PORTO (Portuguese pronunciation: ; also known as OPORTO in English
) is the second-largest city in
Lisbon and one of the
major urban areas of the
Iberian Peninsula . The urban area of Porto,
which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a
population of 2.4 million (2011) in an area of 389 km2 (150 sq mi),
making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is
recognized as a gamma+ level global city by the Globalization and
World Cities (GaWC) Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides
Lisbon to be recognised as a global city.
Located along the
Douro river estuary in Northern Portugal,
one of the oldest European centres, and its historical core was
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1996. The western part
of its urban area extends to the coastline of the
Atlantic Ocean . Its
settlement dates back many centuries, when it was an outpost of the
Roman Empire . Its combined Celtic -
Portus Cale , has
been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on
transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name
of the city is spelled with a definite article ("o Porto"; English:
the port). Consequently, its English name evolved from a
misinterpretation of the oral pronunciation and referred to as Oporto
in modern literature and by many speakers.
One of Portugal's internationally famous exports, port wine , is
named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, and in particular the
Vila Nova de Gaia , were responsible for the packaging,
transport and export of the fortified wine. In 2014 and 2017, Porto
was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early history
* 1.2 18th century
* 1.3 19th century
* 1.4 20th century
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 4 Transport
* 4.1 Roads and bridges
* 4.2 Cruising
* 4.3 Airports
* 5 Culture
* 5.1 Entertainment
* 5.2 Arts
* 5.4 Gastronomy
* 6 Tourism
* 7 Education
* 8 Public health
* 9 Sport
* 9.1 Football
* 9.2 Basketball
* 10 International relations
* 10.1 Twin towns — sister cities
* 11 Notable citizens
* 12 References
* 12.1 Bibliography
* 12.2 Notes
* 13 External links
History of Porto
The history of
Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic
and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that
period have been discovered in several areas. During the Roman
occupation of the
Iberian Peninsula the city developed as an important
commercial port, primarily in the trade between Olissipona (the modern
Lisbon ) and Bracara Augusta (the modern
Porto fell under the control of the
Moors during the invasion of the
Iberian Peninsula in 711. In 868,
Vímara Peres , a warlord from
Gallaecia , and a vassal of the King of Asturias , Léon and Galicia ,
Alfonso III , was sent to reconquer and secure the lands from the
Moors. This included the area from the Minho to the
Douro River : the
Portus Cale and the area that is known as Vila Nova de
Gaia . Portus Cale, later referred to as Portucale , was the origin
for the modern name of
Portugal . In 868,
Count Vímara Peres
established the County of
Portugal , or (Portuguese : Condado de
Portucale), usually known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering
the region north of Douro.
Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of
Philippa of Lancaster , daughter of John of Gaunt ; this symbolized a
long-standing military alliance between
England . The
Portuguese-English alliance (see the Treaty of Windsor ) is the
world's oldest recorded military alliance, which inspired the
In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to
the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. It was also from the port
Porto that, in 1415, Prince
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator (son of John I of
Portugal ) embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta , in
Morocco . This expedition by the King and his fleet, which
counted among others Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and
exploration along the western coast of
Africa , initiating the
Age of Discovery . The nickname given to the people of
Porto began in those days; Portuenses are to this day, colloquially,
referred to as tripeiros (English: tripe peoples), referring to this
period of history, when higher-quality cuts of meat were shipped from
Porto with their sailors, while off-cuts and by-products, such as
tripe , were left behind for the citizens of Porto: tripe remains a
culturally important dish in modern-day Porto.
Avenida dos Aliados The iconic Majestic Café Foz
neighbourhood, in the coastline
Wine , produced in the
Douro valley , was already in the 13th century
Porto in barcos rabelos (flat sailing vessels). In
Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between
Portugal and England. In 1717, a first English trading post was
established in Porto. The production of port wine then gradually
passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English
dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese
firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the
Douro valley. He
demarcated the region for production of port, to ensure the wine's
quality; this was the first attempt to control wine quality and
Europe . The small winegrowers revolted against his
strict policies on
Shrove Tuesday , burning down the buildings of this
firm. The revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos (revolt of the
Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect
Nicolau Nasoni designed a
baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual
icon: the Torre dos Clérigos (English: Clerics' Tower). During the
18th and 19th centuries the city became an important industrial centre
and saw its size and population increase.
