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The Portsmouth Earthworks
Portsmouth Earthworks
are a large prehistoric mound complex constructed by the Ohio
Ohio
Hopewell culture
Hopewell culture
mound builder indigenous peoples of eastern North America (100 BCE to 500 CE).[2] The site was one of the largest earthwork ceremonial centers constructed by the Hopewell and is located at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio Rivers, in present-day Ohio. The majority of the mound complex site is now covered by the city of Portsmouth in Scioto County, Ohio.[2] Several individual sections of the complex have been included on the National Register of Historic Places.

Contents

1 Description

1.1 Portsmouth Earthworks, Group B 1.2 Portsmouth Earthworks, Group A 1.3 Portsmouth Earthworks, Group C

2 Gallery of Squier and Davis maps 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Description[edit] Originally, the Portsmouth Earthworks
Portsmouth Earthworks
consisted of three sections extending over twenty miles of the Ohio River
Ohio River
valley, crossing from Ohio
Ohio
to Kentucky in several places. It was surveyed and mapped by E. G. Squier in 1847 for inclusion in the seminal archaeological and anthrolopological work Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley.[3] Portsmouth Earthworks, Group B[edit]

Overview of the Horseshoe Mound

The northernmost section was made up of a number of circular enclosures, two large horseshoe-shaped enclosures, and three sets of parallel-walled roads leading away in different directions. One set of walled roads extends across the Ohio River
Ohio River
into South Portsmouth, Kentucky to the southwest to Portsmouth Earthworks, Group A. Another set of walled roads lead to the southeast where it also crossed the Ohio River
Ohio River
and lead to Portsmouth Earthworks, Group C.[3] The third set of walled roads lead to the northwest for an undetermined distance, and may point to Tremper Mound
Mound
and Works, some 5 miles away. The City of Portsmouth maintains a public park which includes one of the remaining horseshoe-shaped enclosures, known as Mound
Mound
Park, it is the only publicly accessible part of the complex.[2] Under the name Horseshoe Mound
Mound
it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.[2] Portsmouth Earthworks, Group A[edit]

One of the surviving walls

Also known as the Old Fort Earthworks (15Gp1) it is a series of rectangular enclosures near South Portsmouth in Greenup County, Kentucky. Group A is a large square enclosure with two series of parallel walls extending from the northeast and southwest corners. The Old Fort Earthworks consist of several sites, including the Old Fort Earthworks (15Gp1), Mays Mound
Mound
(15Gp16), Hicks Mound
Mound
(15Gp265), Stephenson Mound
Mound
(15Lw139), and several other unnamed mounds and enclosures. It is also the location of Lower Shawneetown, a protohistoric/historic Fort Ancient
Fort Ancient
and Shawnee
Shawnee
settlement and colonial trading post which are all part of the Lower Shawneetown Archeological District,[4] along with the Thompson and Hansen Sites Portsmouth Earthworks, Group C[edit] Also known as the Biggs Site
Biggs Site
(15Gp8), Group C was a large series of concentric circles surrounding a central cone mound, believed to have been built by the Adena culture. This section of the earthworks is located in Greenup County, Kentucky
Greenup County, Kentucky
several miles to the east of South Shore, but connected to Group B by a causeway. Gallery of Squier and Davis maps[edit]

See also[edit]

List of Hopewell sites

References[edit]

^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.  ^ a b c d "Portsmouth Earthworks- Ohio
Ohio
History Central". Retrieved 2009-06-06.  ^ a b Ephraim George Squier; Edwin Hamilton Davis (1848). Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. Smithsonian Institution. pp. 179–187.  ^ Applegate, Darlene (2008), "Chapter 5:Woodland period", in Pollack, David, The Archaeology of Kentucky:an update (PDF), 1, Kentucky Heritage Council, pp. 524–525, ISBN 978-1-934492-28-4 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Portsmouth Earthworks.

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Adena Culture

List of Adena culture
Adena culture
sites Woodland period Mound
Mound
builder (people) List of archaeological periods (North America)

Ohio
Ohio
sites

Adena Austin Brown Arledge Beam Farm Clemmons Conrad Coon Hunters George Deffenbaugh Enon Fortner Great Mound Highbanks Metro Park Hillside Haven Hodgen's Cemetery Horn Hurley Jackson Karshner Kinzer Luthor List McDaniel Miamisburg Mound
Mound
Cemetery Odd Fellows' Cemetery Old Maid's Orchard Orators Carl Potter Raleigh Reeves D.S. Rose Ross Trails Circle Short Woods Park Shrum Snead Spruce Run David Stitt Story (Cincinnati) Story (Chillicothe) Williamson Wolf Plains Wright-Patterson Zaleski

Kentucky sites

Biggs Gaitskill Mound
Mound
Hill Mount Horeb Ramey Round Hill

West Virginia sites

Criel Grave Creek

Indiana sites

Mounds State Park

Related topics Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley burial mound Eastern Agricultural Complex Hopewell tradition

v t e

Hopewellian peoples

Woodland period List of Hopewell sites Mound
Mound
builder (people) List of archaeological periods (North America)

