Argentina (South America)
Uruguay (South America)
Numerous international organisations
International Portuguese Language Institute
Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil)
Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras (Portugal)
Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa (Galicia)
Official and administrative language
Cultural or secondary language
Portuguese speaking minorities
Portuguese-based creole languages
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering
support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead
Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a West
Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil,
Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and
Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor,
Equatorial Guinea and
Macau in China. As the result of expansion
during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and
Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa,
Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu in
Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the
Indonesian island of Flores; in the
Malacca state of Malaysia; and the
ABC islands in the Caribbean where
Papiamento is spoken, while Cape
Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A
Portuguese-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "Lusophone"
in both English and Portuguese.
Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from
several dialects of
Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia,
and has kept some Celtic phonology and lexicon. With
approximately 215 to 220 million native speakers and 260 million total
speakers, Portuguese is usually listed as the sixth most natively
spoken language in the world, the third-most spoken European language
in the world in terms of native speakers, and a major language of
the Southern Hemisphere. It is also the most spoken language in South
America and the second-most spoken in
Latin America after Spanish, and
is an official language of the European Union, Mercosur, OAS, ECOWAS
and the African Union.
2 Geographic distribution
2.1 Official status
2.2 Population of countries and jurisdictions of Portuguese official
or co-official language
2.3 Portuguese as a foreign language
3.3 Other countries and dependencies
3.4 Characterization and peculiarities
5 Classification and related languages
Galician-Portuguese in Spain
5.2 Influence on other languages
5.3 Derived languages
8 Writing system
8.1 Spelling reforms
9 See also
10.2 Phonology, orthography and grammar
10.3 Reference dictionaries
10.4 Linguistic studies
11 External links
Main article: History of the Portuguese language
When the Romans arrived at the
Iberian Peninsula in 216 B.C.,
they brought the
Latin language with them, from which all Romance
languages descend. The language was spread by Roman soldiers,
settlers, and merchants, who built Roman cities mostly near the
settlements of previous Celtic or Celtiberian civilizations
established long before the Roman arrivals.
Between 409 A.D. and 711 A.D., as the
Roman Empire collapsed in
Western Europe, the
Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic
peoples of the Migration Period. The occupiers, mainly Suebi
Visigoths who originally spoke Germanic languages, quickly adopted
late Roman culture and the
Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula and
over the next 300 years totally integrated into the local populations.
After the Moorish invasion beginning in 711, Arabic became the
administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most
of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of
Romance commonly known as Mozarabic, which lasted three centuries
longer in Spain.
Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by
linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Portuguese or Old Galician, of
the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia. It is in Latin
administrative documents of the 9th century that written
Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. This phase
is known as Proto-Portuguese, which lasted from the 9th century until
the 12th-century independence of the County of
Portugal from the
Kingdom of León, by then reigning over Galicia.
In the first part of the
Galician-Portuguese period (from the 12th to
the 14th century), the language was increasingly used for documents
and other written forms. For some time, it was the language of
preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much as Occitan was
the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France. Portugal
became an independent kingdom in 1139, under King Afonso I of
Portugal. In 1290, King Denis of
Portugal created the first Portuguese
Lisbon (the Estudos Gerais, which later moved to
Coimbra) and decreed for Portuguese, then simply called the "common
language", to be known as the
Portuguese language and used officially.
In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th
centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries, the language was taken to
many regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. By the mid-16th
century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca in
Asia and Africa,
used not only for colonial administration and trade but also for
communication between local officials and Europeans of all
Its spread was helped by mixed marriages between Portuguese and local
people and by its association with Roman Catholic missionary efforts,
which led to the formation of creole languages such as that called
Kristang in many parts of
Asia (from the word cristão, "Christian").
The language continued to be popular in parts of
Asia until the 19th
century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India, Sri
Lanka, Malaysia, and
Indonesia preserved their language even after
they were isolated from Portugal.
The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of
the Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende, in 1516. The early times
of Modern Portuguese, which spans the period from the 16th century to
the present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of
learned words borrowed from
Classical Latin and Classical Greek
because of the
Renaissance (learned words borrowed from Latin also
Renaissance Latin, the form of Latin during that time),
which greatly enriched the lexicon. Most literate Portuguese speakers
were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words
into their writing—and eventually speech—in Portuguese.[citation
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes once called Portuguese "the sweet
and gracious language", while the Brazilian poet
Olavo Bilac described
it as a última flor do Lácio, inculta e bela ("the last flower of
Latium, rustic and beautiful"). Portuguese is also termed "the
language of Camões", after Luís Vaz de Camões, one of the greatest
literary figures in the
Portuguese language and author of the
Portuguese epic poem Os Lusíadas.
In March 2006, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, an interactive
museum about the Portuguese language, was founded in São Paulo,
Brazil, the city with the greatest number of Portuguese language
speakers in the world. The museum is the first of its kind in the
world. In 2015 the museum was destroyed in a fire, but there are
plans to reconstruct it.
Multilingual sign in Japanese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi,
Japan. Return immigration of
Japanese Brazilians has led to a large
Portuguese-speaking community in the town.
Main article: Geographic distribution of Portuguese
Portuguese is the native language of the vast majority of people in
Brazil and Portugal, and 99.8% of the population of São Tomé
and Príncipe declared speaking Portuguese in the 1991
census. Perhaps 75% of the population of Angola
speaks Portuguese, and 85% are more or less fluent. Just over
40% (and rapidly increasing) of the population of
native speakers of Portuguese, and 60% are fluent, according to the
2007 census. Portuguese is also spoken natively by 30% of the
population in Guinea-Bissau, and a Portuguese-based creole is
understood by all. No data is available for Cape Verde, but almost
all the population is bilingual, and the monolingual population speaks
Cape Verdean Creole.
There are also significant Portuguese speaking immigrant communities
in many countries including
Andorra (15.4%), Bermuda, Canada
(400,275 people in the 2006 census),
France (900,000 people),
Japan (400,000 people), Jersey,
Namibia (about 4–5% of the
population, mainly refugees from
Angola in the north of the
Paraguay (10.7% or 636,000 people),
Macau (0.6% or
Switzerland (196,000 nationals in 2008),
Venezuela (554,000). and the
United States (0.35% of the
population or 1,228,126 speakers according to the 2007 American
In some parts of former Portuguese India, namely Goa and Daman and
Diu, the language is still spoken by about 10,000 people. In 2014,
an estimated 1,500 students were learning Portuguese in Goa.
Main article: List of territorial entities where Portuguese is an
Countries and regions where Portuguese has official status.
The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (in Portuguese
Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, with the Portuguese
acronym CPLP) consists of the eight independent countries that have
Portuguese as an official language: Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East
Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique,
Portugal and São
Tomé and Príncipe.