The invasion of the
Napoleonic troops in
Portugal under Marshal Soult
also brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the
population fled from the advancing French troops and tried to cross
Douro over the Ponte das Barcas (a pontoon bridge), the
bridge collapsed under the weight. This event is still remembered by a
plate at the Ponte D. Luis I . The French army was rooted out of Porto
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington , when his
Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the
Douro river from the Mosteiro da
Serra do Pilar (a former convent) in a brilliant daylight coup de main
, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the French
On 24 August 1820, a liberal revolution occurred, quickly spreading
without resistance to the rest of the country. In 1822, a liberal
constitution was accepted, partly through the efforts of the liberal
Porto (Junta do Porto). When Miguel I of
Portugal took the
Portuguese throne in 1828, he rejected this constitution and reigned
as an absolutist monarch. A Civil War was then fought from 1828 to
1834 between those supporting Constitutionalism, and those opposed to
this change, keen on near-absolutism and led by D. Miguel. Porto
rebelled again and had to undergo a siege of eighteen months between
1832 and 1833 by the absolutist army.
Porto is also called "Cidade
Invicta" (English: Unvanquished City) after successfully resisting the
Miguelist siege. After the abdication of King Miguel, the liberal
constitution was re-established.
Known as the city of bridges,
Porto built its first permanent bridge,
the Ponte das Barcas (a pontoon bridge ), in 1806. Three years later,
it collapsed under the weight of thousands of fugitives from the
French Invasions during the
Peninsular War , causing thousands of
deaths. It was replaced by the Ponte D. Maria II, popularised under
the name Ponte Pênsil (suspended bridge ) and built between
1841–43; only its supporting pylons have remained.
The Ponte D. Maria , a railway bridge, was inaugurated on 4 November
of that same year; it was considered a feat of wrought iron
engineering and was designed by
Gustave Eiffel , notable for his
Parisian tower . The later
Ponte Dom Luís I replaced the
aforementioned Ponte Pênsil. This last bridge was made by Teophile
Seyrig, a former partner of Eiffel. Seyrig won a governmental
competition that took place in 1879. Building began in 1881 and the
bridge was opened to the public on 31 October 1886.
A higher learning institution in nautical sciences (Aula de Náutica,
1762) and a stock exchange (Bolsa do Porto, 1834) were established in
the city, but were discontinued later.
Unrest by Republicans led to the first revolt against the monarchy in
Porto on 31 January 1891. This resulted ultimately in the overthrow of
the monarchy and proclamation of the republic by the 5 October 1910
A street in
On 19 January 1919, forces favorable to the restoration of the
Monarchy launched in
Porto a counter-revolution known as Monarchy of
the North . During this time,
Porto was the capital of the restored
kingdom, as the movement was contained to the north. The monarchy was
deposed less than a month later and no other monarchist revolution in
Portugal happened again.
In 1958 and 1960, Porto's streets hosted the
Formula One Portuguese
Grand Prix .
The historic centre of
Porto was declared a
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1996. The World Heritage site is defined in two concentric
zones; the "Protected area", and within it the "Classified area". The
Classified area comprises the medieval borough located inside the
14th-century Romanesque wall.
Historical part of
Porto and the
UNESCO recognised its historic centre as a World Heritage
Site . Among the architectural highlights of the city, Porto
Cathedral is the oldest surviving structure, together with the small
Church of Cedofeita , the gothic Igreja de São Francisco
(Church of Saint Francis ), the remnants of the city walls and a few
15th-century houses. The baroque style is well represented in the city
in the elaborate gilt work interior decoration of the churches of St.
