of Germany
Germany
and the modern harbour terminal to SETH, a Portuguese company owned by Højgaard & Schultz of Denmark. The small fishing town of Moçâmedes hosted construction workers, foreign engineers and their families for two years. The Ore Terminal was completed on time within one year and the first 250,000 ton ore carrier docked and loaded with ore in 1967.[25][31] The Portuguese discovered petroleum in Angola
Angola
in 1955. Production began in the Cuanza basin in the 1950s, in the Congo basin in the 1960s, and in the exclave of Cabinda in 1968. The Portuguese government
Portuguese government
granted operating rights for Block Zero to the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, in 1955. Oil production surpassed the exportation of coffee as Angola's largest export in 1973.

Olive trees in Namibe
Namibe
province, Angola

By the early 1970s, a variety of crops and livestock were produced in Portuguese Angola. In the north, cassava, coffee, and cotton were grown; in the central highlands, maize was cultivated; and in the south, where rainfall is lowest, cattle herding was prevalent. In addition, there were large plantations run by Portuguese that produced palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, and sisal. These crops were grown by commercial farmers, primarily Portuguese, and by peasant farmers, who sold some of their surplus to local Portuguese traders in exchange for supplies. The commercial farmers were dominant in marketing these crops, however, and enjoyed substantial support from the overseas province's Portuguese government
Portuguese government
in the form of technical assistance, irrigation facilities, and financial credit. They produced the great majority of the crops that were marketed in Angola's urban centres or exported for several countries.[32] Fishing in Portuguese Angola
Angola
was a major and growing industry. In the early 1970s, there were about 700 fishing boats, and the annual catch was more than 300,000 tons. Including the catch of foreign fishing fleets in Angolan waters, the combined annual catch was estimated at over 1 million tons. The Portuguese territory of Angola
Angola
was a net exporter of fish products, and the ports of Moçâmedes, Luanda
Luanda
and Benguela
Benguela
were among the most important fishing harbours in the region. Education[edit] Non-urban black African access to educational opportunities was very limited for most of the colonial period, most were not even able to speak Portuguese and did not have knowledge of Portuguese culture
Portuguese culture
and history.[33] Until the 1950s, educational facilities run by the Portuguese colonial government were largely restricted to the urban areas.[33] Responsibility for educating rural Africans were commissioned by the authorities to several Roman Catholic and Protestant missions based across the vast countryside, which taught black Africans in Portuguese language
Portuguese language
and culture.[33] As a consequence, each of the missions established its own school system, although all were subject to ultimate control and support by the Portuguese.[33] In mainland Portugal, the homeland of the colonial authorities who ruled in the territory from the 16th century until 1975, by the end of the 19th century the illiteracy rates were at over 80 percent and higher education was reserved for a small percentage of the population. 68.1 percent of mainland Portugal's population was still classified as illiterate by the 1930 census. Mainland Portugal's literacy rate by the 1940s and early 1950s was low by North American and Western European standards at the time. Only in the 1960s did the country make public education available for all children between the ages of six and twelve, and the overseas territories profited from this new educational developments and change in policy at Lisbon. Starting in the early 1950s, the access to basic, secondary and technical education was expanded and its availability was being increasingly opened to both the African indigenes and the ethnic Portuguese of the territories. Education beyond the primary level became available to an increasing number of black Africans since the 1950s, and the proportion of the age group that went on to secondary school in the early 1970s was an all-time record high enrolment.[33] Primary school attendance was also growing substantially.[33] In general, the quality of teaching at the primary level was acceptable, even with instruction carried on largely by black Africans who sometimes had substandard qualifications.[33] Most secondary school teachers were ethnically Portuguese, especially in the urban centers.[33] Two state-run university institutions were founded in Portuguese Africa
Africa
in 1962 by the Portuguese Ministry of the Overseas Provinces headed by Adriano Moreira
Adriano Moreira
- the Estudos Gerais Universitários de Angola
Angola
in Portuguese Angola
Angola
and the Estudos Gerais Universitários de Moçambique in Portuguese Mozambique
Portuguese Mozambique
- awarding a wide range of degrees from engineering to medicine.[34] In the 1960s, the Portuguese mainland had four public universities, two of them in Lisbon
Lisbon
(which compares with the 14 Portuguese public universities today). In 1968, the Estudos Gerais Universitários de Angola
Angola
was renamed Universidade de Luanda
Luanda
(University of Luanda). Sports[edit]