Equatorial Guinea made a formal application for full membership to the
CPLP in June 2010, a status given only to states with Portuguese as an
official language. In 2011, Portuguese became its third official
language (besides Spanish and French) and, in July 2014, the
country was accepted as a member of the CPLP.
Portuguese is also one of the official languages of the Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of Macau
(alongside Chinese) and of several international organizations,
including the Mercosur, the Organization of Ibero-American
States, the Union of South American Nations, the Organization
of American States, the African Union, the Economic Community
of West African States, the Southern African Development
Community and the European Union.
Population of countries and jurisdictions of Portuguese official or
The World Factbook
The World Factbook country population estimates for 2017,
the population of each of the ten jurisdictions is as follows (by
(July 2017 est.)
of the majority
Portuguese in Brazil
Spoken by vast majority as a native language
Portuguese in Angola
Spoken by significant minority as a native language;
spoken by majority as a second language
Portuguese in Mozambique
Spoken by significant minority as a native language;
spoken by majority as a second language
Portuguese in Portugal1
Spoken by vast majority as a native language
Portuguese in Guinea-Bissau
Spoken by significant minority as a native language
Portuguese in East Timor
Spoken by minority as a second language
Portuguese in Equatorial Guinea
Spoken by significant minority as a native language
Portuguese in Macau
Spoken by small minority as a native language
Portuguese in Cape Verde
Spoken by majority as a second language
São Tomé and Príncipe
Portuguese in São Tomé and Príncipe
Spoken by vast majority as a native language
c. 279 million
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Some linguists argue that Galician, spoken in Galicia, is merely a
dialect of Portuguese rather than an independent language; this would
Spain a part of the Portuguese-speaking world.
Macau is not a sovereign nation. It is one of the two Special
Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China (the other
being Anglophone Hong Kong, a former British colony).
Equatorial Guinea adopted Portuguese as one of its official languages
in 2007, being admitted to
CPLP in 2014. The use of the Portuguese
language in this country is limited. However, a Portuguese-based
creole language, Annobonese Creole, is used, mainly on the islands of
Annobon and Bioko.
The combined population of the entire
Lusophone area was estimated at
279 million in July 2017. This number does not include the Lusophone
diaspora, estimated at approximately 10 million people (including 4.5
million Portuguese, 3 million Brazilians, and half a million Cape
Verdeans, among others), although it is hard to obtain official
accurate numbers of diasporic Portuguese speakers because a
significant portion of these citizens are naturalized citizens born
Lusophone territory or are children of immigrants, and may
have only a basic command of the language. Additionally, a large part
of the diaspora is a part of the already-counted population of the
Portuguese-speaking countries and territories, such as the high number
of Brazilian and PALOP emigrant citizens in
Portugal or the high
number of Portuguese emigrant citizens in the PALOP and Brazil.
Portuguese language therefore serves more than 250 million people
daily, who have direct or indirect legal, juridical and social contact
with it, varying from the only language used in any contact, to only
education, contact with local or international administration,
commerce and services or the simple sight of road signs, public
information and advertising in Portuguese.
Portuguese as a foreign language
Portuguese is a mandatory subject in the school curriculum in
Uruguay and Argentina. Other countries where Portuguese is
taught at schools or is being introduced now include Venezuela,
Zambia, the Republic of the Congo, Senegal, Namibia,
Swaziland, and South Africa.
According to estimates by UNESCO, Portuguese is the fastest-growing
European language after English and the language has, according to the
Portugal News publishing data given from UNESCO, the
highest potential for growth as an international language in southern
Africa and South America. Portuguese is a globalized language
spoken officially on five continents, and as a second language by
Since 1991, when
Brazil signed into the economic community of Mercosul
with other South American nations, namely Argentina,
Paraguay, Portuguese is either mandatory, or taught, in the schools of
those South American countries.
Although early in the 21st century, after
Macau was ceded to China and
Brazilian immigration to
Japan slowed down, the use of Portuguese was
in decline in Asia, it is once again becoming a language of
opportunity there, mostly because of increased diplomatic and
financial ties with economically powerful Portuguese-speaking
countries (Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, etc.) in the world.
Portuguese dialects and Portuguese in the Americas
East Timor has Portuguese as one of its official
Você is used for educated, formal and colloquial respectful speech in
most Portuguese-speaking regions. In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande
do Sul, você is virtually absent from the spoken language. In
Portugal, it may be considered disrespectful to treat a stranger as
você, so the pronoun is either replaced by the name of the person (or
a title) or it is omitted, since the verbal conjugation allows the
distinction between formal and informal treatment. Riograndense (or
Gaúcho) Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech
by verbal conjugation. Informal speech employs tu followed by third
person verbs, formal language retains the traditional second person.
Conjugation of tu has three different forms in
Brazil (verb "to see":
tu viste?, in the traditional second person, tu viu?, in the third
person, and tu visse?, in the innovative second person), the
conjugation used in the Brazilian states of Pará, Santa Catarina and
Maranhão being generally traditional second person, the kind that is
used in other Portuguese-speaking countries and learned in Brazilian
The predominance of Southeastern-based media products has established
você as the pronoun of choice for the second person singular in both
writing and multimedia communications. However, in the city of Rio de
Janeiro, the country's main cultural centre, the usage of tu has been
expanding ever since the end of the 20th century (see, a
linguistic research on the topic in Portuguese), being most frequent
among youngsters and a number of studies have also shown an increase
in its use in a number of other Brazilian dialects.
The status of second person pronouns in Brazil. Red indicates near
exclusive use of você. Mauve indicates decidedly predominant use of
tu, but with near exclusive third person (você-like) verbal
conjugation. Brown indicates 50-50 tu/você variation, being tu nearly
always accompanied by third person (você-like) verbal conjugation.
Light blue indicates decidedly predominant to near exclusive use of tu
with reasonable frequency of second person (tu-like) verbal
conjugation. Yellow indicates balanced você/tu distribution, being tu
exclusively accompanied by third person (você-like) verbal
conjugation. Green indicates balanced você/tu distribution, tu being
predominantly accompanied by third person (você-like) verbal
European Portuguese (português padrão or português
continental) is based on the Portuguese spoken in the area including
and surrounding the cities of
Coimbra and Lisbon, in central Portugal.
European Portuguese is also the preferred standard by the
Portuguese-speaking African countries. As such, and despite the fact
that its speakers are dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only
two dialects used for learning: the European and the Brazilian. Some
aspects and sounds found in many dialects of
Brazil are exclusive to
South America, and cannot be found in Europe. However, the Santomean
Africa may be confused with a Brazilian dialect by its
phonology and prosody.
