PORTUGAL (Portuguese : ), officially the PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa ), is a sovereign state located
mostly on the
Iberian Peninsula in southwestern
Europe . It is the
westernmost country of mainland
Europe , being bordered to the west
and south by the
Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by
Its territory also includes the
Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores
Madeira , both autonomous regions with their own regional
governments . At 1.7 million km2, its
Exclusive Economic Zone is the
3rd largest in the
European Union and the 11th largest in the world.
Portugal is the oldest state on the
Iberian Peninsula and one of the
oldest European nation-states, its territory having been continuously
settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times . The
Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the
invasions of the
Germanic peoples .
Portugal as a
country was established in the aftermath of the
Moors who had invaded the
Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD.
Battle of São Mamede , where Portuguese forces led by
Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother, Theresa of
Portugal , the
County of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Afonso
Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal. He would later be
King of Portugal at the
Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was
recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143 .
In the 15th and 16th centuries,
Portugal established the first global
empire , becoming one of the world's major economic, political and
military powers . During this period, today referred to as the Age
of Discovery , Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration,
notably under royal patronage of Prince
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator and King
John II , with such notable voyages as
Bartolomeu Dias ' sailing
Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope (1488),
Vasco da Gama 's discovery of the
sea route to
India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil
Portugal monopolized the spice trade during this time, and the
empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such
as the destruction of
Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake , the country's
occupation during the
Napoleonic Wars , and the independence of Brazil
Portugal crippled from war and diminished in its world
After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but
unstable Portuguese First
Republic was established before later being
superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the
Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending
Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War . Shortly after, independence was granted
to almost all its overseas territories . The handover of
China in 1999 marked the end of the longest-lived colonial empire .
Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence
across the globe , a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers ,
and many Portuguese-based creoles . A member of the
United Nations and
European Union ,
Portugal was also one of the founding members of
NATO , the eurozone , the
OECD , and the Community of Portuguese
Language Countries .
Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy ,
a developed market , and high living standards . It is ranked
highly in terms of
LGBTI rights (6th in Europe), press freedom
(18th), social progress (20th) and prosperity (25th), and has one of
the best road networks in the world. With its political stability and
low crime rates, it is ranked as the most peaceful country in the EU
and the 3rd in the world . Additionally, it is recognized as one of
the fifteen sustainable states , maintaining a unitary
semi-presidential republic .
Portugal ranks above the
OECD average in
Science , and Reading , having been the country with the
most expressive positive evolution throughout
PISA 's studies.
Although historically a Catholic -majority country, in the last
Portugal has transformed itself into a secular state with one
of the world\'s highest rates of moral freedom . It was the first
country to abolish life imprisonment and one of the earliest to
abolish capital punishment . Practices such as abortion , same-sex
marriage and adoption , medically assisted insemination for single
women and lesbian couples, and altruistic surrogacy have been
legalized. In 2001,
Portugal became the first country in the world to
decriminalize the possession and consumption of all illicit drugs ,
focusing on treatment and harm reduction, with significant public
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history: Pre-
* 2.2 Roman
* 2.3 Germanic kingdoms:
* 2.4 Islamic period and the
County of Portucale
* 2.6 Independence and Afonsine era
* 2.7 Joanine era and Age of Discoveries
* 2.8 Iberian Union, Restoration and early Brigantine era
* 2.9 Pombaline era and Enlightenment
* 2.10 Napoleonic era
* 2.11 Constitutional monarchy
* 2.12 First
Republic and Estado Novo
Carnation Revolution and European integration
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 3.2 Biodiversity
* 4 Government and administration
* 4.1 Presidency of the
* 4.2 Government
* 4.4 Law and drug policy
* 4.5 LGBT+ rights in
* 4.6 Law enforcement
* 4.7 Administrative divisions
* 4.8 Foreign relations
* 4.9 Military
* 4.10 Government finance
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Primary sector
* 5.2 Secondary sector
* 5.3 Tertiary sector
* 5.4 Quaternary sector
* 5.5 Transport
* 5.6 Energy
* 6 Demographics
* 6.1 Urbanization
* 6.2 Metropolitan areas and Functional Urban Area (FUA)
* 6.3 Immigration
* 6.4 Religion
* 6.5 Languages
* 6.6 Education
* 6.7 Health
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Architecture
* 7.2 Cinema
* 7.3 Literature
* 7.4 Cuisine
* 7.5 Media
* 7.6 Music
* 7.7 Visual arts
* 7.8 Sport
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 External links
Portugal derives from the Roman -Celtic place name PORTUS
CALE . Cala or Cailleah was the name of a Celtic god and also the
name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the
Vila Nova de Gaia
Vila Nova de Gaia ) which flows into the
in the north of what is now Portugal. Some French scholars believe it
may have come from 'Portus Gallus' , the port of the Gauls or Celts.
Around 200 BC, the Romans took the
Iberian Peninsula from the
Carthaginians during the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War , and in the process
conquered Cale and renamed it
Portus Cale (Port of Cale). During the
Middle Ages , the region around
Portus Cale became known by the Suebi
Visigoths as PORTUCALE. The name Portucale evolved into PORTUGALE
during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term
was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro
and Minho , the Minho flowing along what would become the northern
Spain border . By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale was
already referred to as PORTUGAL.
In the past, PORTINGALE was often used in England as a name for
Portugal. This usage is long since obsolete, but "Portingale" remains
a family name found in England and other English-speaking countries -
such a name likely indicating centuries-old family ancestry from a
Portuguese immigrant to England.
EARLY HISTORY: PRE-CELTS AND CELTS
History of Portugal Reconstructed house in
Citânia de Briteiros (up) and paved yard in Cividade de Terroso
(down), two citadels of the Celtic
Castro culture in Northern Portugal
The early history of
Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian
Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal
derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name
Portus Cale . The region
was settled by Pre-
Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the
Cynetes , visited by Phoenicians
, Ancient Greeks and
Carthaginians , incorporated in the Roman
Republic dominions as
Lusitania and part of
Gallaecia , after 45 BC
until 298 AD.
The region of present-day
Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and
Homo sapiens , who roamed the border-less region of the
northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that,
although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form
organized societies. Neolithic
Portugal experimented with
domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and
fluvial or marine fishing.
It was believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium
BC, several waves of
Portugal from Central
inter-married with the local populations, forming different tribes .
Modern archeology and research shows a Portuguese root to the
Portugal and elsewhere.
Chief among these tribes were the
Lusitanians , with the core area of
these people lying in inland central Portugal, other related tribes
existed such as the
Northern Portugal , the
Alentejo , and the
Cynetes or Conii of the
Algarve . Among the lesser
tribes or sub-divisions were the
Equaesi , Grovii
Nemetati , Paesuri
Turduli Veteres ,
Turdulorum Oppida ,
Turodi , and
Zoelae . A few small, semi-permanent,
commercial coastal settlements (such as Tavira ) were also founded in
Algarve region by
ROMAN LUSITANIA AND GALLAECIA
Gallaecia , and
Évora , one of the best preserved Roman-built structures in
Romans first invaded the
Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC. The
Carthaginians, Rome's adversary in the
Punic Wars , were expelled from
their coastal colonies. During the last days of
Julius Caesar , almost
the entire peninsula was annexed to the Roman
The Roman conquest of what is now part of
Portugal took almost two
hundred years and took many lives of young soldiers and the lives of
those who were sentenced to a certain death in the slavery mines when
not sold as slaves to other parts of the empire. It suffered a severe
setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north. The
Lusitanians and other native tribes, under the leadership of Viriathus
, wrested control of all of western Iberia.
Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to
quell the rebellion, but to no avail—the
Lusitanians kept conquering
territory. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They
bribed Viriathus's allies to kill him. In 139 BC,
assassinated, and Tautalus became leader.
Rome installed a colonial regime. The complete Romanization of
Lusitania only took place in the Visigothic era.
In 27 BC,
Lusitania gained the status of
Roman province . Later, a
northern province of
Lusitania was formed, known as
Gallaecia , with
capital in Bracara Augusta, today's
Braga . There are still many ruins
of castros (hill forts ) all over modern
Portugal and remains of
Castro culture . Numerous Roman sites are scattered around present-day
Portugal, some urban remains are quite large, like
Mirobriga . The former, beyond being one of the largest Roman
settlements in Portugal, is also classified as a National Monument .
Conímbriga lies 16 kilometres (9.9 miles) from
Coimbra which by its
turn was the ancient
Aeminium ). The site also has a museum that
displays objects found by archaeologists during their excavations.
Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads,
circus, theatres and layman's homes are preserved throughout the
country. Coins, some of which coined in Lusitanian land, as well as
numerous pieces of ceramics were also found. Contemporary historians
Paulus Orosius (c. 375–418) and
Hydatius (c. 400–469),
Aquae Flaviae , who reported on the final years of the Roman
rule and arrival of the Germanic tribes .
GERMANIC KINGDOMS: SUEBI AND VISIGOTHS
Suebic King Miro and St. Martin of
Braga from an 1145 manuscript
of Martin's De virtutibus quattuor
In the early 5th century, Germanic tribes , namely the
Suebi and the
Hasdingi ) together with their allies, the
Alans invaded the
Iberian Peninsula where they would
form their kingdom. The Kingdom of the
Suebi was the Germanic
post-Roman kingdom, established in the former Roman provinces of
Lusitania . 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements were
found in Alenquer (from old Germanic Alan kerk, temple of the Alans),
About 410 and during the 6th century it became a formally declared
kingdom, where king
Hermeric made a peace treaty with the Gallaecians
before passing his domains to
Rechila , his son. In 448 Réchila died,
leaving the state in expansion to
In the year 500, the
Visigothic Kingdom was installed in Iberia,
centered on Toledo . The
Visigoths eventually conquered the
its capital city Bracara (modern day Portugal's
Braga ) in 584–585,
following the consecutive defeats of the two last
Suebi kings Audeca
Malaric . The former Kingdom of the
Suebi then became the sixth
province of the
Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania.
For the next 300 years and by the year 700, the entire Iberian
Peninsula was ruled by the Visigoths. This period lasted until 711,
Roderic (Rodrigo) was killed while opposing a Moorish
invasion from the south. From the various Germanic groups who settled
in Western Iberia, the
Suebi left the strongest lasting cultural
legacy in what is today Portugal, Galicia and Asturias. According
to Dan Stanislawski, the Portuguese way of living in regions North of
Tagus is mostly inherited from the Suebi, in which small farms
prevail, distinct from the large properties of Southern Portugal.
Bracara (Augusta), the modern city of
Braga and former capital of
Gallaecia , became the capital of the Suebi. Orosius , at that time
resident in Hispania, shows a rather pacific initial settlement, the
newcomers working their lands or serving as bodyguards of the locals.
Another Germanic group that accompanied the
Suebi and settled in
Gallaecia were the Buri . They settled in the region between the
rivers Cávado and Homem, in the area known as
Terras de Bouro (Lands
of the Buri).
ISLAMIC PERIOD AND THE RECONQUISTA
Silves Castle , a Moorish-era fortification in the
The Caliphate of Cordoba in the early 10th century
Today's modern day continental Portugal, along with most of modern
Spain, was part of al-Andalus between 711 AD – 1249 AD, following
Umayyad Caliphate conquest of the
Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD.
This occupation lasted from some decades in the North to more than
five centuries in the South.
After defeating the
Visigoths in only a few months, the Umayyad
Caliphate started expanding rapidly in the peninsula. Beginning in
711, the land that is now
Portugal became part of the vast Umayyad
Caliphate's empire of
Damascus , which stretched from the
in the Indian sub-continent up to the South of France, until its
collapse in 750. That year the west of the empire gained its
Abd-ar-Rahman I with the establishment of the
Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba . After almost two centuries, the Emirate became
Caliphate of Córdoba in 929, until its dissolution a century
later in 1031 into no less than 23 small kingdoms, called Taifa
The governors of the taifas each proclaimed themselves
Emir of their
provinces and established diplomatic relations with the Christian
kingdoms of the north. Most of
Portugal fell into the hands of the
Taifa of Badajoz of the
Aftasid Dynasty , and after a short spell of
Lisbon in 1022, fell under the dominion of the
Taifa of Seville of the
Abbadids poets. The
Taifa period ended with
the conquest of the
Almoravids who came from
Morocco in 1086 winning a
decisive victory at the
Battle of Sagrajas , followed a century later
in 1147, after the second period of Taifa, by the
Almohads , also from
Al-Andalus was divided into different districts called Kura. Gharb
Al-Andalus at its largest was constituted of ten kuras, each with a
distinct capital and governor. The main cities of the period in
Portugal were Beja , Silves ,
Alcácer do Sal , Santarém and
The Muslim population of the region consisted mainly of native
Iberian converts to
Islam (the so-called
Muwallad or Muladi) and
berbers. The Arabs were principally noblemen from
Oman ; and
though few in numbers, they constituted the elite of the population.