Bullfighting
Bullfighting
in Luanda, 1899

From the 1940s onward, city and town expansion and modernization included the construction of several sports facilities for football, rink hockey, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, gymnastics and swimming. Several sports clubs were founded across the entire territory, among them were some of the largest and oldest sports organizations of Angola. Several sportsmen, especially football players, that achieved wide notability in Portuguese sports were from Angola. José Águas, Rui Jordão
Rui Jordão
and Jacinto João were examples of that, and excelled in the Portugal
Portugal
national football team. Since the 1960s, with the latest developments on commercial aviation, the highest ranked football teams of Angola
Angola
and the other African overseas provinces of Portugal, started to compete in the Taça de Portugal (the Portuguese Cup). Other facilities and organizations for swimming, nautical sports, tennis and wild hunting became widespread. Beginning in the 1950s, motorsport was introduced to Angola. Sport races were organized in cities like Nova Lisboa, Benguela, Sá da Bandeira and Moçâmedes. The International Nova Lisboa
Nova Lisboa
6 Hours sports car race became noted internationally.[35] Famous people[edit]

António da Silva Porto Agostinho Neto Assunção Cristas Bonga Carlos Castro Carlos Cruz Daniel Chipenda Eduardo Nascimento Fernando Nobre Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem Fernando Peyroteo Francisca Van Dunem Henrique Galvão Holden Roberto Horácio Roque Isabel dos Santos Jacinto João Joana Amaral Dias João Carqueijeiro Jonas Savimbi Jordão

José Águas
José Águas
was born in Luanda
Luanda
in 1930

José Águas José Eduardo Agualusa José Eduardo dos Santos José Norton de Matos José Quitongo Mário Pinto de Andrade Marcolino Moco Miguel Arcanjo Miguel Relvas Mwene Mbandu I Lyondthzi Kapova of Mbunda Nzinga of Ndongo and Matamba Paula Teixeira da Cruz Paulo Maló Paulo Kassoma Pedro Passos Coelho Pepetela Raul Águas Viriato da Cruz Waldemar Bastos Zeca Afonso

See also[edit]

Estado Novo (Portugal) History of Angola List of colonial governors of Angola Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino
Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino
(archives in Lisbon
Lisbon
documenting Portuguese Empire, including Angola) Portuguese Mozambique Portuguese Guinea

Notes[edit]