Audio samples of some dialects and accents of Portuguese are available
below. There are some differences between the areas but these are
the best approximations possible. IPA transcriptions refer to the
names in local pronunciation.
Caipira — Spoken in the states of
São Paulo (most markedly on the
countryside and rural areas); southern Minas Gerais, northern Paraná
and southeastern Mato Grosso do Sul. Depending on the vision of what
constitutes caipira, Triângulo Mineiro, border areas of
the remaining parts of
Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul are included, and the
frontier of caipira in
Minas Gerais is expanded further northerly,
though not reaching metropolitan Belo Horizonte. It is often said that
caipira appeared by decreolization of the língua brasílica and the
related língua geral paulista, then spoken in almost all of what is
now São Paulo, a former lingua franca in most of the contemporary
Brazil before the 18th century, brought by the
bandeirantes, interior pioneers of Colonial Brazil, closely related to
its northern counterpart Nheengatu, and that is why the dialect shows
many general differences from other variants of the language. It
has striking remarkable differences in comparison to other Brazilian
dialects in phonology, prosody and grammar, often stigmatized as being
strongly associated with a substandard variant, now mostly
Cearense or Costa norte — is a dialect spoken more sharply in the
Ceará and Piauí. The variant of
Ceará includes fairly
distinctive traits it shares with the one spoken in Piauí, though,
such as distinctive regional phonology and vocabulary (for example, a
debuccalization process stronger than that of Portuguese, a different
system of the vowel harmony that spans
Brazil from fluminense and
mineiro to amazofonia but is especially prevalent in nordestino, a
very coherent coda sibilant palatalization as those of
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro but allowed in fewer environments than in other accents
of nordestino, a greater presence of dental stop palatalization to
palato-alveolar in comparison to other accents of nordestino, among
others, as well as a great number of archaic Portuguese
Baiano — Found in Bahia, Sergipe, northern
Minas Gerais and border
Goiás and Tocantins. Similar to nordestino, it has a
very characteristic syllable-timed rhythm and the greatest tendency to
pronounce unstressed vowels as open-mid [ɛ] and [ɔ].
Variants and sociolects of Brazilian Portuguese.
Fluminense — A broad dialect with many variants spoken in the
states of Rio de Janeiro,
Espírito Santo and neighbouring eastern
regions of Minas Gerais. Fluminense formed in these previously
caipira-speaking areas due to the gradual influence of European
migrants, causing many people to distance their speech from their
original dialect and incorporate new terms. Fluminense is
sometimes referred to as carioca, however carioca is a more specific
term referring to the accent of the
Greater Rio de Janeiro
Greater Rio de Janeiro area by
speakers with a fluminense dialect.
Gaúcho — in Rio Grande do Sul, similar to sulista. There are many
distinct accents in Rio Grande do Sul, mainly due to the heavy influx
of European immigrants of diverse origins who have settled in colonies
throughout the state, and to the proximity to Spanish-speaking
nations. The gaúcho word in itself is a Spanish loanword into
Portuguese of obscure Indigenous Amerindian origins.
Percentage of worldwide Portuguese speakers per country.
Minas Gerais (not prevalent in the Triângulo Mineiro). As
the fluminense area, its associated region was formerly a sparsely
populated land where caipira was spoken, but the discovery of gold and
gems made it the most prosperous Brazilian region, what attracted
Portuguese colonists, commoners from other parts of
Brazil and their
African slaves. South-southwestern, southeastern and northern areas of
the state have fairly distinctive speech, actually approximating to
caipira, fluminense (popularly called, often pejoratively, carioca do
brejo, "marsh carioca") and baiano respectively. Areas including and
Belo Horizonte have a distinctive accent.
Nordestino — more marked in the
Sertão (7), where, in the 19th
and 20th centuries and especially in the area including and
surrounding the sertão (the dry land after Agreste) of Pernambuco and
southern Ceará, it could sound less comprehensible to speakers of
Portuguese dialects than Galician or Rioplatense Spanish, and
nowadays less distinctive from other variants in the metropolitan
cities along the coasts. It can be divided in two regional variants,
one that includes the northern
Maranhão and southern of Piauí, and
other that goes from
Ceará to Alagoas.
Nortista or amazofonia — Most of
Amazon Basin states i.e.
Northern Brazil. Before the 20th century, most people from the
nordestino area fleeing the droughts and their associated poverty
settled here, so it has some similarities with the Portuguese dialect
there spoken. The speech in and around the cities of
Belém and Manaus
has a more European flavor in phonology, prosody and grammar.
Paulistano — Variants spoken around Greater
São Paulo in its
maximum definition and more easterly areas of
São Paulo state, as
well perhaps "educated speech" from anywhere in the state of São
Paulo (where it coexists with caipira). Caipira is the hinterland
sociolect of much of the Central-Southern half of Brazil, nowadays
conservative only in the rural areas and associated with them, that
has a historically low prestige in cities as Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba,
Belo Horizonte, and until some years ago, in
São Paulo itself.
Sociolinguistics, or what by times is described as 'linguistic
prejudice', often correlated with classism, is a polemic
topic in the entirety of the country since the times of Adoniran
Barbosa. Also, the "Paulistano" accent was heavily influenced by the
presence of immigrants in the city of São Paulo, especially the
Sertanejo — Center-Western states, and also much of
Rondônia. It is closer to mineiro, caipira, nordestino or nortista
depending on the location.
Sulista — The variants spoken in the areas between the northern
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul and southern regions of
São Paulo state,
encompassing most of southern Brazil. The city of
Curitiba does have a
fairly distinct accent as well, and a relative majority of speakers
around and in
Florianópolis also speak this variant (many speak
florianopolitano or manezinho da ilha instead, related to the European
Portuguese dialects spoken in
Azores and Madeira). Speech of northern
Paraná is closer to that of inland São Paulo.
Florianopolitano — Variants heavily influenced by European
Portuguese spoken in
Florianópolis city (due to a heavy immigration
movement from Portugal, mainly its insular regions) and much of its
metropolitan area, Grande Florianópolis, said to be a continuum
between those whose speech most resemble sulista dialects and those
whose speech most resemble fluminense and European ones, called, often
pejoratively, manezinho da ilha.
Carioca — Not a dialect, but sociolects of the fluminense variant
spoken in an area roughly corresponding to Greater Rio de Janeiro. It
appeared after locals came in contact with the Portuguese aristocracy
amidst the Portuguese royal family fled in the early 19th century.