The Berbers were originally from the
Atlas mountains and
Africa and were nomads.
COUNTY OF PORTUCALE
A statue of Count
Vímara Peres , first Count of
County of Portugal
An Asturian Visigothic noble named
Pelagius of Asturias in 718 AD was
elected leader by many of the ousted
Visigoth nobles. Pelagius called
for the remnant of the
Christian Visigothic armies to rebel against
Moors and regroup in the unconquered northern Asturian highlands,
better known today as the
Cantabrian Mountains , in what is today the
small mountain region in North-western
Spain , adjacent to the Bay of
Pelagius' plan was to use the Cantabrian mountains as a place of
refuge and protection from the invading Moors. He then aimed to
regroup the Iberian Peninsula's
Christian armies and use the
Cantabrian mountains as a springboard from which to regain their
lands. In the process, after defeating the
Moors in the Battle of
Covadonga in 722 AD, Pelagius was proclaimed king, thus founding the
Kingdom of Asturias and starting the war of Christian
reconquest known in Portuguese as the
Reconquista Cristã .
At the end of the 9th century, the region of Portugal, between the
rivers Minho and Douro, was freed or reconquered from the
Vímara Peres on the orders of King
Alfonso III of Asturias . Finding
that the region had previously had two major cities—
Portus Cale in
the coast and
Braga in the interior, with many towns that were now
deserted—he decided to repopulate and rebuild them with Portuguese
and Galician refugees and other Christians.
Vímara Peres organized the region he freed from the Moors, and
elevated it to the status of
County , naming it the
County of Portugal
after the region's major port city—Portus Cale' or modern
One of the first cities Vimara Peres founded at this time is
Vimaranes, known today as
Guimarães —the "birthplace of the
Portuguese nation" or the "cradle city" (Cidade Berço in Portuguese).
After annexing the
County of Portugal into one of the several
counties that made up the
Kingdom of Asturias , King Alfonso III of
Asturias knighted Vímara Peres, in 868 AD, as the First Count of
Portus Cale (Portugal). The region became known as Portucale,
Portugale, and simultaneously Portugália—the
County of Portugal .
Alfonso VI of León investing
Henry, Count of Portugal , in 1093
Kingdom of Asturias was divided into a number of Christian
Kingdoms in Northern Iberia due to dynastic divisions of inheritance
among the king's offspring. With the forced abdication of Alfonso III
"the Great" of Asturias by his sons in 910, the Kingdom of Asturias
split into three separate kingdoms of León , Galicia and Asturias.
The three kingdoms were eventually reunited in 924 (León and Galicia
in 914, Asturias later) under the crown of León .
During the century of internecine struggles for dominance among the
Northern Christians kingdoms, the
County of Portugal formed the
southern portion of the Kingdom of Galicia. At times the Kingdom of
Galicia existed independently for short periods, but usually formed an
important part of the
Kingdom of León . Throughout this period, the
County of Portugal as Galicians found themselves struggling
to maintain the autonomy of Galicia with its distinct language and
Galician-Portuguese ) from the Leonese culture, whenever the
status of the
Kingdom of Galicia
Kingdom of Galicia changed in relation to the Kingdom of
León. As a result of political division,
Galician-Portuguese lost its
unity when the
County of Portugal separated from the Kingdom of
Galicia (a dependent kingdom of León) to establish the Kingdom of
Alfonso VI of León and Castile bestowed the county to Henry
of Burgundy and married him to his daughter, Teresa of León , for his
role in reconquering the land from Moors. Henry based his newly formed
county in Bracara Augusta (modern
Braga ), capital city of the ancient
Roman province, and also previous capital of several kingdoms over the
INDEPENDENCE AND AFONSINE ERA
Portugal in the
Middle Ages and Portuguese House of
Afonso Henriques receiving divine intervention at the
Battle of Ourique (1139), where he was acclaimed King of the
On 24 June 1128, the
Battle of São Mamede occurred near
Afonso Henriques , Count of Portugal, defeated his mother Countess
Teresa and her lover
Fernão Peres de Trava , thereby establishing
himself as sole leader. Afonso then turned his arms against the Moors
in the south.
Afonso's campaigns were successful and, on 25 July 1139, he obtained
an overwhelming victory in the
Battle of Ourique , and straight after
was unanimously proclaimed
King of Portugal by his soldiers. This is
traditionally taken as the occasion when the
County of Portugal, as a
fief of the Kingdom of León, was transformed into the independent
Kingdom of Portugal .
Afonso then established the first of the
Portuguese Cortes at Lamego
, where he was crowned by the Archbishop of Braga, though the validity
of the Cortes of
Lamego has been disputed and called a myth created
Portuguese Restoration War . Afonso was recognized in 1143
Alfonso VII of León , and in 1179 by
Pope Alexander III
Pope Alexander III .
Reconquista period, Christians reconquered the Iberian
Peninsula from Moorish domination.
Afonso Henriques and his
successors, aided by military monastic orders , pushed southward to
drive out the Moors. At this time,
Portugal covered about half of its
present area. In 1249, the
Reconquista ended with the capture of the
Algarve and complete expulsion of the last Moorish settlements on the
southern coast, giving
Portugal its present-day borders, with minor
In one of these situations of conflict with the kingdom of Castile ,
Dinis I of Portugal signed with the king
Fernando IV of Castile (which
was represented, when being a minor, by his mother the queen Maria de
Molina ) the
Treaty of Alcañices (1297) , which stipulated that
Portugal abolished agreed treaties against the kingdom of Castile for
supporting the infant
Juan de Castilla . This treaty established inter
alia the border demarcation between the kingdom of
Portugal and the
kingdom of Leon, where the disputed town of
Olivenza was included.
The reigns of Dinis I (Denis I), Afonso IV (Alphons IV), and Pedro I
(Peter I) for the most part saw peace with the
Christian kingdoms of
In 1348 and 1349 Portugal, like the rest of Europe, was devastated by
Black Death . In 1373,
Portugal made an alliance with England ,
which is the longest-standing alliance in the world. Over time, this
went far beyond geo-political and military cooperation (protecting
both nations' interests in Africa, the
Americas and Asia against
French, Spanish and Dutch rivals) and maintained strong trade and
cultural ties between the two old European allies. Particularly in the
Oporto region, there is visible English influence to this day.
JOANINE ERA AND AGE OF DISCOVERIES
History of Portugal (1415–1578) , Portuguese
discoveries , and
House of Aviz
John I of Portugal 's victory at
Battle of Aljubarrota secured the
House of Aviz 's claim to the
Batalha Monastery was erected by King John I to
commemorate his victory in the
1383–85 Crisis against Castile.
John I of Castile , husband of
Beatrice of Portugal
Beatrice of Portugal and
Ferdinand I of Portugal , claimed the throne of
Portugal. A faction of petty noblemen and commoners, led by John of
Aviz (later King John I of Portugal) and commanded by General Nuno
Álvares Pereira defeated the Castilians in the Battle of Aljubarrota
. With this battle, the
House of Aviz became the ruling house of
Portugal spearheaded European exploration of the world and the Age of
Discovery . Prince
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator , son of King João I , became
the main sponsor and patron of this endeavour. During this period,
Portugal explored the
Atlantic Ocean , discovering several Atlantic
archipelagos like the
Madeira , and
Cape Verde , explored the
African coast, colonized selected areas of
Africa , discovered an
eastern route to
India via the
Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope , discovered
Indian Ocean , established trading routes throughout most
of southern Asia , and sent the first direct European maritime trade
and diplomatic missions to China and
Portugal acquired the first of its overseas colonies by
Ceuta , the first prosperous Islamic trade centre in North
Africa . There followed the first discoveries in the
Madeira and the
Azores , which led to the first colonization
Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of
Africa, establishing trading posts for several common types of
tradable commodities at the time , ranging from gold to slaves , as
they looked for a route to
India and its spices , which were coveted
Treaty of Tordesillas , intended to resolve the dispute that had
been created following the return of
Christopher Columbus , was made
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI , the mediator between
Portugal and Spain. It was
signed on 7 June 1494, and divided the newly discovered lands outside
Europe between the two countries along a meridian 370 leagues west of
Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa).
Vasco da Gama reached
India and brought economic prosperity
Portugal and its population of 1.7 million residents, helping to
Portuguese Renaissance . In 1500, the Portuguese explorer
Gaspar Corte-Real reached what is now
Canada and founded the town of
Portugal Cove-St. Philip\'s ,
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador , long before
the French and English in the 17th century, and being just one of many
Portuguese Colonizations of the
Americas . Vasco da Gama
(left) and Prince
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator (right), figures of the
Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered
Brazil and claimed it for
Portugal. Ten years later,
Afonso de Albuquerque conquered
Ormuz in the
Persian Strait , and
Malacca , now a
Malaysia . Thus, the
Portuguese empire held dominion over
commerce in the
Indian Ocean and South Atlantic. Portuguese sailors
set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe, landing
in such places as
Japan , the island of
Timor , and in the
Although for a long period it was believed the Dutch were the first
Europeans to arrive in Australia, there is also some evidence that the
Portuguese may have discovered Australia in 1521.
Treaty of Zaragoza , signed on 22 April 1529 between
Spain, specified the anti-meridian to the line of demarcation
specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas.
All these factors made
Portugal one of the world's major economic,
military, and political powers from the 15th century until the late
IBERIAN UNION, RESTORATION AND EARLY BRIGANTINE ERA
Iberian Union ,
Portuguese Restoration War , and House
of Braganza Territories of the
Portuguese Empire during the
Portugal's sovereignty was interrupted between 1580 and 1640. This
occurred because the last two kings of the
House of Aviz – King
Sebastian , who died in the battle of Alcácer Quibir in
Morocco , and
his great-uncle and successor, King Henry of
Portugal – both died
without heirs, resulting in the
Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 .
Subsequently, Philip II of
Spain claimed the throne and so became
Philip I of Portugal. Although
Portugal did not lose its formal
independence, it was governed by the same monarch who governed the
Spanish Empire , briefly forming a union of kingdoms. At this time
Spain was a geographic territory . The joining of the two crowns
Portugal of an independent foreign policy and led to its
involvement in the Eighty Years\' War between
Spain and the
War led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal\'s oldest
ally, England , and the loss of Hormuz , a strategic trading post
Oman . From 1595 to 1663 the Dutch-Portuguese
War primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many Portuguese
colonies and commercial interests in Brazil, Africa,
India and the Far
East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian sea trade
monopoly. King John V patronized numerous artistic works, earning
him the epithet of the Portuguese Sun King.
In 1640, John IV spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles
and was proclaimed king. The
Portuguese Restoration War between
Portugal and the Spanish Empire, in the aftermath of the 1640 revolt,
ended the sixty-year period of the
Iberian Union under the House of
Habsburg . This was the beginning of the
House of Braganza , which
Portugal until 1910.
King John IV's eldest son came to reign as Afonso VI , however his
physical and mental disabilities left him overpowered by Luís de
Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor . In a palace coup
organized by the King's wife,
Maria Francisca of Savoy
Maria Francisca of Savoy , and his
brother, Pedro, Duke of Beja , King Afonso VI was declared mentally
incompetent and exiled first to the
Azores and then to the Royal
Palace of Sintra , outside Lisbon. After Afonso's death, Pedro came to
the throne as King Pedro II. Pedro's reign saw the consolidation of
national independence, imperial expansion, and investment in domestic
Pedro II's son, John V , saw a reign characterized by the influx of
gold into the coffers of the royal treasury, supplied largely by the
royal fifth (a tax on precious metals) that was received from the
Portuguese colonies of
Brazil and Maranhão . Acting as an absolute
monarch, John nearly depleted his country's tax revenues on ambitious
architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace , and on commissions
and additions for his sizable art and literary collections.