^ a b Chisholm 1911. ^ Joseph C. Miller, Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730-1830, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988 ^ Medieval Africa, 1250-1800 (pp174) By Roland Anthony Oliver, Anthony Atmore ^ René Pélissier, Les guerres grises. Résistance et revoltes en Angola
Angola
(1845-1941), Montamets/Orgeval: self-published, 1977 ^ More Power to the People, 2006. ^ [1][permanent dead link], British Broadcasting Company, January 2008.BBC News[dead link] ^ Tvedten, Inge (1997). Angola: Struggle for Peace and Reconstruction. p. 31.  ^ Edgerton, Robert Breckenridge (2002). Africa's Armies: From Honor to Infamy. p. 72.  ^ Walker, John Frederick (2004). A Certain Curve of Horn: The Hundred-Year Quest for the Giant Sable Antelope of Angola. p. 143.  ^ (in Portuguese) António Pires Nunes, Angola
Angola
Vitória Militar no Leste[permanent dead link] ^ António Pires Nunes, Angola, 1966-74: vitória militar no leste, ISBN 9728563787, 9789728563783, Publisher: Prefácio, 2002 ^ John A. Marcum, The Angolan Revolution, vol. II, Exile Politics and Guerrilla Warfare (1962-1976), Cambridge/Mass. & London, MIT Press, 1978 ^ a b Angola, History, The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2007, Columbia University Press ^ (in Portuguese) Cronologia: Movimento dos capitães, Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra ^ (in Portuguese) Arquivo Electrónico: Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra ^ (in Portuguese) A Guerra Colonial na Guine/ Bissau
Bissau
(07 de 07), Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho on the Decree Law, RTP 2
RTP 2
television, youtube.com. ^ Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time Magazine
Time Magazine
(Monday, July 07, 1975) NB: The figures in this source are too high, as the total number of whites in the colonies did not reach 700,000. ^ Angola
Angola
antes da Guerra, a film of Luanda, Portuguese Angola
Angola
(before 1975), youtube.com ^ LuandaAnosOuro.wmv, a film of Luanda, Portuguese Angola
Angola
(before 1975), youtube.com ^ BenguelaAnosOuro.wmv, a film of Benguela, Overseas Province of Angola, before 1975. ^ NovaLisboaAnosOuro.wmv, a film of Nova Lisboa, Overseas Province of Angola, before 1975. ^ LobitoAnosOuro.wmv, a film of the Lobito
Lobito
in Portuguese Angola, before independence from Portugal. ^ SáDaBandeiraAnosOuro.wmv, a film of Sá da Bandeira, Overseas Province of Angola, before 1975. ^ MalanjeAnosOuro.wmv, a film of Malanje, Overseas Province of Angola (before 1975). ^ a b (in Portuguese) Angola
Angola
de outros tempos Moçamedes, Moçâmedes under Portuguese rule before 1975, youtube.com ^ Angola-Carmona (Viagem ao Passado)-Kandando Angola, a film of Carmona, Portuguese Angola
Angola
(before 1975). ^ CabindaAnosOuro.wmv, a film of Cabinda, Portuguese Angola
Angola
(before 1975). ^ a b c d e History of Angola, Republic of Angola
Angola
Embassy in the United Kingdom ^ a b Todd Cleveland (2015). Diamonds in the Rough: Corporate Paternalism and African Professionalism on the Mines of Colonial Angola, 1917–1975. Ohio University Press. ISBN 0821445219.  ^ Jeremy Ball (2006). ""I escaped in a coffin": Remembering Angolan Forced Labor from the 1940s". Cadernos de Estudos Africanos [Online], 9/10. doi:10.4000/cea.1214. Retrieved 15 May 2016.  ^ (in Portuguese) Angola
Angola
- Moçâmedes, minha terra, eu te vi crescer... (Raul Ferreira Trindade), history of Moçâmedes/Namibe ^ Louise Redvers, POVERTY-ANGOLA: NGOs Sceptical of Govt’s Rural Development Plans Archived 2010-05-12 at the Wayback Machine., [Inter Press Service News Agency] (June 6, 2009) ^ a b c d e f g h Warner, Rachel. "Conditions before Independence". A Country Study: Angola
Angola
(Thomas Collelo, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (February 1989). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[2] ^ (in Portuguese) 52. UNIVERSIDADE DE LUANDA ^ 6h Huambo
Huambo
1973, Nova Lisboa
Nova Lisboa
Internacional Sports Race

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Angola". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–40. 

Bibliography[edit]

Gerardo A. Pery (pt), ed. (1875). "Angola". Geographia e estatistica geral de Portugal
Portugal
e colonias (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional. CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link)  Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878). "Angola". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 45.  Esteves Pereira; Guilherme Rodrigues, eds. (1904). "Angola". Portugal: Diccionario Historico... (in Portuguese). 1. Lisbon: Joao Romano Torres. OCLC 865826167 – via HathiTrust. 

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America
North America
& North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Coordinates: 2°11′N 102°23′E / 2.183°N 102.383°E / 2.

.