There is actually a continuum between
Vernacular countryside accents
and the carioca sociolect, and the educated speech (in Portuguese
norma culta, which most closely resembles other Brazilian Portuguese
standards but with marked recent Portuguese influences, the nearest
ones among the country's dialects along florianopolitano), so that not
all people native to the state of
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro speak the said
sociolect, but most carioca speakers will use the standard variant not
influenced by it that is rather uniform around
Brazil depending on
context (emphasis or formality, for example).
Brasiliense — used in
Brasília and its metropolitan area. It is
not considered a dialect, but more of a regional variant –
often deemed to be closer to fluminense than the dialect commonly
spoken in most of Goiás, sertanejo.
Arco do desflorestamento or serra amazônica — Known in its
region as the "accent of the migrants", it has similarities with
caipira, sertanejo and often sulista that make it differing from
amazofonia (in the opposite group of Brazilian dialects, in which it
is placed along nordestino, baiano, mineiro and fluminense). It is the
most recent dialect, which appeared by the settlement of families from
various other Brazilian regions attracted by the cheap land offer in
recently deforested areas.
Recifense — used in
Recife and its metropolitan area.
Dialects of Portuguese in Portugal
Micaelense (Açores) (São Miguel)—Azores.
Alentejo (Alentejan Portuguese)
Algarve (there is a particular dialect in a small part of
Braga and Viana do Castelo (hinterland).
Beirão— Central Portugal.
Estremenho—Regions of Coimbra,
Lisbon (this is a
disputed denomination, as
Coimbra is not part of "Estremadura", and
Lisbon dialect has some peculiar features that are not only not
shared with that of Coimbra, but also significantly distinct and
recognizable to most native speakers from elsewhere in Portugal).
Portuense—Regions of the district of
Porto and parts of Aveiro.
Transmontano—Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro.
Other countries and dependencies
Angola— Angolano (Angolan Portuguese)
Cape Verde— Cabo-verdiano (Cape Verdean Portuguese)
East Timor— Timorense (East Timorese Portuguese)
India — Damaense (Damanese Portuguese) and Goês (Goan
Guinea-Bissau— Guineense (Guinean Portuguese)
Macau— Macaense (Macanese Portuguese)
Mozambique— Moçambicano (Mozambican Portuguese)
São Tomé and Príncipe— Santomense (São Tomean Portuguese)
Spain—Oliventian Portuguese and other varieties sometimes
controversially deemed as separate languages, such as Galician and
Uruguay—Dialectos Portugueses del
Differences between dialects are mostly of accent and vocabulary, but
between the Brazilian dialects and other dialects, especially in their
most colloquial forms, there can also be some grammatical differences.
The Portuguese-based creoles spoken in various parts of Africa, Asia,
Americas are independent languages.
Characterization and peculiarities
Portuguese, like Catalan, preserved the stressed vowels of Vulgar
Latin, which became diphthongs in most other Romance languages; cf.
Port., Cat., Sard. pedra ; Fr. pierre, Sp. piedra, It. pietra,
Ro. piatră, from Lat. petra ("stone"); or Port. fogo, Cat. foc, Sard.
fogu; Sp. fuego, It. fuoco, Fr. feu, Ro. foc, from Lat. focus
("fire"). Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of
intervocalic l and n, sometimes followed by the merger of the two
surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel between
them: cf. Lat. salire ("to jump"), tenere ("to hold"), catena
("chain"), Sp. salir, tener, cadena, Port. sair, ter, cadeia. This
characteristic happens today in Celtic languages, such as Irish and
When the elided consonant was n, it often nasalized the preceding
vowel: cf. Lat. manum ("hand"), ranam ("frog"), bonum ("good"), Port.
mão, rãa, bõo (now mão, rã, bom). This process was the source of
most of the language's distinctive nasal diphthongs. In particular,
the Latin endings -anem, -anum and -onem became -ão in most cases,
cf. Lat. canis ("dog"), germanus ("brother"), ratio ("reason") with
Modern Port. cão, irmão, razão, and their plurals -anes, -anos,
-ones normally became -ães, -ãos, -ões, cf. cães, irmãos,
razões. This nasalisation could be an ancient Proto-Celtic
characteristic which also exists today in Breton and Gaelic.
Portuguese language is also the only
Romance language that has
preserved the clitic case mesoclisis: cf. dar-te-ei (I'll give thee),
amar-te-ei (I'll love you), contactá-los-ei (I'll contact them). It
was also the only Western
Romance language to retain the Latin
synthetic pluperfect tense: eu estivera (I had been), eu vivera (I had
lived), vós vivêreis (you had lived). Romanian also has this
tense, but uses the -s- form.
Main article: Portuguese vocabulary
The National Library of Brazil, in Rio de Janeiro, the largest library
in Latin America
Baroque Library of the
Coimbra University, Portugal
The Royal Portuguese Reading Room in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
A sign in the Museum of Macau
Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived, directly or through
other Romance languages, from Latin. Nevertheless, because of its
original Celtiberian heritage and later the participation of Portugal
in the Age of Discovery, it has some Gallaecian words and adopted
loanwords from all over the world.
A number of Portuguese words can still be traced to the pre-Roman
inhabitants of Portugal, which included the Gallaeci, Lusitanians,
Celtici and Cynetes. Most of these words derived from Celtic and are
very often shared with Galician since both languages share a common
origin in the medieval language of Galician-Portuguese. A few of these
words existed in Latin as loanwords from a Celtic source, often
Gaulish. Altogether these are over 1,000 words, some verbs and
toponymic names of towns, rivers, utensils and plants.
In the 5th century, the
Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania) was
conquered by the Germanic
Suebi and Visigoths. As they adopted the
Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed
with some 500 Germanic words to the lexicon. Many of these words are
related to warfare—such as espora "spur", estaca "stake", and guerra
"war", from Gothic *spaúra, *stakka, and *wirro, respectively. The
Germanic languages influence also exists in toponymic surnames and
patronymic surnames borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their
descendants, and it dwells on placenames such has Ermesinde, Esposende
and Resende where sinde and sende are derived from the Germanic
"sinths" (military expedition) and in the case of Resende, the prefix
re comes from Germanic "reths" (council). Other examples of Portuguese
names, surnames and town names of Germanic toponymic origin include
Henrique, Henriques, Vermoim, Mandim, Calquim, Baguim, Gemunde,
Guetim, Sermonde and many more, are quite common mainly in the old
Suebi and later
Visigothic dominated regions, covering today's
Northern half of
Portugal and Galicia.
Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired nearly
800 words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. They are often
recognizable by the initial Arabic article a(l)-, and include many
common words such as aldeia "village" from الضيعة alḍai`a (or
from Edictum Rothari: aldii, aldias), alface "lettuce" from
الخس alkhass, armazém "warehouse" from المخزن almakhzan,
and azeite "olive oil" from الزيت azzait.
Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led
to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages. For
instance, catana "cutlass" from Japanese katana and chá "tea" from
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal
as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade, and the establishment of
large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil,
Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind origin,
especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those
territories. While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies,
many became current in
European Portuguese as well. From Kimbundu, for
example, came kifumate > cafuné "head caress" (Brazil), kusula
> caçula "youngest child" (Brazil), marimbondo "tropical wasp"
(Brazil), and kubungula > bungular "to dance like a wizard"
South America came batata "potato", from Taino; ananás
and abacaxi, from Tupi–Guarani naná and Tupi ibá cati,
respectively (two species of pineapple), and pipoca "popcorn" from
Tupi and tucano "toucan" from Guarani tucan.
Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other
European languages, especially French and English. These are by far
the most important languages when referring to loanwords. There are
many examples such as: colchete/crochê "bracket"/"crochet", paletó
"jacket", batom "lipstick", and filé/filete "steak"/"slice", rua
"street" respectively, from French crochet, paletot, bâton, filet,
rue; and bife "steak", futebol, revólver, stock/estoque, folclore,
from English beef, football, revolver, stock, folklore.
Examples from other European languages: macarrão "pasta", piloto
"pilot", carroça "carriage", and barraca "barrack", from Italian
maccherone, pilota, carrozza, and baracca; melena "hair lock", fiambre
"wet-cured ham" (in Portugal, in contrast with presunto "dry-cured
ham" from Latin prae-exsuctus "dehydrated") or "canned ham" (in
Brazil, in contrast with non-canned, wet-cured presunto cozido and
dry-cured presunto cru), and castelhano "Castilian", from Spanish
melena "mane", fiambre and castellano.
Before the last four decades, Brazilians adopted a greater number of
loanwords from Japanese and other European languages (due to the
historical immigration affecting their demographics), and they were
and are also more willing to adopt foreign terms that come from
globalization than the Portuguese, while the degree of African, Tupian
and other Amerindian lexicon in
Brazilian Portuguese is shown to be
surprisingly lesser than that commonly expected of the said variant by
the local Africanist and Indianist academia (that also has to some
degree influenced the common sense of what gives a different cultural
identity of Brazilians in relation to the Portuguese), so that its
lexicon is almost identical (about 99%) to that of European
Many Portuguese settlers to Colonial
Brazil were from northern and
insular Portugal, apart from some historically important illegal
immigrants from elsewhere in Europe, such as Galicia,
France and the
Brazil received more European immigrants in its
colonial history than the United States. Between 1500 and 1760,
700,000 Europeans (overwhelmingly Portuguese) settled in Brazil, while
530,000 Europeans settled in the
United States for the same given
Classification and related languages
Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Portuguese
(Galician-Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbours
between the year 1000 and 2000.
Map showing mostly contemporary West Iberian and Occitano-Romance
languages, as well many of their mainland European dialects (take note
that areas colored green, gold or pink/purple represent languages
deemed endangered by UNESCO, so this may be outdated in less than a
few decades). It shows European Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian,
Mirandese and the Fala as not only closely related but as dialect
continuum, though it excludes dialects spoken in insular Portugal
Azores and Madeira–Canaries is not shown either).
Main articles: Iberian Romance languages, Galician-Portuguese, and
Comparison of Spanish and Portuguese
Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance
languages, and it has special ties with the following members of this
Galician, Fala and portunhol do pampa (the way riverense and its
sibling dialects are referred to in Portuguese), its closest
Mirandese, Leonese, Asturian, Extremaduran and Cantabrian
(Astur-Leonese languages). Mirandese is the only recognised regional
language spoken in
Portugal (beside Portuguese, the only official
language in Portugal).
Spanish and calão (the way caló, language of the Iberian Romani, is
referred to in Portuguese).
Portuguese and other
Romance languages (namely French and Italian) are
moderately mutually intelligible, and share considerable similarities
in both vocabulary and grammar. Portuguese speakers will usually need
some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those
Romance languages, and vice versa. However, Portuguese and Galician
are mutually intelligible, and Spanish is highly comprehensible to
Portuguese speakers. And given that Portuguese has a larger phonemic
inventory than Spanish, Portuguese is still considerably intelligible
(if not spoken quickly without jargon) to most Spanish speakers, owing
to the strong lexical, structural, and grammatical similarity (89%)
between the two languages.
Portunhol, a form of code-switching, has a more lively use and is more
readily mentioned in popular culture in South America. Said
code-switching is not to be confused with the portunhol spoken on the
Uruguay (dialeto do pampa) and Paraguay
(dialeto dos brasiguaios), and of
Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people,
which have been heavily influenced by Spanish.
Portuguese and Spanish are the only Ibero-Romance languages, and
perhaps the only
Romance languages with such thriving inter-language
forms, in which visible and lively bilingual contact dialects and
code-switching have formed, in which functional bilingual
communication is achieved through attempting an approximation to the
target foreign language (known as 'Portunhol') without a learned
acquisition process, but nevertheless facilitates communication. There
is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena (including
informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and
Galician-Portuguese in Spain
See also: Reintegrationism
The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the
autonomous community (region) of Galicia (northwestern Spain). The two
were at one time a single language, known today as
Galician-Portuguese, but they have diverged especially in
pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of
Portugal from Galicia. There is, however, still a linguistic
continuity consisting of the variant of Galician referred to as
galego-português baixo-limiao, which is spoken in several Galician
villages between the municipalities of
Lobios and the
transborder region of the natural park of Peneda-Gerês/Xurês. It is
"considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that
Cantabria to Mondego [...]". As reported by UNESCO,
due to the pressure of the
Spanish language on the standard official
version of the Galician language, the
Galician language was on the
verge of disappearing. According to the Unesco philologist Tapani
Salminen, the proximity to Portuguese protects Galician.
Nevertheless, the core vocabulary and grammar of Galician are still
noticeably closer to Portuguese than to those of Spanish. In
particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the
personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect. Mutual
intelligibility (estimated at 90% by R. A. Hall, Jr., 1989) is
excellent between Galicians and northern Portuguese. Many linguists
consider Galician to be a co-dialect of the Portuguese language.
Another member of the
Galician-Portuguese group, most commonly thought
of as a Galician dialect, is spoken in the
Eonavian region in a
western strip in
Asturias and the westernmost parts of the provinces
of León and Zamora, along the frontier with Galicia, between the Eo
and Navia rivers (or more exactly Eo and Frexulfe rivers). It is
called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers.