Official estimates – and most estimates made so far – place the
number of Portuguese migrants to Colonial
Brazil during the gold rush
of the 18th century at 600,000. This represented one of the largest
movements of European populations to their colonies in the Americas
during colonial times.
POMBALINE ERA AND ENLIGHTENMENT
History of Portugal (1640–1777) The 1st Marquis
of Pombal effectively ruled
Portugal during the reign of King José I
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal ,
began a diplomatic career as the Portuguese
Vienna . The
Queen consort of Portugal, Archduchess Maria
Anne Josefa of
Austria , was fond of Melo; and after his first wife
died, she arranged the widowed de Melo's second marriage to the
daughter of the Austrian Field Marshal
Leopold Josef, Count von Daun
Leopold Josef, Count von Daun .
John V of Portugal , however, was not pleased and recalled Melo
Portugal in 1749. John V died the following year and his son,
Joseph I of Portugal, was crowned. In contrast to his father, Joseph I
was fond of de Melo, and with the
Queen Mother 's approval, he
appointed Melo as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
As the King's confidence in de Melo increased, the King entrusted him
with more control of the state. By 1755, Sebastião de Melo was made
Prime Minister. Impressed by British economic success that he had
witnessed from the Ambassador, he successfully implemented similar
economic policies in Portugal. He abolished slavery in
Portugal and in
Portuguese colonies in India; reorganized the army and the navy;
restructured the University of
Coimbra , and ended discrimination
Christian sects in Portugal.
But Sebastião de Melo's greatest reforms were economic and
financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to
regulate every commercial activity. He demarcated the region for
production of Port to ensure the wine's quality, and this was the
first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He
ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of
Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working
class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system.
These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially
among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.
Disaster fell upon
Portugal in the morning of 1 November 1755, when
Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated moment
magnitude of 8.5–9. The city was razed to the ground by the
earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires. Sebastião
de Melo survived by a stroke of luck and then immediately embarked on
rebuilding the city, with his famous quote: "What now? We bury the
dead and take care of the living."
Despite the calamity and huge death toll ,
Lisbon suffered no
epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt. The
new city centre of
Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent
earthquakes. Architectural models were built for tests, and the
effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the
models. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline City Centre
still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions. Sebastião de
Melo also made an important contribution to the study of seismology by
designing an inquiry that was sent to every parish in the country.
Lisbon earthquake devastated
Portugal with an
estimated magnitude between 8.5–9.0.
Following the earthquake, Joseph I gave his Prime Minister even more
power, and Sebastião de Melo became a powerful, progressive dictator.
As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter
disputes with the high nobility became frequent. In 1758 Joseph I was
wounded in an attempted assassination. The Távora family and the Duke
of Aveiro were implicated and executed after a quick trial. The
Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by
the crown. Sebastião de Melo prosecuted every person involved, even
women and children. This was the final stroke that broke the power of
the aristocracy. Joseph I made his loyal minister Count of Oeiras in
Spain invaded Portuguese territory as part of the Seven
Years\' War , but by 1763 the status quo between
Spain and Portugal
before the war had been restored.
Following the Távora affair, the new Count of Oeiras knew no
opposition. Made "Marquis of Pombal" in 1770, he effectively ruled
Portugal until Joseph I's death in 1779. However, historians also
argue that Pombal’s "enlightenment," while far-reaching, was
primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of
individual liberty and especially an apparatus for crushing
opposition, suppressing criticism, and furthering colonial economic
exploitation as well as intensifying book censorship and consolidating
personal control and profit.
History of Portugal (1777–1834) and United Kingdom
Brazil and the Algarves The Departure of the
Portuguese Royal Court to
Brazil in 1808 Allegory of the Virtues
Prince Regent John ; D. Sequeira , 1810
The new ruler, Queen
Maria I of Portugal , disliked the Marquis
because of the power he amassed, and never forgave him for the
ruthlessness with which he dispatched the Távora family, and upon her
accession to the throne, she withdrew all his political offices.
Pombal died on his estate at Pombal in 1782.
In the autumn of 1807,
Napoleon moved French troops through
invade Portugal. From 1807 to 1811, British-Portuguese forces would
successfully fight against the French invasion of
Portugal , while the
royal family and the Portuguese nobility , including Maria I,
relocated to the Portuguese territory of
Brazil , at that time a
colony of the
Portuguese Empire , in South America. This episode is
known as the Transfer of the Portuguese Court to
With the occupation by Napoleon,
Portugal began a slow but inexorable
decline that lasted until the 20th century. This decline was hastened
by the independence in 1822 of the country's largest colonial
possession, Brazil. In 1807, as Napoleon's army closed in on Lisbon,
João VI of Portugal transferred his court to Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro as the capital of the Portuguese
Empire. In 1815,
Brazil was declared a Kingdom and the Kingdom of
Portugal was united with it, forming a pluricontinental State, the
United Kingdom of Portugal,
Brazil and the Algarves . The
frontispiece of the 1826
Portuguese Constitution featuring
King-Emperor Pedro IV and his daughter Queen Maria II
As a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the
Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic, economical ,
military, educational , and scientific apparatus were expanded and
highly modernized. Portuguese and their allied British troops fought
French Invasion of Portugal
French Invasion of Portugal and by 1815 the situation in
Europe had cooled down sufficiently that João VI would have been able
to return safely to Lisbon. However, the
King of Portugal remained in
Brazil until the
Liberal Revolution of 1820 , which started in
demanded his return to
Lisbon in 1821.
Thus he returned to
Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of
Brazil. When the Portuguese Government attempted the following year to
return the Kingdom of
Brazil to subordinate status, his son Pedro,
with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elites, declared
Brazil\'s independence from Portugal.
Cisplatina (today's sovereign
state of Uruguay), in the south, was one of the last additions to the
Brazil under Portuguese rule.
Brazilian independence was recognized in 1825, whereby Emperor Pedro
I granted to his father the titular honour of Emperor of Brazil. John
VI's death in 1826 caused serious questions in his succession. Though
Pedro was his heir, and reigned briefly as Pedro IV, his status as a
Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese
throne by both nations. Pedro abdicated in favour of his daughter,
Maria II . However, Pedro's brother, Infante Miguel , claimed the
throne in protest. After a proposal for Miguel and Maria to marry
failed, Miguel seized power as King Miguel I, in 1828. In order to
defend his daughter's rights to the throne, Pedro launched the Liberal
Wars to reinstall his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy
in Portugal. The war ended in 1834, with Miguel's defeat, the
promulgation of a constitution, and the reinstatement of Queen Maria
History of Portugal (1834–1910) Top to
Lisbon Regicide (1908), Manuel II 's acclamation as King
(1908) and the Proclamation of the
Queen Maria II and King Ferdinand II 's son, King
Pedro V modernized
the country during his short reign (1853–1861). Under his reign,
roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in
public health advanced. His popularity increased when, during the
cholera outbreak of 1853–1856, he visited hospitals handing out
gifts and comforting the sick. Pedro's reign was short, as he died of
cholera in 1861, after a series of deaths in the royal family,
including his two brothers Infante Fernando and Infante João, Duke of
Beja , and his wife,
Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen . Not
having children, his brother,
Luís I of Portugal ascended the throne
and continued his modernization.
At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal
had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few
bases in Asia.
Bissau , Lourenço Marques , Porto
Amboim and the
Island of Mozambique
Island of Mozambique were among the oldest
Portuguese-founded port cities in its African territories. During this
phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in
Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European
With the Conference of Berlin of 1884, Portuguese
had their borders formally established on request of
Portugal in order
to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent
from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for
Africa . Portuguese
Africa's cities and towns like
Nova Lisboa , Sá da Bandeira , Silva
Vila Junqueiro ,
Vila Pery and Vila Cabral
were founded or redeveloped inland during this period and beyond. New
coastal towns like Beira , Moçâmedes ,
João Belo , Nacala
Porto Amélia were also founded. Even before the turn of the 20th
century, railway tracks as the
Benguela railway in Angola, and the
Beira railway in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas
and selected inland regions.
Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in
Africa include the
1890 British Ultimatum . This forced the Portuguese
military to retreat from the land between the
Portuguese colonies of
Angola (most of present-day
which had been claimed by
Portugal and included in its "
Pink Map ",
which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo
The Portuguese territories in
Cape Verde , São Tomé and
Portuguese Guinea ,
Angola , and
Mozambique . The tiny
São João Baptista de Ajudá on the coast of
was also under Portuguese rule. In addition,
Portugal still ruled the
Asian territories of Portuguese
India , Portuguese
On 1 February 1908, the king Dom
Carlos I of Portugal and his heir
apparent , Prince Royal Dom Luís Filipe ,
Duke of Braganza , were
Lisbon . Under his rule,
Portugal had twice been declared
bankrupt – on 14 June 1892, and again on 10 May 1902 – causing
social turmoil, economic disturbances, protests, revolts and criticism
of the monarchy.
Manuel II of Portugal became the new king, but was
eventually overthrown by the
5 October 1910 revolution , which
abolished the regime and instated republicanism in Portugal.
FIRST REPUBLIC AND ESTADO NOVO
Left to right: President
Bernardino Machado , President Teófilo
Braga , President
António José de Almeida
António José de Almeida , and Prime Minister
Afonso Costa ; 1911 Main articles: Portuguese First
Estado Novo (Portugal)
Political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for
chaos and unrest during the Portuguese First
Republic . These
conditions would lead to the failed
Monarchy of the North , 28 May
1926 coup d\'état , and the creation of the National Dictatorship
Ditadura Nacional ). This in turn led to the establishment of the
right-wing dictatorship of the Estado Novo under António de Oliveira
Salazar in 1933.
Portugal was one of only five European countries to remain neutral in
World War II
World War II . From the 1940s to the 1960s,
Portugal was a founding
OECD and the
European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of
mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa
were initiated, with
Mozambique , as the largest and
richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those
initiatives. These actions were used to affirm Portugal's status as a
transcontinental nation and not as a colonial empire.
India attained independence in 1947, pro-Indian residents of
Dadra and Nagar Haveli , with the support of the Indian government and
the help of pro-independence organisations, separated the territories
Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in 1954. In 1961, São
João Baptista de Ajudá 's annexation by the
the start of a process that led to the final dissolution of the
centuries-old Portuguese Empire. António de Oliveira Salazar
Portugal from 1932 to 1968, within the Estado Novo regime.
According to the census of 1921
São João Baptista de Ajudá had 5
inhabitants and, at the moment of the ultimatum by the Dahomey
Government, it had only 2 inhabitants representing Portuguese
Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in
December 1961 when
Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of
Daman and Diu . As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were
involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese
Indian Armed Forces .
The operations resulted in the defeat and surrender of the limited
Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much
larger military force. The outcome was the loss of the remaining
Portuguese territories in the
Indian subcontinent . The Portuguese
regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed
territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National
Assembly until the military coup of 1974.
Also in the early 1960s, independence movements in the Portuguese
overseas provinces of
Mozambique and Guinea in Africa,
resulted in the
Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974).
Throughout the colonial war period
Portugal had to deal with
increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions
imposed by most of the international community. However, the
authoritarian and conservative Estado Novo regime, first installed and
António de Oliveira Salazar and from 1968 onwards led by
Marcelo Caetano , tried to preserve a vast centuries-long
intercontinental empire with a total area of 2,168,071 km2.
CARNATION REVOLUTION AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
Carnation Revolution and Portuguese transition to
Africa before independence in 1975
The Portuguese government and army resisted the decolonization of its
overseas territories until April 1974, when a bloodless left-wing
military coup in
Lisbon , known as the
Carnation Revolution , led the
way for the independence of the overseas territories in
Asia, as well as for the restoration of democracy after two years of a
transitional period known as
PREC (Processo Revolucionário Em Curso
). This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes
between left- and right-wing political forces. The retreat from the
overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by
Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations, which would
create independent states in 1975, prompted a mass exodus of
Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from
Portuguese Angola and
Over one million Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese
provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the
new identities of the former
Portuguese colonies in
Africa and Asia.
Mário Soares and
António de Almeida Santos were charged with
organising the independence of Portugal's overseas territories. By
1975, all the Portuguese African territories were independent and
Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years.