Ohio
Ohio
Hopewell

Beam Farm Benham Mound Cary Village Site Cedar-Bank Works Dunns Pond Mound Ellis Mounds Ety Enclosure Ety Habitation Site Fort Ancient Fortified Hill Works Great Hopewell Road High Banks Works Hopeton Earthworks Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Indian Mound
Mound
Cemetery Keiter Mound Marietta Earthworks Moorehead Circle Mound
Mound
of Pipes Nettle Lake Mound
Mound
Group Newark Earthworks Oak Mounds Orators Perin Village Site Pollock Works Portsmouth Earthworks Rocky Fork Enclosures Rocky Fork Mounds Seip Earthworks and Dill Mounds District Shawnee
Shawnee
Lookout Stubbs Earthworks Tremper Mound
Mound
and Works Williamson Mound
Mound
Archeological District

Crab Orchard culture

Carrier Mills Archaeological District Cleiman Mound Hubele Site Mann Site O'byams Fort site Wilson Site Yankeetown Site

Goodall Focus

Goodall Site Norton Mound
Mound
Group

Havana Hopewell culture

Albany Mounds State Historic Site Dickson Mounds Duncan Farm Golden Eagle-Toppmeyer Site Kamp Mound
Mound
Site Mound
Mound
House site Naples Archeological District Naples Mound
Mound
8 Ogden-Fettie Site Rockwell Mound Sinnissippi Mounds Toolesboro Mound
Mound
Group

Kansas City Hopewell

Cloverdale archaeological site Renner Village Archeological Site Trowbridge Archeological Site

Marksville culture

Crooks Mound Grand Gulf Mound Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site Mott Archaeological Preserve

Miller culture

Bynum Mound
Mound
and Village Site Ingomar Mound Miller Site Pharr Mounds Pinson Mounds

Point Peninsula Complex

Lewiston Mound Serpent Mounds Park LeVescounte Mounds

Swift Creek culture Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture

Crystal River Archaeological State Park Etowah Indian Mounds Leake Mounds Kolomoki Mounds
Kolomoki Mounds
Historic Park Miner's Creek site Pierce Site Swift Creek mound site Third Gulf Breeze Yearwood site Yent Mound

Other Hopewellian peoples

Armstrong culture Copena culture Fourche Maline culture Laurel Complex Saugeen Complex Old Stone Fort (Tennessee)

Exotic trade items

Copper Galena Mica Fresh water pearls Obsidian Pipestone Sea shells

Related topics Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley Black drink burial mound Ceremonial pipe Effigy mound Hopewell pottery Horned Serpent Eastern Agricultural Complex Underwater panther

v t e

Pre-Columbian North America

Periods Lithic Archaic Formative Classic Post-Classic

Archaeological cultures

Adena Alachua Ancient Beringian Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) Baytown Belle Glade Buttermilk Creek Complex Caborn-Welborn Calf Creek Caloosahatchee Clovis Coles Creek Comondú Deptford Folsom Fort Ancient Fort Walton Fremont Glacial Kame Glades Hohokam Hopewell

List of Hopewell sites

La Jolla Las Palmas Leon-Jefferson Mississippian

List of Mississippian sites

Mogollon Monongahela Old Cordilleran Oneota Paleo-Arctic Paleo-Indians Patayan Plano Plaquemine Poverty Point Red Ocher Santa Rosa-Swift Creek St. Johns Steed-Kisker Tchefuncte Tocobaga Troyville

Archaeological sites

Angel Mounds Anzick Clovis burial Bandelier National Monument Blue Spring Shelter The Bluff Point Stoneworks Cahokia Candelaria Cave Casa Grande Chaco Canyon Coso Rock Art District Crystal River Archaeological State Park Cuarenta Casas Cueva de la Olla Eaker El Fin del Mundo El Vallecito Effigy Mounds National Monument Etowah Indian Mounds Eva Folsom Site Fort Ancient Fort Center Fort Juelson Four Mounds Site Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Glenwood Grimes Point Holly Bluff Site Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Huápoca Kimball Village Kincaid Mounds Kolomoki Mounds L'Anse aux Meadows Marksville Marmes Rockshelter Meadowcroft Rockshelter Mesa Verde Moaning Cavern Moorehead Circle Morrison Mounds Moundville Mummy Cave Nodena Site Ocmulgee National Monument Old Stone Fort Orwell Site Paquime Parkin Park Pinson Mounds Portsmouth Earthworks Poverty Point Pueblo Bonito Recapture Canyon Rock Eagle Rock Hawk Russell Cave National Monument Salmon Ruins Serpent Mound Sierra de San Francisco Spiro Mounds SunWatch Taos Pueblo Toltec Mounds Town Creek Indian Mound Turkey River Mounds Upward Sun River site West Oak Forest Earthlodge Winterville Wupatki National Monument

Human remains

Anzick-1 Arlington Springs Man Buhl Woman Kennewick Man La Brea Woman Leanderthal Lady Minnesota Woman Spirit Cave mummy

Miscellaneous

Aridoamerica Black drink Ceremonial pipe Chunkey Clovis point Container Revolution Eastern Agricultural Complex Eden point Effigy mound Falcon dancer Folsom point Green Corn Ceremony Horned Serpent Kiva Medicine wheel Metallurgy Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing Mound
Mound
Builders N.A.G.P.R.A. Norse colonization of North America Oasisamerica Piasa Southeastern Ceremonial Complex Stickball Three Sisters agriculture Thunderbird Underwater panther Water glyphs

Related Genetic history Portal
Portal
of Indigenous peoples of North America Pre-Columbian era

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U.S. National Register of Historic Places

Topics

Architectural style categories Contributing property Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places Keeper of the Register National Park Service Property types

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Lists by insular areas

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Lists by associated states

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Other areas

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