The Fala language, known by its speakers as xalimés, mañegu, a fala
de Xálima and chapurráu and in Portuguese as a fala de Xálima, a
fala da Estremadura, o galego da Estremadura, valego ou
galaico-estremenho, is another descendant of Galician-Portuguese,
spoken by a small number of people in the Spanish towns of Valverde
del Fresno (Valverdi du Fresnu),
Eljas (As Ellas) and San Martín de
Trevejo (Sa Martín de Trevellu) in the autonomous community of
Extremadura, near the border with Portugal.
There are a number of other places in
Spain in which the native
language of the common people is a descendant of the
Galician-Portuguese group, such as La Alamedilla,
Herrera de Alcántara
Herrera de Alcántara (Ferreira d'Alcântara) and Olivenza
(Olivença), but in these municipalities, what is spoken is actually
Portuguese, not disputed as such in the mainstream.
It should be noticed that the diversity of dialects of the Portuguese
language is known since the time of medieval Portuguese-Galician
language when it coexisted with the Lusitanian-Mozarabic dialect,
spoken in the south of Portugal. The dialectal diversity becomes more
evident in the work of Fernão d'Oliveira, in the Grammatica da
Lingoagem Portuguesa, (1536), where he remarks that the people of
Portuguese regions of Beira, Alentejo, Estremadura, and Entre Douro e
Minho, all speak differently from each other. Also Contador d'Argote
(1725) distinguishes three main varieties of dialects: the local
dialects, the dialects of time, and of profession (work jargon). Of
local dialects he highlights five main dialects: the dialect of
Estremadura, of Entre-Douro e Minho, of Beira, of
Algarve and of
Trás-os-Montes. He also makes reference to the overseas dialects, the
rustic dialects, the poetic dialect and that of prose.
In the kingdom of Portugal, Ladinho (or Lingoagem Ladinha) was the
name given to the pure
Portuguese language romance, without any
mixture of Aravia or Gerigonça Judenga. While the term língua
vulgar was used to name the language before D. Dinis decided to call
it "Portuguese language", the erudite version used and known as
Galician-Portuguese (the language of the Portuguese court) and all
Portuguese dialects were spoken at the same time. In a
historical perspective the
Portuguese language was never just one
dialect. Just like today there is a standard Portuguese (actually two)
among the several dialects of Portuguese, in the past there was
Galician-Portuguese as the "standard", coexisting with other dialects.
Influence on other languages
See also: List of English words of Portuguese origin, Loan words in
Malayalam § Portuguese, Loan words in Indonesian, Japanese words
of Portuguese origin, List of Malay loanwords, Portuguese loanwords in
Sinhala, Loan words in Sri Lankan Tamil § Portuguese, and Sri
Lanka Indo-Portuguese language
Portuguese has provided loanwords to many languages, such as
Indonesian, Manado Malay, Malayalam, Sri Lankan Tamil and Sinhalese,
Malay, Bengali, English, Hindi, Swahili, Afrikaans, Konkani, Marathi,
Tetum, Xitsonga, Japanese, Lanc-Patuá (spoken in northern Brazil),
Sranan Tongo (spoken in Suriname). It left a strong influence
on the língua brasílica, a Tupi–Guarani language, which was the
most widely spoken in
Brazil until the 18th century, and on the
language spoken around Sikka in
Flores Island, Indonesia. In nearby
Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in
Holy Week rituals. The
Nippo Jisho (1603) was the first
dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit
missionary activity in Japan. Building on the work of earlier
Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et
Latinum (Annamite–Portuguese–Latin dictionary) of Alexandre de
Rhodes (1651) introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese, which
is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese. The
Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language
(among others), particularly regarding Chinese surnames; one example
is Mei. During 1583–88 Italian
Michele Ruggieri and Matteo
Ricci created a Portuguese–Chinese dictionary—the first ever
For instance, as Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to
introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European
languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are
Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал (portokal), Greek
πορτοκάλι (portokali), Macedonian portokal, Persian
پرتقال (porteghal), and Romanian portocală. Related
names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال
(bourtouqal), Georgian ფორთოხალი (p'ort'oxali),
Turkish portakal and
Amharic birtukan. Also, in southern Italian
dialects (e.g. Neapolitan), an orange is portogallo or purtuallo,
literally "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian
Main article: Portuguese-based creole languages
Participating countries of the Lusophony Games
Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between
Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local
populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts
of Portuguese influence. As each of these pidgins became the mother
tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged
creole languages, which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa
South America until the 18th century. Some Portuguese-based or
Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3
million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese
Main article: Portuguese phonology
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering
support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead
Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see
Spoken Brazilian Portuguese
Portuguese phonology is similar to those of languages such as French
(especially that of Quebec), the Gallo-Italic languages, Occitan,
Catalan and Franco-Provençal, unlike that of Spanish, which is
similar to those of Sardinian and the Southern Italian dialects. Some
would describe the phonology of Portuguese as a blend of Spanish,
Gallo-Romance (e.g. French) and the languages of northern Italy
(especially Genoese), but with a deeper Celtic influence.
There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels, 2 semivowels and 21 consonants;
though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes. There are
also five nasal vowels, which some linguists regard as allophones of
the oral vowels.
Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon, with its /ɐ, ɐ̃/
in central schwa position.
Like Catalan and German, Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast
stressed syllables with unstressed syllables. Unstressed isolated
vowels tend to be raised and sometimes centralized.
Consonant phonemes of Portuguese
Semivowels contrast with unstressed high vowels in verbal conjugation,
as in (eu) rio /ˈʁi.u/ and (ele) riu /ˈʁiw/. Phonologists
discuss whether their nature is vowel or consonant.
In most of
Brazil and Angola, the consonant hereafter denoted as /ɲ/
is realized as a nasal palatal approximant [j̃], which nasalizes the
vowel that precedes it: [ˈnĩj̃u].
Bisol (2005:122) proposes that Portuguese possesses labio-velar stops
/kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/ as additional phonemes rather than sequences of a
velar stop and /w/.
The consonant hereafter denoted as /ʁ/ has a variety of realizations
depending on dialect. In Europe, it is typically a uvular trill [ʀ];
however, a pronunciation as a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] may be
becoming dominant in urban areas. There is also a realization as a
voiceless uvular fricative [χ], and the original pronunciation as an
alveolar trill [r] also remains very common in various dialects.