Portugal continued to be governed by a Junta de Salvação Nacional
until the Portuguese legislative election of 1976 . It was won by the
Portuguese Socialist Party (PS) and Mário Soares, its leader, became
Prime Minister of the 1st Constitutional Government on 23 July. Mário
Soares would be Prime Minister from 1976 to 1978 and again from 1983
to 1985. In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth
and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation
Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime. He
initiated the process of accession to the European Economic Community
(EEC) by starting accession negotiations as early as 1977. Mário
Soares became Portugal's first democratically elected Prime-Minister
Portugal bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal
Land reform and nationalizations were enforced; the Portuguese
Constitution (approved in 1976) was rewritten in order to accommodate
socialist and communist principles. Until the constitutional revisions
of 1982 and 1989, the constitution was a highly charged ideological
document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers,
and the desirability of a socialist economy . Portugal's economic
situation after its transition to democracy, obliged the government to
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund (IMF)-monitored stabilization
programs in 1977–78 and 1983–85.
Portugal joined the
European Economic Community
European Economic Community (EEC) that
later became the
European Union (EU). In the following years
Portugal's economy progressed considerably as a result of EEC/EU
structural and cohesion funds and Portuguese companies' easier access
to foreign markets.
Portugal's last overseas territory,
Macau , was peacefully handed
over to the People's
Republic of China (PRC) in 1999, under the 1987
joint declaration that set the terms for Macau's handover from
Portugal to the PRC. In 2002, the independence of East
was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete
decolonization process that was started in 1975 because of the
Carnation Revolution, but interrupted by an Indonesian armed invasion
and occupation . The Treaty of
Lisbon was signed in 2007, when
Portugal held the presidency for the
European Council .
On 26 March 1995,
Portugal started to implement
Schengen Area rules,
eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while
simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states.
In 1996 the country was a co-founder of the Community of Portuguese
Language Countries (CPLP) headquartered in Lisbon. Expo \'98 took
Portugal and in 1999 it was one of the founding countries of
the euro and the eurozone .
On 5 July 2004,
José Manuel Barroso , then Prime Minister of
Portugal , was nominated
President of the European Commission , the
most powerful office in the European Union. On 1 December 2009, the
Lisbon entered into force, after it had been signed by the
European Union member states on 13 December 2007 in the Jerónimos
Monastery , in Lisbon, enhancing the efficiency and democratic
legitimacy of the Union and improving the coherence of its action. The
Republic of Ireland was the only EU state to hold a democratic
referendum on the
Lisbon Treaty; it was initially rejected by voters
Economic disruption and an unsustainable growth in borrowing costs in
the wake of the late-2000s financial crisis led the country to
negotiate in 2011 with the IMF and the European Union, through the
European Financial Stability Mechanism (EFSM) and the European
Financial Stability Facility (EFSF), a loan to help the country
stabilise its finances.
Geography of Portugal Topography and
The territory of
Portugal includes an area in the Iberian Peninsula
(referred to as the continent by most Portuguese) and two archipelagos
Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of
Madeira and the Azores. It
lies between latitudes 32° and 43° N , and longitudes 32° and 6° W
Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the
Tagus , that flows
Spain and disgorges in
Tagus Estuary, in Lisbon, before escaping
into the Atlantic. The northern landscape is mountainous towards the
interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the
south, including the
Algarve and the
Alentejo regions, is
characterized by rolling plains.
Portugal's highest peak is the similarly named
Mount Pico on the
island of Pico in the Azores. This ancient volcano, which measures
2,351 m (7,713 ft) is an iconic symbol of the Azores, while the Serra
da Estrela on the mainland (the summit being 1,991 m (6,532 ft) above
sea level) is an important seasonal attraction for skiers and winter
The archipelagos of
Madeira and the
Azores are scattered within the
Atlantic Ocean: the
Azores straddling the Mid-
Atlantic Ridge on a
tectonic triple junction, and
Madeira along a range formed by in-plate
hotspot geology. Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic
and seismic events. The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in
Capelinhos ) and minor earthquakes occur sporadically,
usually of low intensity.
Portugal\'s exclusive economic zone , a sea zone over which the
Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine
resources, has 1,727,408 km2. This is the 3rd largest exclusive
economic zone of the
European Union and the 11th largest in the world.
Climate of Portugal The Marinha Beach in Lagoa ,
Algarve is considerated by the
Michelin Guide as one of the 10 most
beautiful beaches in
Europe and as one of the 100 most beautiful
beaches in the world.
Portugal is defined as a
Mediterranean climate (Csa in the South,
Douro region; Csb in the North, Central
coastal Alentejo; mixed oceanic climate along the northern half of the
coastline and also
Semi-arid climate or
Steppe climate (BSk in
certain parts of Beja district far South) according to the
Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification ), and is one of the warmest
European countries: the annual average temperature in mainland
Portugal varies from 8–12 °C (46.4–53.6 °F) in the mountainous
interior north to 16–18 °C (60.8–64.4 °F) in the south and on
Guadiana river basin . There are however, variations from the
highlands to the lowlands: Rivas Martinez, presents several different
bioclimatic zones for Portugal. The
Algarve , separated from the
Alentejo region by mountains reaching up to 900 metres (3,000 ft) in
Alto de Fóia, has a climate similar to that of the southern coastal
Spain or Southwest Australia.
Annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from just over 3,200
mm (126.0 in) in the northern mountains to less than 300 mm (11.8 in)
in the area of the Massueime River, near Côa, along the
Mount Pico is recognized as receiving the largest annual rainfall
(over 6,250 mm (246.1 in) per year) in Portugal, according to
Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (English: Portuguese
Institute of the Sea and the Atmosphere).
In some areas, such as the
Guadiana basin, annual average
temperatures can be as high as 28 °C (82 °F), and summer highest
temperatures routinely are over 40 °C (104 °F). The record high of
47.4 °C (117.3 °F) was recorded in
Amareleja , although this might
not be the hottest spot in summer, according to satellite readings.
Snowfalls occur regularly in the winter in the interior North and
Centre of the country in districts such as Guarda , Bragança , Viseu
and Vila Real , particularly on the mountains. In winter temperatures
may drop below −10.0 °C (14.0 °F) in particular in Serra da
Serra do Gerês ,
Serra do Marão and Serra de Montesinho .
In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. In the
South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest
elevations. While the official absolute minimum by IPMA is −16.0 °C
(3.2 °F) in
Penhas da Saúde
Penhas da Saúde and
Miranda do Douro , lower
temperatures have been recorded, such as −17.5 °C (0.5 °F) by
Bragança Polytechnic Institute in the outskirts of the city in 1983,
and below −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) in Serra da Estrela.
Portugal has around 2500 to 3200 hours of sunshine a year, an average
of 4–6 h in winter and 10–12 h in the summer, with higher values
in the south-east and lower in the north-west.
The sea surface temperature on the west coast of mainland Portugal
varies from 13–15 °C (55.4–59.0 °F) in winter to 18–22 °C
(64.4–71.6 °F) in the summer while on the south coast it ranges
from 15 °C (59.0 °F) in winter and rises in the summer to about 23
°C (73.4 °F) occasionally reaching 26 °C (78.8 °F).
Both the archipelagos of the
Madeira have a subtropical
climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather
predictions very difficult (owing to rough topography). The Madeira
and Azorean archipelagos have a narrower temperature range, with
annual average temperatures exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) along the coast
(according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute). Some islands
Azores do have drier months in the summer. Consequently, the island
Azores have been identified as having a
(both Csa and Csb types), while some islands (such as Flores or Corvo
) are classified as Maritime Temperate (Cfb) and Humid subtropical
(Cfa), respectively, according to Köppen-Geiger classification.
Porto Santo island in
Madeira has a semi-arid steppe climate (BSh).
Savage Islands , which are part of the regional territory of
Madeira and a nature reserve are unique in being classified as a
desert climate (BWh) with an annual average rainfall of approximately
150 mm (5.9 in). The sea surface temperature in the archipelagos
varies from 17–18 °C (62.6–64.4 °F) in winter to 24–25 °C
(75.2–77.0 °F) in the summer occasionally reaching 25 °C (77.0
Benagil coastal cave, near Marinha Beach , on the
Sete Cidades volcanic lagoons, on the island of São Miguel
Serra da Estrela
Serra da Estrela , the highest mountain range on continental
Serra do Marão in Trás-os-Montes Province
Vila Nova de Milfontes , on the
The cultivated hillsides of the
Douro river valley of Northern
Monsaraz and the Alqueva Reservoir on the background, on the Alentejo
Pico Island and
Mount Pico , the highest mountain in Portugal, seen
São Jorge Island
Cabo da Roca , the westernmost point of mainland
View of the mountains in
Peneda-Gerês National Park is the only national park in
Despite the fact that humans have occupied the territory of Portugal
for thousands of years, something still remains of the original
vegetation. In Gerês both mature deciduous and coniferous forests can
be found, an extremely rare worldwide mature
remain in some parts of the Arrábida mountain and a subtropical
laurissilva forest, dating back to the Tertiary period, covers its
largest continuous area in the world in the
Madeira main island. Due
to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and
other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas.
Boar , Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are
reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades. Boars were
found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like in
Protected areas of Portugal include one national park
(Portuguese : Parque Nacional), 12 natural parks (Portuguese : Parque
Natural), nine natural reserves (Portuguese : Reserva Natural), five
natural monuments (Portuguese : Monumento Natural), and seven
protected landscapes (Portuguese : Paisagem Protegida), which include
Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês , the Parque Natural da Serra da
Estrela and the Paul d\'Arzila .
These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include
widespread species of pine (especially the
Pinus pinaster and Pinus
pinea species), the English oak (
Quercus robur ), the Pyrenean oak
Quercus pyrenaica ) the chestnut (
Castanea sativa ), the cork-oak
Quercus suber ), the holm oak (
Quercus ilex ) or the Portuguese oak
Quercus faginea ). Due to their economic value, some species of the
Eucalyptus genus were introduced and are now common, despite their
Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest found in few
Europe and the world: in the Azores, and in particular on the
island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurisilva
forests (the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve). There
are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox ,
badger , iberian lynx , iberian wolf , wild goat (
Capra pyrenaica ),
wild cat (
Felis silvestris ), hare , weasel , polecat , chameleon ,
mongoose , civet , brown bear (spotted near Rio Minho, close to
Peneda-Gerês) and many others.
Portugal is an important stopover for
migratory birds, in places such as
Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique
mountains, where thousands of birds cross from
the autumn or in the spring (return migration).
Estrela Mountain Dog , an
Eurasian otter , a
European bee-eater , and a
Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula
since it is the closest stopover between Northern
Europe and Africa.
Six hundred bird species occur in
Portugal (either for nesting or
during the course of migration), and annually there are new registries
of nesting species. The archipelagos of the
transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while
Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird
There are more than 100 freshwater fish species, varying from the
giant European catfish (in the
Tagus International Natural Park) to
some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes (along
the western portion of country, for example). Some of these rare and
specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss,
pollution and drought. Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal
makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of
marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in
Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands
of species, such as the sardine (Sardina pilchardus), tuna and
Atlantic mackerel . Bioluminescent species are also well represented
(including species in different colour spectrum and forms), like the
glowing plankton that are possible to observe in some beaches.
There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain
parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the
stag beetle (Lucanus cervus) and the cicada . The Macaronesian islands
Azores and Madeira) have many endemic species (like birds, reptiles,
bats, insects, snails and slugs) that evolved independently from other
regions of Portugal. In Madeira, for example, it is possible to
observe more than 250 species of land gastropods .
GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Government of Portugal and
Politics of Portugal
António Costa , 119th
Prime Minister of Portugal . Marcelo
Rebelo de Sousa , 20th
President of Portugal .
Portugal has been a semi-presidential representative democratic
republic since the ratification of the Constitution of 1976 , with
Lisbon , the nation's largest city, as its capital. The Constitution
grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred
as "organs of Sovereignty": the President of the
Republic , the
Government , the Assembly of the
Republic and the
The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive
role: the current President is
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa . The Assembly
Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of 230
deputies elected for a four-year term. The Government is headed by the
Prime Minister (currently
António Costa ) and includes Ministers and
Secretaries of State. The
Courts are organized into several levels,
among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches. The Supreme
Courts are institutions of last resort/appeal. A thirteen-member
Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.
Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive
legislatures/local administrative governments at the national,
regional and local levels. The Assembly of the Republic, Regional
Assemblies and local municipalities and parishes, are dominated by two
political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party
, in addition to the
Unitary Democratic Coalition (Portuguese
Communist Party and
Ecologist Party "The Greens" ), the
Left Bloc and
the Democratic and Social Centre – People\'s Party , which garner
between 5 and 15% of the vote regularly.
PRESIDENCY OF THE REPUBLIC
Belém Palace serves as the official residence and workplace of
the President of the
Republic . Main articles: President of Portugal
List of Presidents of Portugal
The Head of State of
Portugal is the President of the
elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage . He or she
has also supervision and reserve powers . Presidential powers include
the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the
Government (where the President takes into account the results of
legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the
Assembly of the
Republic (to call early elections); vetoing
legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a
state of war or siege. The President is also the ex officio
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of
State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former
Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by
the Assembly, and five selected by the president.
Government of Portugal ,
Prime Minister of Portugal ,
List of Prime Ministers of Portugal The Praça do Comércio
houses multiple ministries of the
Government of Portugal .
The Government is headed by the presidentially appointed Prime
Minister , also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers,
Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State.
The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the
general politics of the country and the superior body of the public
It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative
powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about
areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly
Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws
issued by the Assembly.
The Council of Ministers – under the presidency of the Prime
Minister (or the
President of Portugal at the latter's request) and
the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers)
– acts as the cabinet . Each government is required to define the
broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the
Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly
to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies
confirms the cabinet in office.
São Bento Palace is the seat of the Portuguese Legislature .
Main article: Assembly of the
The Assembly of the
Republic , in
Lisbon is the national parliament
of Portugal. It is the main Legislative body, although the Government
also has limited legislative powers.
The Assembly of the
Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to
230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of
closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve
four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly
and calls for new elections.
Currently the Government (PS) and its unofficial coalition (BE, PCP,
PEV) controls parliament with the most seats. The PSD and CDS-PP form
the opposition to the government alongside a single seat held by the
LAW AND DRUG POLICY
The Palace of Justice in
Lisbon houses the courts for the
Comarca of District of
Lisbon . Main articles: Judiciary of
Law of Portugal ,
Drug policy of Portugal , and LGBT rights
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system,
also called the continental family legal system. The main laws include
the Constitution (1976, as amended), the
Portuguese Civil Code (1966,
as amended) and the
Penal Code of Portugal (1982, as amended). Other
relevant laws are the Commercial Code (1888, as amended) and the Civil
Procedure Code (1961, as amended).
The supreme national courts are the Supreme Court of Justice and the
Constitutional Court . The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney
General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public
Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and
continues to be the major influence for those countries.
Portugal was one of the first countries in the world to abolish the
death penalty. Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years.
Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all
common drugs in 2001, the first country in the world to do so.
Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are
still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine
, heroin , and
LSD . While possession is legal, trafficking and
possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still
punishable by jail time and fines. People caught with small amounts of
any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may
refuse treatment without consequences. Despite criticism from other
European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would
tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the
HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50 percent by 2009.
Drug use among 16- to 18-year-olds also declined, however the use of
marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.
LGBT+ RIGHTS IN PORTUGAL
LGBT rights in Portugal
LGBT+ rights have increased substantially in the past years. On 31
Portugal became the sixth country in
Europe and the eighth
country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the
national level. The law came into force on 5 June 2010. Same-sex
adoption is allowed since 1 March 2016 as is female same-sex couple
access to medically assisted reproduction since 13 May 2016. This
bill was adopted by the
Parliament and signed by President Marcelo
Rebelo de Sousa . As of January 2017 the New Law of Gender
Identity, simplified the process of gender and name change for
transgender , making it easier for minors to change their gender
A cavalryman of the National Republican Guard 's honor guard
Law enforcement in Portugal
Portugal's main police organizations are the Guarda Nacional
Republicana – GNR (National Republican Guard ), a gendarmerie ; the
Polícia de Segurança Pública – PSP (Public Security Police), a
civilian police force who work in urban areas; and the Polícia
Judiciária – PJ (Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal
investigation police that is overseen by the Public Ministry .
Administrative divisions of Portugal
Administrative divisions of Portugal
Portugal is divided into 308 municipalities
(Portuguese : municípios or concelhos ), which after a reform in 2013
are subdivided into 3,092 civil parishes (Portuguese : freguesia ).
Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the
national government, are the only legally identifiable local
administrative units identified by the government of
example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although
may be used as catchment for the defining services). For statistical
purposes the Portuguese government also identifies NUTS ,
inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used
until European integration (and being phased-out by the national
Continental Portugal is agglomerated into 18 districts,
while the archipelagos of the
Madeira are governed as
autonomous regions ; the largest units, established since 1976, are
Portugal (Portuguese :
Portugal Continental) and the
autonomous regions of
The 18 districts of mainland
Portugal are: Aveiro , Beja ,
Bragança , Castelo Branco ,
Évora , Faro , Guarda , Leiria
Lisbon , Portalegre ,
Porto , Santarém ,
Setúbal , Viana do
Castelo , Vila Real and
Viseu – each district takes the name of the
European Union NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for
Statistics ) system,
Portugal is divided into seven regions: the
Algarve , Centro , Lisboa ,
Madeira and Norte ,
and with the exception of the
Azores and Madeira, these NUTS areas are
subdivided into 28 subregions.
2,761 km2 (1,066 sq mi)
5,518 km2 (2,131 sq mi)
3,517 km2 (1,358 sq mi)
3,947 km2 (1,524 sq mi)
6,747 km2 (2,605 sq mi)
2,808 km2 (1,084 sq mi)
5,064 km2 (1,955 sq mi)
5,007 km2 (1,933 sq mi)
10,225 km2 (3,948 sq mi)
6,608 km2 (2,551 sq mi)
4,960 km2 (1,915 sq mi)
4,328 km2 (1,671 sq mi)
7,393 km2 (2,854 sq mi)
2,395 km2 (925 sq mi)
6,065 km2 (2,342 sq mi)
2,673 km2 (1,032 sq mi)
6,675 km2 (2,577 sq mi)
Viana do Castelo
2,255 km2 (871 sq mi)
Azores Autonomous Region
2,333 km2 (901 sq mi)
Madeira Autonomous Region
801 km2 (309 sq mi)
Necessidades Palace houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs .
Current Secretary-General of the
United Nations and former Prime
António Guterres The Community of Portuguese
Language Countries (CPLP) is headquartered in Lisbon. Main article:
Foreign relations of Portugal
Foreign relations of Portugal
A member state of the
United Nations since 1955,
Portugal is also a
founding member of
OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960); it left
the last in 1986 to join the
European Economic Community
European Economic Community , which
European Union in 1993. In 1996 it co-founded the Community
of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which seeks to foster closer
economic and cultural ties between the world's
António Guterres , who has served as
Prime Minister of Portugal from
1995 to 2002 and UN High Commissioner for Refugees from 2005 to 2015,
assumed the post of UN Secretary-General on 1 January 2017; making him
the first Secretary-General from Western
Kurt Waldheim of
Austria (1972–1981), the first former head of government to become
Secretary-General and the first Secretary-General born after the
establishment of the
United Nations on 26 June 1945.
Portugal is a full member of the
Latin Union (1983) and
Organization of Ibero-American States (1949). It has a friendship
alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil.
Portugal and England (subsequently, the
United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland) share the world's oldest active military
accord through their
Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (Treaty of Windsor ),
which was signed in 1373.
There are two international territorial disputes, both with Spain:
Olivenza . Under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297, the
Olivenza was ceded to
Spain under the Treaty of
Badajoz in 1801, after the
War of the Oranges .
Portugal claimed it
back in 1815 under the Treaty of
Vienna . However, since the 19th
century, it has been continuously ruled by
Spain which considers the
territory theirs not only de facto but also de jure.
* The Ilhas Selvagens (
Savage Islands ). The archipelago is under
Portuguese domination but is geographically closer to the Canary
Islands (165 km) than to
Madeira (280 km). Found in 1364 by Italian
navigators, the islands belonged to private owners until 1971, when
the Portuguese government bought them and established a natural
reserve area covering the whole archipelago. The islands have been
Spain since 1911 and the dispute has caused some periods of
political tension between the two countries. The main problem is not
so much their intrinsic value but the fact that they expand
considerably to the south the
Exclusive Economic Zone of Portugal.
Portuguese Armed Forces
The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force .
They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to
protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide
humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad. As of 2008 ,
the three branches numbered 39,200 active personnel including 7,500
women. Portuguese military expenditure in 2009 was billion,
representing 2.1 percent of GDP. Military conscription was abolished
in 2004. The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years.
The Army (21,000 personnel) comprises three brigades and other small
units. An infantry brigade (mainly equipped with
Pandur II APC ), a
mechanized brigade (mainly equipped with
Leopard 2 A6 tanks and M113
APC) and a Rapid Reaction Brigade (consisting of Paratroopers ,
commandos and Rangers). The Navy (10,700 personnel, of which 1,580 are
marines ), the world's oldest surviving naval force, has five
frigates, seven corvettes, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary
vessels. The Air Force (7,500 personnel) has the Lockheed F-16
Fighting Falcon and the
Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet as the main combat
BRANCHES OF THE PORTUGUESE ARMED FORCES
Portuguese Air Force
F-16 Fighting Falcon
In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the
National Republican Guard , a security force subject to military law
and organization (gendarmerie ) comprising 25,000 personnel. This
force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior
Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in
international operations in Iraq and East Timor.
United States maintains a military presence with 770 troops in
Lajes Air Base at
Terceira Island , in the Azores. The Allied
Joint Force Command
Lisbon (JFC Lisbon) – one of the three main
Allied Command Operations – it is based in
Oeiras , near Lisbon.
In the 20th century,
Portugal engaged in two major conflicts: World
War I and the
Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). After the end of
Portuguese Empire in 1975, the
Portuguese Armed Forces have
participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo,
Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq (
Nasiriyah ), Lebanon,
Mali and Central
Portugal also conducted several independent
unilateral military operations abroad, as were the cases of the
interventions of the
Portuguese Armed Forces in
Angola in 1992 and in
Bissau in 1998 with the main objectives of protecting and
withdrawing of Portuguese and foreign citizens threatened by local
2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis
2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis Debt
as a percentage of the economy of
Portugal , compared to eurozone
The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a 78
billion euro bailout from the
European Union and the International
Monetary Fund in May 2011. The ratio of Portugal’s debt to its
overall economy, was 107 percent when it received the bailout. As
part of the deal, the country agreed to cut its budget deficit from
9.8 percent of GDP in 2010 to 5.9 percent in 2011, 4.5 percent in 2012
and 3 percent in 2013.
After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed by
Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures with the intention
of improving the state's financial situation, including tax hikes, a
freeze of civil service-related lower-wages and cuts of higher-wages
by 14.3%, on top of the government's spending cuts. The Portuguese
government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal
Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions. In 2012, all
public servants had already seen an average wage cut of 20% relative
to their 2010 baseline, with cuts reaching 25% for those earning more
than 1,500 euro per month.
The IMF, the
European Commission (EC) and the European Central Bank
(ECB) said in September 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak at 124
percent of gross domestic product in 2014. The IMF previously said in
July 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak at about 118.5 percent of
GDP in 2013. In September 2013, the Portuguese Government reviewed
again the public debt of
Portugal for 2013 to 127.8 percent, after a
peak of 130.9 percent in that month.
A report released in January 2011 by the
Diário de Notícias and
Gradiva , had demonstrated that in the period
Carnation Revolution in 1974 and 2010, the democratic
Republic governments encouraged over-expenditure and
investment bubbles through unclear Public–private partnerships and
funding of numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy
and advisory of committees and firms. This allowed considerable
slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and
head officer bonuses and wages. Persistent and lasting recruitment
policies boosted the number of redundant public servants. Risky credit
, public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds
were mismanaged across almost four decades.