A common realization of the word-initial /r/ in the
Lisbon accent is a
voiced uvular trill fricative [ʀ̝]. In Brazil, /ʁ/ can be
velar, uvular, or glottal and may be voiceless unless between voiced
sounds. It is usually pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative
[x], a voiceless glottal fricative [h] or voiceless uvular fricative
[χ]. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
/s/ and /z/ are normally lamino-alveolar, as in English. However, a
number of dialects in northern
Portugal pronounce /s/ and /z/ as
apico-alveolar sibilants (sounding somewhat like a soft [ʃ] or [ʒ]),
as in the
Romance languages of northern Iberia. A very few
Portugal dialects still maintain the medieval distinction
between apical and laminal sibilants (written s/ss and c/ç/z,
As a phoneme, /tʃ/ occurs only in loanwords, with a tendency for
speakers to substitute in /ʃ/. However, [tʃ] is an allophone of /t/
before /i/ in a number of Brazilian dialects. Similarly, [dʒ] is an
allophone of /d/ in the same contexts.
In northern and central Portugal, the voiced stops (/b/, /d/, and
/ɡ/)are usually lenited to fricatives [β], [ð], and [ɣ],
respectively, except at the beginning of words or after nasal
vowels. A similar process occurs in Spanish.
Main article: Portuguese grammar
A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb.
Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have
been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language.
Portuguese and Spanish share very similar grammar. Portuguese also has
some grammatical innovations not found in other Romance languages
(except Galician and Fala):
The present perfect has an iterative sense unique to the
Galician-Portuguese language group. It denotes an action or a series
of actions that began in the past but expected to occur again in the
future. For instance, the sentence Tenho tentado falar com ela would
be translated to "I have been trying to talk to her", not "I have
tried to talk to her." On the other hand, the correct translation of
"Have you heard the latest news?" is not *Tem ouvido a última
notícia? but Ouviu a última notícia? since no repetition is
Vernacular Portuguese still uses the future subjunctive mood, which
developed from medieval West Iberian Romance. In modern Spanish and
Galician, it has almost entirely fallen into disuse. The future
subjunctive appears in dependent clauses that denote a condition that
must be fulfilled in the future so that the independent clause will
occur. English normally employs the present tense under the same
Se eu for eleito presidente, mudarei a lei.
If I am elected president, I will change the law.
Quando fores mais velho, vais entender.
When you grow older, you will understand.
The personal infinitive can inflect according to its subject in person
and number. often shows who is expected to perform a certain action.
É melhor voltares "It is better [for you] to go back," É melhor
voltarmos "It is better [for us] to go back." Perhaps for that reason,
infinitive clauses replace subjunctive clauses more often in
Portuguese than in other Romance languages.
Portugal and non-1990 Agreement countries
Brazil and 1990 Agreement countries
best, excellent, optimal
Main article: Portuguese orthography
Portuguese is written with 26 letters of the Latin script, making use
of five diacritics to denote stress, vowel height, contraction,
nasalization, and etymological assibilation (acute accent, circumflex,
grave accent, tilde, and cedilla). The trema was also formerly used in
Brazilian Portuguese, and can still be encountered in words derived
from proper names in other languages, such as Anhangüera and
mülleriano. Accented characters and digraphs are not
counted as separate letters for collation purposes.
Main article: Reforms of Portuguese orthography
Anglophone pronunciation of foreign languages (Portuguese section)
International Portuguese Language Institute
List of countries where Portuguese is an official language
List of international organisations which have Portuguese as an
List of Portuguese-language poets
Asia and Oceania
Cape Verde portal
East Timor portal
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe portal
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^ "Nheengatu and caipira dialect". Sosaci.org. Retrieved 23 July
^ (in Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian
Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco,
Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19–21
^ (in Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista
hinterland: sociolinguistic analysis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page
111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
^ (in Portuguese) Callou, Dinah. Leite, Yonne. Iniciação à
Fonética e à Fonologia. Jorge Zahar Editora 2001, p. 24
^ (in Portuguese) To know a language is really about separating
correct from awry? Language is a living organism that varies by
context and goes far beyond a collection of rules and norms of how to
speak and write Museu da Língua Portuguesa. Archived 22 December 2012
at the Wayback Machine.
^ (in Portuguese) Linguistic prejudice and the surprising (academic
and formal) unity of Brazilian Portuguese
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 April 2014.
Retrieved 19 April 2013.
^ Viviane Maia dos Santos (2012). ""Tu vai para onde? ... Você vai
para onde?": manifestações da segunda pessoa na fala carioca" (PDF).
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved 10 August
^ Maria do Socorro Silva de Aragão. "Aspectos Fonético-Fonológicos
do Falar do Ceará: O Que Tem Surgido nos Inquéritos Experimentais do
Atlas Lingüístico do Brasil - ALiB-Ce" (PDF). Universidade Federal
do Ceará. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ Seung Hwa Lee (2006). "Sobre as vogais pré-tônicas no Português
Brasileiro" (PDF). www.gel.org.br. Faculdade de Letras –
Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais (UFMG). Retrieved 10 August
^ Maria do Socorro Silva de Aragão (2009). "OS ESTUDOS
FONÉTICO-FONOLÓGICOS NOS ESTADOS DA PARAÍBA E DO CEARÁ (Volume 8,
No. 1)" (PDF). Universidade Federal do
Ceará (UFC), Universidade
Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Projeto Atlas Linguístico do Brasil
(ALiB). Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ "Revisitando a palatalização no português brasileiro – Silva
– Revista de Estudos da Linguagem". ufmg.br.
^ "Learn about Portuguese language". Sibila. Retrieved 27 November
^ Note: the speaker of this sound file is from Rio de Janeiro, and he
is talking about his experience with nordestino and nortista accents.
^ por Caipira Zé Do Mér dia 17 de maio de 2011, 6 Comentários. "O
MEC, o "português errado" e a linguistica... ImprenÇa".
Imprenca.com. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved
23 July 2012.
^ "Cartilha Do Mec Ensina Erro De Português". Saindo da Matrix.
Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "Livro do MEC ensina o português errado ou apenas valoriza as
formas linguísticas?". Jornal de Beltrão (in Portuguese). 26 May
2011. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "Sotaque branco". Meia Maratona Internacional CAIXA de Brasília.
Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 25 September
^ "O Que É? Amazônia". Associação de Defesa do Meio Ambiente
Araucária (AMAR). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012.
Retrieved 25 September 2012.