After the financial crisis of 2007–08 , it was known in 2008–2009
that two Portuguese banks (
Banco Português de Negócios (BPN) and
Banco Privado Português (BPP)) had been accumulating losses for years
due to bad investments, embezzlement and accounting fraud. The case of
BPN was particularly serious because of its size, market share, and
the political implications – Portugal's then President, Cavaco Silva
and some of his political allies, maintained personal and business
relationships with the bank and its CEO, who was eventually charged
and arrested for fraud and other crimes. In the grounds of avoiding
a potentially serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy, the
Portuguese government decided to give them a bailout, eventually at a
future loss to taxpayers and to the
Portuguese people in general.
Economy of Portugal
Economy of Portugal and
Economic history of Portugal
A proportional representation of Portugal's exports, as of 2012
Portugal is a developed and a high income country , with its GDP per
capita in 2014 being 78% of the EU27 average – increasing from 76%
in 2012. By the end of 2016, Portugal's GDP (PPP) was $30,612 per
capita, according to OECD's report. The national currency of Portugal
is the euro (€), which replaced the
Portuguese Escudo , and the
country was one of the original member states of the eurozone .
Portugal's central bank is the
Banco de Portugal , an integral part of
European System of Central Banks . Most industries, businesses and
financial institutions are concentrated in the
Lisbon and Porto
Setúbal , Aveiro ,
Leiria districts are the biggest economic centres outside these two
main areas. According to World Travel Awards,
Portugal was Europe's
Golf Destination in 2012 and 2013.
Carnation Revolution of 1974, which culminated in the end
of one of Portugal's most notable phases of economic expansion (that
started in the 1960s), a significant change has occurred in the
nation's annual economic growth. After the turmoil of the 1974
revolution and the
Portugal tried to adapt to a changing
modern global economy , a process that continues in 2013. Since the
1990s, Portugal's public consumption -based economic development model
has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports,
private investment and the development of the high-tech sector.
Consequently, business services have overtaken more traditional
industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear and cork (
the world's leading cork producer), wood products and beverages.
November 2011 protests against austerity measures outside the
Assembly of the
In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy
suffered it's most severe recession since the 1970s; resulting in the
country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European
Central Bank and
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund (IMF). The bailout,
agreed to in 2011, required
Portugal to enter into a range of
austerity measures in exchange for funding support of
€78,000,000,000. In May 2014, the country exited the bailout but
reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. At
the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.7% in
the first quarter of 2014, however unemployment, while still high had
fallen to 15.3%.
The average salary in
Portugal is €910 per month, excluding
self-employed individuals and the minimum wage , which is regulated
by law, is €580 per month (paid 14 times per annum).
Global Competitiveness Report for 2014–2015, published by the
World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum , placed
Portugal on the 36th position on the
economic index. This represents a sharp increase from the 51st
Portugal appeared in 2013–2014.
Economist Intelligence Unit 's quality of life index placed
Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the
world for 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically
advanced countries like France, Germany, the
United Kingdom and South
Korea, but 9 places behind it's sole neighbour, Spain. This is
despite the fact that
Portugal remains as one of the countries with
the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe.
Portugal has the
thirteenth-largest gold reserve in the world.
Major state-owned companies include:
Águas de Portugal (water),
Caixa Geral de Depósitos (banking),
Comboios de Portugal (railways),
Companhia das Lezírias (agriculture) and RTP (media). Some former
state-owned entities are managed by state-run holding company
Parpública , which is a shareholder of several public and private
companies. Among former state-owned companies recently privatised are:
CTT (postal service),
TAP Portugal (airline) and ANA (airports).
Companies listed on Euronext
Lisbon stock exchange like EDP , Galp ,
Jerónimo Martins ,
Semapa , Portucel Soporcel
Portugal Telecom and
Sonae , are amongst the largest corporations of
Portugal by number of employees, net income or international market
share . The Euronext
Lisbon is the major stock exchange of Portugal
and is part of the
NYSE Euronext , the first global stock exchange.
PSI-20 is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index .
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the
Portugal in late-June 2017 with a strong near-term outlook
and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.
Because of a surplus in 2016, the country was no longer bound by the
Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an
earlier financial crisis. The banking system was more stable, although
there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. The IMF
recommended working on solving these problems for
Portugal to be able
to attract more private investment. "Sustained strong growth, together
with continued public debt reduction, would reduce vulnerabilities
arising from high indebtedness, particularly when monetary
accommodation is reduced."
Agriculture in Portugal ,
Fishing in Portugal , and
Mining in Portugal The
Alentejo is known as the "bread basket of
Portugal", being the country's leading region in wheat and cork
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized
family-owned dispersed units. However, the sector also includes larger
scale intensive farming export-oriented agrobusinesses backed by
Grupo RAR 's
Lactogal , Vale da
Companhia das Lezírias and
Valouro ). The country produces a
wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: tomatoes ,
citrus , green vegetables , rice , corn , wheat , barley , olives ,
oilseeds , nuts , cherries , bilberry , table grapes , edible
mushrooms , dairy products , poultry and beef .
Forestry has also played an important economic role among the rural
communities and industry (namely paper industry that includes Portucel
Soporcel Group , engineered wood that includes
Sonae Indústria , and
furniture that includes several manufacturing plants in and around
Paços de Ferreira , the core of Portugal's major industrial
IKEA ). In 2001, the gross agricultural product
accounted for 4% of the national GDP.
Traditionally a sea-power,
Portugal has had a strong tradition in the
Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest
fish consumption per capita. The main landing sites in Portugal
Azores and Madeira), according to total landings in weight
by year, are the harbours of
Matosinhos , Peniche ,
Olhão , Sesimbra
Figueira da Foz , Sines ,
Portuguese-processed fish products are exported through several
companies, under a number of different brands and registered
trademarks, such as Ramirez , the world’s oldest active canned fish
Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked
among Europe's leading copper producers. The nation is also a notable
producer of tin , tungsten and uranium . However, the country lacks
the potential to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and aluminium , a
limitation that has hindered the development of Portugal's mining and
metallurgy sectors. Although the country has vast iron and coal
reserves—mainly in the north—after the 1974 revolution and the
consequent economic globalization , low competitiveness forced a
decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals. The
Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognised
Portuguese mines that are still in operation.
Portucel Soporcel pulp and paper factory in
Industry is diversified, ranging from automotive (Volkswagen
Peugeot Citroen ), aerospace (
electronics and textiles , to food , chemicals , cement and wood pulp
. Volkswagen Group's
AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in
Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in
Portugal. Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as
aerospace , biotechnology and information technology , have been
developed in several locations across the country.
Alverca , Covilhã
Évora , and
Ponte de Sor are the main centres of the Portuguese
aerospace industry, which is led by Brazil-based company
the Portuguese company OGMA. Following the turn of the 21st century,
many major biotechnology and information technology industries have
been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon
Coimbra and Aveiro .
Tourism in Portugal
Tourism in Portugal Left-to-right:
A view of
Cascais , in
Portuguese Riviera ; a view of
Nazaré , in Estremadura ; the canals of Aveiro , in Beira Litoral ;
Pena National Palace
Pena National Palace , in Sintra .
The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the late-2000s
financial crisis , and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the
market in Portugal. While sensitive to various types of market and
underwriting risks , it has been estimated that overall both the life
and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe
shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.
Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal.
It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche
attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead
of its competitors.
Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world,
receiving an average of 13,000,000 foreign tourists each year. In
Portugal was elected The Best European Country by the USA Today
Portugal was elected both Europe's Leading Destination and
World's Leading Destination
Tourist hotspots in
Cascais , Fatima , Algarve
Porto and the city of
Lisbon attracts the
sixteenth-most tourists among European cities (with seven million
tourists occupying the city's hotels in 2006).
Also, between 5–6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each
year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd
children reportedly took place in 1917. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of
Fatima is one of the largest
Roman Catholic shrines in the world. The
Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist
destinations, such as the
Douro Valley , the island of
Porto Santo ,
Alentejo . The
Rooster of Barcelos .
The legend of the
Rooster of Barcelos tells the story of a dead
rooster's miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man
who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death. The story is
associated with the 17th-century calvary that is part of the
collection of the Archeological Museum located in Paço dos Condes, a
gothic-style palace in Barcelos , a city in northwest Portugal. The
Rooster of Barcelos is bought by many tourists as a souvenir .
On 30 November 2016, the
United Nations added the Portuguese
Bisalhães tradition of making black pottery to the UNESCO Heritage
Protection List. On 7 December 2017, the
United Nations added the
Bonecos de Estremoz - Toys of Estremoz tradition as an UNESCO
Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humankind.
International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory , created in
2005, is based in
Braga . The Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa
is Portugal's oldest (1878) astronomical observatory. The
Champalimaud Foundation , in
Lisbon , is one of the world's leading
cancer research centers. Main article:
Science and technology in
Scientific and technological research activities in
mainly conducted within a network of
R&D units belonging to public
universities and state-managed autonomous research institutions like
the INETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e
Inovação and the INRB – Instituto Nacional dos Recursos
Biológicos . The funding and management of this research system is
mainly conducted under the authority of the Ministry of Science,
Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) itself and the MCTES's
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT).
The largest Rmax-width:204px"> The
Vasco da Gama Bridge
is Europe's longest. A
TAP Portugal aircraft
Airbus A320-214 ). The
Lisbon Metro is Portugal's oldest and
largest subway system Tram number 572 of
Lisbon , Carris
By the early-1970s, Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing
consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for
improvements in transportation. Again in the 1990s, after joining the
European Economic Community
European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways.
Today, the country has a 68,732 km (42,708 mi) road network, of which
almost 3,000 km (1,864 mi) are part of system of 44 motorways. Opened
in 1944, the first motorway (which linked
Lisbon to the National
Stadium) was an innovative project that made
Portugal among one of the
first countries in the world to establish a motorway (this roadway
eventually became the Lisbon-
Cascais highway, or A5).
Although a few other tracts were created (around 1960 and 1970), it
was only after the beginning of the 1980s that large-scale motorway
construction was implemented. In 1972, Brisa , the highway
concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the
region's motorways. On many highways, a toll needs to be paid, see Via
Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe.
Continental Portugal 's 89,015 km2 (34,369 sq mi) territory is
serviced by four international airports located near the principal
Porto , Faro and Beja . Lisbon's geographical
position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several
airports within the country. The primary flag-carrier is TAP Portugal
, although many other domestic airlines provide services within and
without the country. The government decided to build a new airport
outside Lisbon, in
Alcochete , to replace
Portela Airport ,
though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures.
Currently, the most important airports are in
Porto , Faro ,
Funchal (Madeira), and Ponta Delgada (Azores), managed by the national
airport authority group
ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal
ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal . One other
important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the
island of Terceira in the Azores. This airport serves as one of two
international airports serving countries outside the European Union
for all nine islands of the Azores. It also serves as a military air
base for the
United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the
A national railway system that extends throughout the country and
into Spain, is supported and administered by
Comboios de Portugal .
Rail transport of passengers and goods is derived using the 2,791 km
(1,734 mi) of railway lines currently in service, of which 1,430 km
(889 mi) are electrified and about 900 km (559 mi) allow train speeds
greater than 120 km/h (75 mph). The railway network is managed by the
REFER while the transport of passengers and goods are the
Comboios de Portugal (CP), both public companies. In
2006, the CP carried 133,000,000 passengers and 9,750,000 t (9,600,000
long tons ; 10,700,000 short tons ) of goods.
The major seaports are located in Sines ,
Setúbal , Aveiro ,
Figueira da Foz , and Faro .
The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems:
and Metro Sul do Tejo in the
Lisbon Metropolitan Area and
Porto Metropolitan Area , each with more than 35 km (22 mi) of
lines. In Portugal,
Lisbon tram services have been supplied by the
Carris de Ferro de Lisboa (
Carris ), for over a century.
Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores
Douro remains, began construction on 12 September 1895 (a first
Iberian Peninsula ). All major cities and towns have their own
local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.
Energy in Portugal Solar farms in Madeira
(top) and Alqueva
Hydroelectric Dam (bottom)
Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two
most cost-effective renewable energy sources. Since the turn of the
21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a
renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use
of fossil fuels. In 2006, the world's largest solar power plant at
that date, the
Moura Photovoltaic Power Station , began operating near
Moura , in the south, while the world's first commercial wave power
Aguçadoura Wave Farm , opened in the Norte region (2008).
By the end of 2006, 66% of the country's electrical production was
from coal and fuel power plants, while 29% were derived from
hydroelectric dams, and 6% by wind energy .
In 2008, renewable energy resources were producing 43% of the
nation's consumption of electricity, even as hydroelectric production
decreased with severe droughts. As of June 2010, electricity exports
had outnumbered imports. In the period between January and May 2010,
70% of the national production of energy came from renewable sources.
Portugal’s national energy transmission company, Redes Energéticas
Nacionais (REN), uses sophisticated modeling to predict weather,
especially wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy
from the various renewable-energy plants. Before the solar/wind
Portugal had generated electricity from hydropower plants
on its rivers for decades. New programmes combine wind and water:
wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery
period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity,
when consumer demand is highest. Portugal’s distribution system is
also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it
draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop
solar panels. The government aggressively encouraged such
contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy
rooftop-generated solar electricity.
Demographics of Portugal and Genetic history of the
Iberian Peninsula Women in traditional attire from Minho
(top) and fadistas playing at
Jerónimos Monastery (bottom)
Portugal (Portuguese : INE – Instituto Nacional de
Estatística ) estimates that, according to the 2011 census, the
population was 10,562,178 (of which 52% was female, 48% was male). In
2017 and according to more up-to-date figures, the population
decreased to 10,294,289. This population has been relatively
homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion (Roman
Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and
national unity, namely after the expulsion of the
Jews . A
number of those minorities nevertheless, stayed in Portugal, under the
condition that they convert to Catholicism, after which they became
known as Mouriscos and Cristãos Novos (New Christians or former
Muslims). A small number of the former
Jews may have continued to
Judaism in secret over many generations, in the case
of the secret
Jews of Belmonte , a small town in the interior; where
now people observe the Jewish faith openly. After 1772 the distinction
between Old and New Christians was abolished by decree. Some famous
Portuguese New Christians were the mathematician
Pedro Nunes and the
physician and naturalist
Garcia de Orta .
Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group, whose ancestry is very
similar to other Western and Southern
Europeans and Mediterranean
peoples , in particular
Spaniards , followed by some regional French
Italians with whom they share a common ancestry, history and
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese
seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of
mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in
Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent
around 45,000 years ago. All subsequent migrations did leave an
impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of
the Portuguese is still Paleolithic. Genetic studies show Portuguese
populations not to be significantly different from other European
The total fertility rate (TFR) as of 2015 was estimated at 1.52
children born/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. In
2016, 52.8% of births were to unmarried women. Like most Western
Portugal has to deal with low fertility levels: the country
has experienced a sub-replacement fertility rate since the 1980s.
The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by an increasing
inequality which at present (2015) places the country in the lowest
third of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.
Largest cities or towns in Portugal
INE 2011 Census
Vila Nova de Gaia
Vila Nova de Gaia
Vila Nova de Gaia
Vila Nova de Gaia
METROPOLITAN AREAS AND FUNCTIONAL URBAN AREA (FUA)
Metropolitan areas of Portugal A map of
Portugal showing the population density (number of inhabitants / km 2)
There are two Greater Metropolitan Areas (GAMs ):
e • d
Immigration to Portugal Top origins for
foreign-born naturalized citizens of
Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137
were legal immigrants . As of 2015,
Portugal had 10,341,330
inhabitants of whom about 383,759 were legal migrants, making up 3.7%
of the population.
Portugal's colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its
national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western
corner of Europe, looking out into the
Atlantic Ocean. It was one of
the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas
territories (among them
Mozambique in 1975), turning over
the administration of
Macau to the People's
Republic of China at the
end of 1999. Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced
by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in
immigration from these former territories for both economic and
personal reasons. Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast
Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry), has now become a
country of net immigration, and not just from the last Indian
(Portuguese until 1961), African (Portuguese until 1975), and Far East
Asian (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories. An estimated
800,000 Portuguese returned to
Portugal as the country's African
possessions gained independence in 1975.
Since the 1990s, along with a boom in construction , several new
waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian ,
Africans and other Africans
have settled in the country. Romanian ,
Moldovans , Kosovar and
Chinese have also migrated to the country. Portugal's Romani
population is estimated to be at about 40,000.
In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United
Kingdom, other northern European or Nordic countries, have become
permanent residents in the country (with the British community being
mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the
Religion in Portugal
Religion in Portugal
RELIGIONS IN PORTUGAL (CENSUS 2011)
The Christ the King Sanctuary and the Shrine of Our Lady
of Fátima in
Portugal are two of the world's most visited Catholic
According to the 2011 Census, 81.0% of the Portuguese population is
Roman Catholic . The country has small Protestant, Latter-day Saint ,
Muslim , Hindu ,
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church , Jehovah\'s Witnesses
, Baha\'i , Buddhist , Jewish and Spiritist communities. Influences
African Traditional Religion and Chinese Traditional Religion are
also felt among many people, particularly in fields related with
Traditional Chinese Medicine and African Witch Doctors. Some 6.8% of
the population declared themselves to be non-religious, and 8.3% did
not give any answer about their religion.
In 2012, a study conducted by the Catholic University revealed 79.5%
of the Portuguese considered themselves Catholics, and that 18%
attended Mass regularly. These figures represent a drop from 86.9% of
Catholics in 2001, while during the same period the number of people
stating that they had no religion rose from 8.2% to 14.2%.
Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian
origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state
Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since
the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power
fluctuated. In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both
riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close
identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of
the Portuguese educational system, including its first university .
The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries
important agents of colonization , with important roles in the
education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited
continents. The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements
during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese
Republic (1910–26) changed the role and importance of organized
Portugal is a secular state : church and state were formally
separated during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated
in the 1976
Portuguese Constitution . Other than the Constitution, the
two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal
are the 1940 Concordata (later amended in 1971) between
Holy See and the 2001 Religious Freedom Act.
Languages of Portugal
Languages of Portugal and
Portuguese language A
sign in Mirandese in
Miranda do Douro , Trás-os-Montes
Portuguese is the world's 6th most spoken language, with approx. 260
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a
Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia and Northern
Portugal , originating from
Galician-Portuguese , which was the common
language of the Galician and
Portuguese people until the formation of
Portugal. Particularly in the North of Portugal, there are still many
similarities between the Galician culture and the Portuguese culture.
Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese
Language Countries . According to the Ethnologue of Languages,
Portuguese and Spanish have a lexical similarity of 89% – educated
speakers of each language can communicate with one another.
Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the
romanized Pre-Roman peoples of the
Iberian Peninsula around 2000 years
Lusitanians and Iberians
. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as
Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and
1999. Portuguese is spoken as a native language in five different
Brazil accounting for the largest number of native
Portuguese speakers of any country (209,5 million speakers in 2016).,
In 2013 the
Portuguese language is the official language spoken in
Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe,
Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, and East
Timor . These countries,
Special Administrative Region (People's
Republic of China)
where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese, make up the Lusosphere
, a term derived from the ancient
Roman province of "
which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro
Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in
some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal. An estimate of between
6,000 and 7,000 Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal.
According to International English Proficiency Index ,
Portugal has a
high proficiency level in English , higher than in countries like
Education in Portugal Founded in 1290, the
Coimbra is Portugal's oldest. The University of
Porto is Portugal's second largest and its leading research
The educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age
6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary
education (3 years, compulsory since 2010), and higher education
(subdivided in university and polytechnic education). Universities are
usually organized into faculties . Institutes and schools are also
common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher
education institutions .
The total adult literacy rate is 99 percent. Portuguese primary
school enrollments are 100 percent.
According to the Programme for International Student Assessment
(PISA) 2015, the average Portuguese 15-year-old student, when rated in
terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is
placed significantly above the
OECD 's average, at a similar level as
those students from Norway, Poland,
Denmark and Belgium, with 501
points (493 is the average). The
PISA results of the Portuguese
students have been continuously improving, overcoming a number of
other highly developed western countries like the USA, Austria, France
About 40% of college-age citizens (20 years old) attend one of
Portugal's higher education institutions (compared with 50% in the
United States and 35% in the
OECD countries). In addition to being a
destination for international students ,
Portugal is also among the
top places of origin for international students. All higher education
students, both domestic and international, totaled 380,937 in 2005.
Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. The oldest
Portuguese university was first established in
Lisbon before moving to
Coimbra . Historically, within the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the
Portuguese founded the oldest engineering school of the
Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho of Rio de
Janeiro ) in 1792, as well as the oldest medical college in Asia (the
Escola Médico-Cirúrgica of
Goa ) in 1842. Presently, the largest
Portugal is the University of
Bologna process has been adopted, since 2006, by Portuguese
universities and poly-technical institutes. Higher education in
state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive
basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national
database on student admissions. However, every higher education
institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through
other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature
applicants (over 23 years old), international students , foreign
students from the
Lusosphere , degree owners from other institutions,
students from other institutions (academic transfer ), former students
(readmission), and course change, which are subject to specific
standards and regulations set by each institution or course
Most student costs are supported with public money. However, with the
increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese
state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types
of students (many as part-time students or in evening classes) like
employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make
a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in
courses, with benefits for the college or university's gross tuition
revenue and without loss of educational quality (teacher per student,
computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.).
Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to
further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher
education and research.
Health in Portugal
Health in Portugal Santo António Hospital,
Porto (above), and Santa Maria Hospital, in
According to the latest
Human Development Report , the average life
expectancy in 2015 was 81.3 years.
Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world,
ahead of high developed countries like the United Kingdom,
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting
systems: the National Health Service (Serviço Nacional de Saúde,
SNS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions
(health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance. The SNS
provides universal coverage. In addition, about 25% of the population
is covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes
and another 7% by mutual funds.
The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as
well as managing the SNS. Five regional health administrations are in
charge of implementing the national health policy objectives,
developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care
delivery. Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial
and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice,
however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget
setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer
(including the state) and employee contributions represent the main
funding sources of the health subsystems. In addition, direct payments
by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a
large proportion of funding.
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from
noncommunicable diseases . Mortality from cardiovascular diseases
(CVD) is higher than in the eurozone , but its two main components,
ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse
trends compared with the Eur-A, with cerebrovascular disease being the
single biggest killer in
Portuguese people die 12%
less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not
declining as rapidly as in the Eur-A. Cancer is more frequent among
children as well as among women younger than 44 years. Although lung
cancer (slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing
rapidly) are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more
Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the
Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the 1980s. The Medical
Department of the
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Portugal's infant mortality rate has dropped sharply since the late
1970s, when 24 of 1000 newborns died in the first year of life. It is
now around 2 deaths per a 1000 newborns. This improvement was mainly
due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from 15.5 to 2.4 per 1000
People are usually well informed about their health status, the
positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and
their use of health care services. Yet their perceptions of their
health can differ from what administrative and examination-based data
show about levels of illness within populations. Thus, survey results
based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data
on health status and the use of services.
Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in
Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004). This is the lowest of the Eur-A
countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of
the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.
Culture of Portugal Jerónimos Monastery
Belém Tower (bottom) are magna opera of the
and symbols of Portuguese nationhood.
Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by
various civilizations that have crossed the
Mediterranean and the
European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role
Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery . In the 1990s and 2000s (decade),
Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956 in Lisbon.
These include the
Belém Cultural Centre
Belém Cultural Centre in Lisbon, Serralves
Foundation and the
Casa da Música , both in
Porto , as well as new
public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls
that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the
Portugal is home to fifteen UNESCO World Heritage Sites ,
ranking it 8th in
Europe and 17th in the world.
Architecture of Portugal
Architecture of Portugal
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the
also known as Portuguese late Gothic, a sumptuous, composite
Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades
of the 16th century. A 20th-century interpretation of traditional
Soft Portuguese style , appears extensively in major
cities, especially Lisbon. Modern
Portugal has given the world
renowned architects like
Eduardo Souto de Moura
Eduardo Souto de Moura , Álvaro Siza Vieira
Pritzker Prize winners) and
Gonçalo Byrne . In
Taveira is also noteworthy, particularly for stadium design.