^ "Fala NORTE". Fala UNASP – Centro Universitário Adventista de
São Paulo. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved
25 September 2012.
^ "Rothari -Edictus" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ da Prista, Alexander (1979). Say It in Portuguese. Courier Dover
Publications. p. vii. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ Keller, Karen (2006). Portuguese for Dummies. p. 9. Retrieved
12 June 2015.
^ Swan, Michael; Smith, Bernard (2001). Learner English. Cambridge
University Press. p. 113. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ Florentino, Manolo, and Machado, Cacilda. (in Portuguese) Essay
about Portuguese immigration and the patterns of miscegenation in
Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries (PDF file)
^ (in Portuguese) Eduardo Fonseca, the Dutch Brazilians –
Brazilians in the Netherlands
^ Renato Pinto Venâncio, "Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a
imigrantes" (Portuguese presence: from colonizers to immigrants),
chap. 3 of Brasil: 500 anos de povoamento (IBGE). Relevant extract
available at  Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Jensen, John B. (1989). "On the Mutual Intelligibility of Spanish
and Portuguese". Hispania. 72 (4): 848–852. doi:10.2307/343562.
^ Penny, Ralph (2000). Variation and Change in Spanish. Cambridge
University Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-521-78045-4.
^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive
Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press.
p. 501. ISBN 0-231-11568-7.
^ Ginsburgh, Victor; Weber, Shlomo (2011). How Many Languages Do We
Need?: The Economics of Linguistic Diversity. Princeton University
Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-691-13689-9.
^ a b Lipski, John M (2006). Face, Timothy L; Klee, Carol A, eds. "Too
close for comfort? the genesis of 'portuñol/portunhol'" (PDF).
Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic
Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project: 1–22. Retrieved 21
^ a b "A Fala Galego-Portuguesa Da Baiza Limia e Castro Laboreiro"
(PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2015. [permanent dead link]
^ Grupo El Correo Gallego. "O galego deixa de ser unha das linguas "en
perigo" para a Unesco". Galicia Hoxe – Noticias en galego a diario.
Retrieved 30 May 2015.
^ "Galician". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
^ "Jerónimo Cantador de Argote e a Dialectologia Portuguesa
(continuação)". Lusografias. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
^ Diccionario da lingua portugueza. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
^ "D.Dinis: o Rei a Língua e o Reino" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June
^ Camus, Yves. "Jesuits' Journeys in Chinese Studies" (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 June
^ Dicionário Português–Chinês : Pu Han ci dian:
Portuguese–Chinese dictionary, by Michele Ruggieri, Matteo Ricci;
edited by John W. Witek. Published 2001, Biblioteca Nacional.
ISBN 972-565-298-3. Partial preview available on Google Books
^ a b "Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database: Sorting Citrus
Names". University of Melbourne
<http://www.search.unimelb.edu.au>. Retrieved 11 December
^ Ostergren, Robert C. & Le Bosse, Mathias (2011). The Europeans,
Second Edition: A Geography of People, Culture, and Environment.
Guilford Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-60918-140-6.
^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association
^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228–229)
^ Sobre os Ditongos do Português Europeu. Carvalho, Joana. Faculdade
de Letras da Universidade do Porto. Page 20 (page 10 of PDF file).
Citation: A conclusão será que nos encontramos em presença de dois
segmentos fonológicos /kʷ/ e /ɡʷ/, respetivamente, com uma
articulação vocálica. Bisol (2005:122), tal como Freitas (1997),
afirma que não estamos em presença de um ataque ramificado. Neste
caso, a glide, juntamente com a vogal que a sucede, forma um ditongo
no nível pós-lexical. Esta conclusão implica um aumento do número
de segmentos no inventário segmental fonológico do português.
^ a b Bisol (2005:122). Citation: A proposta é que a sequencia
consoante velar + glide posterior seja indicada no léxico como uma
unidade monofonemática /kʷ/ e /ɡʷ/. O glide que, nete caso,
situa-se no ataque não-ramificado, forma com a vogal seguinte um
ditongo crescente em nível pós lexical. Ditongos crescentes somente
se formam neste nível. Em resumo, a consoante velar e o glide
posterior, quando seguidos de a/o, formam uma só unidade fonológica,
ou seja, um segmento consonantal com articulação secundária
vocálica, em outros termos, um segmento complexo.
^ Rodrigues (2012:39–40)
^ Bisol (2005:123)
^ Thomas (1974:8)
^ Perini, Mário Alberto (2002), Modern Portuguese (A Reference
Grammar), New Haven: Yale University Press,
^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:5–6, 11)
^ Grønnum (2005:157)
^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:11)
^ Squartini, Mario (1998) Verbal Periphrases in Romance—Aspect,
Actionality, and Grammaticalization ISBN 3-11-016160-5
^ "Most Recent Changes to the Portuguese Language".
^ "Guia do Acordo Ortográfico" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Moderna.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2010.
História da Lingua Portuguesa Instituto Camões
A Língua Portuguesa in Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,
Brazil[permanent dead link]
Poesia e Prosa Medievais, by Maria Ema Tarracha Ferreira, Ulisseia
1998, 3rd ed., ISBN 978-972-568-124-4.
Bases Temáticas—Língua, Literatura e Cultura Portuguesa in
Portuguese literature in The Catholic Encyclopedia
Phonology, orthography and grammar
Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004). "Brazilian
Portuguese". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 34
(2): 227–232. doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756.
Bergström, Magnus & Reis, Neves Prontuário Ortográfico
Editorial Notícias, 2004.
Bisol, Leda (2005), Introdução a estudos de fonologia do português
brasileiro (in Portuguese),
Porto Alegre – Rio Grande do Sul:
EDIPUCRS, ISBN 85-7430-529-4
Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995). "European Portuguese". Journal of the
International Phonetic Association. 25 (2): 90–94.
Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.),
Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of
Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
Rodrigues, Marisandra Costa (2012), Encontros Vocálicos Finais em
Português: Descrição e Análise Otimalista (PDF) (thesis),
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Thomas, Earl W. (1974), A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese,
Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press,
A pronúncia do português europeu—
European Portuguese Pronunciation
Dialects of Portuguese at the Instituto Camões
Audio samples of the dialects of Portugal
Audio samples of the dialects from outside Europe
Antônio Houaiss (2000), Dicionário Houaiss da Língua Portuguesa
Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira, Novo Dicionário da Língua
English–Portuguese–Chinese Dictionary (Freeware for
Cook, Manuela. Portuguese Pronouns and Other Forms of Address, from
the Past into the Future – Structural, Semantic and Pragmatic
Reflections, Ellipsis, vol. 11, APSA,
Cook, Manuela (1997). "Uma Teoria de Interpretação das Formas de
Tratamento na Língua Portuguesa". Hispania. 80 (3): 451–464.
doi:10.2307/345821. JSTOR 345821.
Cook, Manuela. On the Portuguese Forms of Address: From Vossa Mercê
to Você, Portuguese Studies Review 3.2, Durham: University of New
Lindley Cintra, Luís F. Nova Proposta de Classificação dos
Dialectos Galego- Portugueses (PDF) Boletim de Filologia, Lisboa,
Centro de Estudos Filológicos, 1971.
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