Cinema of Portugal
Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of
the medium in the late 19th century. Portuguese film directors such as
Arthur Duarte ,
António Lopes Ribeiro ,
António Reis ,
Pedro Costa ,
Manoel de Oliveira ,
João César Monteiro ,
Edgar Pêra ,
António-Pedro Vasconcelos , Fernando Lopes ,
João Botelho and Leonel
Vieira , are among those that gained notability. Noted Portuguese film
Joaquim de Almeida
Joaquim de Almeida ,
Nuno Lopes ,
Daniela Ruah , Maria
de Medeiros ,
Diogo Infante ,
Soraia Chaves ,
Ribeirinho , Lúcia
Moniz , and
Diogo Morgado .
Luís Vaz de Camões ,
legendary poet of the
Fernando Pessoa ,
prolific writer in 20th-century
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures,
developed through text as well as song. Until 1350, the
Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to
most of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gil Vicente (c. 1465–c. 1536) was
one of the founders of Portuguese dramatic traditions.
Adventurer and poet
Luís de Camões (c. 1524–1580) wrote the epic
Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads), with
Aeneid as his main
influence. Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and
contemporary styles, as exemplified by
Fernando Pessoa (1888–1935).
Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as Almeida
Camilo Castelo Branco , Eça de Queirós ,
Fernando Pessoa ,
Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen ,
António Lobo Antunes and Miguel
Torga . Particularly popular and distinguished is
José Saramago ,
recipient of the 1998
Nobel Prize in Literature .
Portuguese cuisine and
Portuguese cuisine is diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry
cod (bacalhau in Portuguese), for which there are hundreds of recipes
. There are more than enough bacalhau dishes; over one for each day
of the year. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and
caldeirada , a potato-based stew that can be made from several types
of fish. Typical Portuguese meat recipes made out of beef, pork, lamb,
or chicken include cozido à portuguesa , feijoada , frango de
churrasco , leitão (roast suckling pig ) and carne de porco à
alentejana . A very popular northern dish is the arroz de sarrabulho
(rice stewed in pigs blood) or the arroz de cabidela (rice and
chickens meat stewed in chickens blood).
Portuguese wine , such
Port wine (being transported here into
Porto ), is world-famous.
Typical fast food dishes include the
Francesinha (Frenchie) from
Porto, "Tripas à moda do Porto" which is also a tradicional plate
from Porto, and bifanas (grilled pork) or prego (grilled beef)
sandwiches , which are well known around the country. The Portuguese
art of pastry has its origins in the many medieval Catholic
monasteries spread widely across the country. These monasteries, using
very few ingredients (mostly almonds, flour, eggs and some liquor),
managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of
which pastéis de Belém (or pastéis de nata) originally from Lisbon,
and ovos moles from Aveiro are examples.
Portuguese cuisine is very
diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes.
The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country
there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasquinhas.
Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the
times of the Romans, who associated
Portugal with their god Bacchus .
Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won
several international prizes. Some of the best Portuguese wines are
Vinho Verde ,
Vinho Alvarinho , Vinho do
Douro , Vinho do
Vinho do Dão ,
Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet
Port Wine , Madeira
Wine , and the
Favaios . Port and Madeira
are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the
Media of Portugal
Music of Portugal
Fado , depicted in this famous
José Malhoa , is Portugal's traditional music.
Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The
traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in
local costumes having as instruments bagpipes, drums, flutes,
tambourines, accordions and small guitars (cavaquinho). Apart
Portuguese folk music other renowned genre is
Fado , a melancholic
urban music originated in
Lisbon in the 19th Century, probably inside
bohemian environments, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar
and saudade, or longing.
Coimbra fado , a unique type of "troubadour
serenading" fado, is also noteworthy. Internationally notable
Amália Rodrigues ,
Carlos Paredes ,
José Afonso ,
Carlos do Carmo
Carlos do Carmo ,
António Chainho ,
Mísia , and
In the classical music domain,
Portugal is represented by names as
Artur Pizarro ,
Maria João Pires ,
Sequeira Costa , the
violinists Carlos Damas,
Gerardo Ribeiro and in the past by the great
Guilhermina Suggia . Notable composers include José Vianna da
Carlos Seixas ,
João Domingos Bomtempo , João de Sousa
Luís de Freitas Branco and his student Joly
Braga Santos ,
Fernando Lopes-Graça ,
Emmanuel Nunes and
Sérgio Azevedo .
Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel
d'Oliveira have achieved some international success writing original
music for film and television .
In addition to Folk ,
Fado and Classical music, other genres are
Portugal like pop and other types of modern music,
particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a
wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean,
Lusophone African and Brazilian
artists and bands. Artists with international recognition include
Dulce Pontes ,
Buraka Som Sistema ,
Blasted Mechanism and
The Gift , with the two latter being nominees for a MTV
Award . In the last decade, of 2010, the most internationally and
nationally recognized artists include Aurea , Agir ,
David Carreira ,
Richie Campbell , D.A.M.A and
Diogo Piçarra .
In EDM and dance music ,
Portugal has two internationally known DJ\'s
in the Top 100 DJ\'s 2016 of the DJ MAG ,
KURA as 51st and Diego
Miranda as 58th.
Portugal has several summer music festivals, such as Festival
Zambujeira do Mar
Zambujeira do Mar ,
Festival de Paredes de Coura in
Paredes de Coura
Paredes de Coura ,
Festival Vilar de Mouros
Festival Vilar de Mouros near
Caminha , Boom
Idanha-a-Nova Municipality ,
NOS Alive , Sumol Summer Fest
Ericeira , Rock in Rio Lisboa and
Super Bock Super Rock in Greater
Lisbon . Out of the summer season,
Portugal has a large number of
festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip
Hop Porto. Furthermore, one of the largest international
festivals takes place in central
Portugal every two years, the Boom
Festival, that is also the only festival in
Portugal to win
international awards: European Festival Award 2010 – Green'n'Clean
Festival of the Year and the Greener Festival Award Outstanding 2008
and 2010. There is also the student festivals of
Queima das Fitas are
major events in a number of cities across Portugal. In 2005, Portugal
held the MTV
Europe Music Awards , in
Pavilhão Atlântico ,
Portugal won the
Eurovision Song Contest 2017
Eurovision Song Contest 2017 in Kiev
with the song "
Amar pelos dois
Amar pelos dois " presented by
Salvador Sobral , and
will subsequently host the 2018 contest at the
Altice Arena in Lisbon
Domingos Sequeira was one the most prolific neoclassical
painters. (Adoration of the Magi; 1828). Main article: Portuguese
Portugal has a rich history in painting . The first well-known
painters date back to the 15th century – like
Nuno Gonçalves –
were part of the late Gothic painting period. During the renaissance
Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting.
In the Barroque period Joana d'Obidos and Vieira
Lusitano were the
most prolific painters.
José Malhoa , known for his work Fado, and
Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (who painted the portraits of Teófilo
Antero de Quental ) were both references in naturalist
The 20th century saw the arrival of
Modernism , and along with it
came the most prominent Portuguese painters:
Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso ,
who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly the
Delaunays (Robert and Sonia ). Among his best-known works is Canção
Popular a Russa e o Fígaro. Another great modernist painters/writers
Carlos Botelho and
Almada Negreiros , friend to the poet Fernando
Pessoa , who painted his (Pessoa's) portrait. He was deeply influenced
Cubist and Futurist trends.
Prominent international figures in visual arts nowadays include
Vieira da Silva
Vieira da Silva ,
Júlio Pomar , Helena Almeida, Joana
Julião Sarmento and
Paula Rego .
Sport in Portugal
Sport in Portugal
Cristiano Ronaldo , has been
ranked as the best football player in the world five times
Football is the most popular sport in Portugal. There are several
football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class
professional level. The legendary
Eusébio is still a major symbol of
Portuguese football history.
FIFA World Player of the Year winners
Luís Figo and
Cristiano Ronaldo , who won the FIFA Ballon d\'Or , are
Portuguese football players. Portuguese football
managers are also noteworthy, with
José Mourinho and Fernando Santos
being among the most renowned.
Portugal national football team – Seleção Nacional – have
UEFA European Championship title: the
Euro 2016 , with a
1–0 victory in the final over
France , the tournament hosts. In
Portugal finished second in the
Euro 2004 (held in
Portugal), third in the
1966 FIFA World Cup , and fourth in the 2006
FIFA World Cup . At youth level,
Portugal have won two FIFA World
Youth Championships (in 1989 and 1991 ) and several
Sporting CP , FC
S.L. Benfica , are the largest sports
clubs by popularity and by number of trophies won, often known as "os
três grandes" ("the big three" ). They have won eight titles in the
UEFA club competitions, were present in many finals and have
been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season. Other
than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big
three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of
success and popularity, these may include roller hockey , basketball ,
futsal , handball , and volleyball . The Portuguese Football
Federation (FPF) – Federação Portuguesa de Futebol – annually
Algarve Cup , a prestigious women`s football tournament that
has been celebrated in the Algarvian part of Portugal.
The Portuguese national rugby union team qualified for the 2007 Rugby
World Cup and the Portuguese national rugby sevens team has played in
World Rugby Sevens Series . Nelson
Évora won gold in triple
jump at the 2008 Beijing Olympics .
In athletics , the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and
bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions.
Cycling , with
Volta a Portugal being the most important race, is also
a popular sports event and include professional cycling teams such as
Sporting CP , Boavista ,
Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira and União
Ciclista da Maia .
The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like
fencing , judo , kitesurf , rowing , sailing, surfing , shooting,
taekwondo , triathlon and windsurf , owning several European and world
titles. The paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in
sports like swimming, boccia , athletics and wrestling .
Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of
Portugal , and the
Algarve Circuits and the revived Porto
Street Circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as
well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied
In equestrian sports,
Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World
Championship (in 2006), achieved the third position in the First
Horseball World Cup (organized in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, in 2008),
and has achieved several victories in the European Working Equitation
In water sports,
Portugal has two major sports: swimming and water
Northern Portugal has its own original martial art , Jogo do
Pau , in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several
opponents. Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities
with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include airsoft , fishing,
golf , hiking, hunting and orienteering .
Portugal is one of the world's best golf destinations. It has
received several awards by the World
Golf Awards. Its weather allows
play all year round.
Index of Portugal-related articles
Outline of Portugal
Outline of Portugal
* ^ In recognized minority languages of
* Mirandese : República Pertuesa
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* ^ The Euromosaic study, Mirandese in Portugal, europa.eu –
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Portugal tenta duplicar
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* ^ Brian Jenkins, Spyros A. Sofos, Nation and identity in
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December 17, 1999". cnn.com. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
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* ^ "
Portugal tem a segunda melhor rede rodoviária do mundo" (in
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Antiquity (Routledge, 2002), pp. 135–137. Rohrbacher bases the date
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* ^ Milhazes, José. Os antepassados caucasianos dos portugueses
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Portugal musulman (Le) – VIIIe-XIIIe siècles par Christophe
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* ^ A
History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, Vol. 1: From
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Portugal (Volume 1) p.55
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sighted the coast of South America, thereby accidentally discovering
Brazil. However, for an alternative account of the discovery of
Brazil, see History of
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eighteenth centuries. The Spanish sovereigns had always refused the
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United Kingdom of Spain,
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Early Modern World. ISBN 978-0-7546-6313-3 .
* Ribeiro, Ângelo; José Hermano (2004). História de
— A Formação do Território (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN
* Ribeiro, Ângelo; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de
Portugal II — A Afirmação do País (in Portuguese). QuidNovi.
ISBN 989-554-107-4 .
* de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de
Portugal III — A Epopeia dos Descobrimentos (in Portuguese).
QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-108-2 .
* de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de
Portugal IV — Glória e Declínio do Império (in Portuguese).
QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-109-0 .
* de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de
Portugal V — A Restauração da Indepêndencia (in Portuguese).
QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-110-4 .
* Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de
Portugal X — A
Terceira República (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-115-5 .
* Loução, Paulo Alexandre (2000). Portugal, Terra de Mistérios
(in Portuguese) (3rd ed.). Ésquilo. ISBN 972-8605-04-8 .
* Muñoz, Mauricio Pasto (2003). Viriato, A Luta pela Liberdade (in
Portuguese) (3rd ed.). Ésquilo. ISBN 972-8605-23-4 .
* Grande Enciclopédia Universal. Durclub. 2004.
* Constituição da República Portuguesa (in Portuguese) (VI
Revisão Constitucional ed.). 2004.
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