Francis and St. Claire (Santa Clara), the churches of Mercy
(Misericórida) and of the Clerics (Igreja dos Clérigos ), the
Episcopal Palace of Porto , and others. The neoclassicism and
romanticism of the 19th and 20th centuries also added interesting
monuments to the landscape of the city, like the magnificent Stock
Exchange Palace (
Palácio da Bolsa ), the Hospital of Saint Anthony ,
the Municipality, the buildings in the Liberdade Square and the
Avenida dos Aliados, the tile-adorned
São Bento Train Station and the
gardens of the Crystal Palace (Palácio de Cristal). A guided visit to
Palácio da Bolsa , and in particular the Arab Room, is a major
tourist attraction .
Many of the city's oldest houses are at risk of collapsing. The
Porto municipality dropped by nearly 100,000 since the
1980s, but the number of permanent residents in the outskirts and
satellite towns has grown strongly.
Porto is ranked number 3 in the Portuguese most livable cities survey
of living conditions published yearly by Expresso .
Hall in the Avenida dos Aliados
Clérigos Church and Tower
Administratively, the municipality is divided into 7 civil parishes
Foz do Douro e Nevogilde
* Cedofeita, Santo Ildefonso, Sé, Miragaia, São Nicolau e Vitória
Lordelo do Ouro e Massarelos
Porto features a warm-summer mediterranean climate Csb in the Köppen
climate classification . As a result, its climate shares many
characteristics with the coastal south: warm, dry summers and mild,
rainy winters. Cool and rainy days can, occasionally, interrupt the
dry season . These occasional summer rainy periods may last a few days
and are characterised by showers and cool temperatures of around 20
°C (68 °F) in the afternoon. The annual precipitation is high and
concentrated in the winter months, making
Porto is one of the wettest
major cities of Europe. However, long periods with mild temperatures
and sunny days are frequent even during the rainiest months.
Summers are typically sunny with average temperatures between 16 °C
(61 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F) but can rise to as high as 38 °C (100
°F) during occasional heat waves. During such heat waves the humidity
remains quite low. Nearby beaches are often windy and usually cooler
than the urban areas . Summer average temperatures are a few degrees
cooler than those expected in more continentally Mediterranean
influenced metropolises on the same latitude such as
Rome , however
Porto is noticeably sunnier than both these cities.
Winter temperatures typically range between 5 °C (41 °F) during
morning and 15 °C (59 °F) in the afternoon but rarely drop below 0
°C (32 °F) at night. The weather is often rainy for long stretches
although prolonged sunny periods do occur.
CLIMATE DATA FOR PORTO
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
Source #1: Instituto de Meteorologia,
Hong Kong Observatory
Hong Kong Observatory (precipitation days and sunshine
CLIMATE DATA FOR PORTO
AVERAGE SEA TEMPERATURE °C (°F)
MEAN DAILY DAYLIGHT HOURS
AVERAGE ULTRAVIOLET INDEX
SOURCE: WEATHER ATLAS
Barrels of port wine aging: the fortified wine is the best-known
of city's exports Mercado Bolhão
As the most important city in the heavily industrialized northwest,
many of the largest Portuguese corporations from diverse economic
sectors , like
Altri , Ambar ,
Cerealis , BPI , CIN ,
Lactogal , Millennium bcp ,
Porto Editora , Grupo
Sonae Indústria , and Unicer , are headquartered in the
Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto , most notably, in the core
municipalities of Maia ,
Matosinhos , Porto, and
Vila Nova de Gaia .
The country's biggest exporter (Petrogal ) has one of its two
refineries near the city, in
Leça da Palmeira (13 km) and the second
Qimonda , now bankrupt) has its only factory also near the
Mindelo (26 km).
The city's former stock exchange (Bolsa do
Porto ) was transformed
into the largest derivatives exchange of Portugal, and merged with
Lisbon Stock Exchange to create the Bolsa de Valores de Lisboa e Porto
, which eventually merged with
Euronext , together with Amsterdam,
Brussels, LIFFE and
Paris stock and futures exchanges . The building
formerly hosting the stock exchange is currently one of the city's
touristic attractions, the Salão Árabe (Arab Room in English) being
its major highlight.
Porto hosts a popular Portuguese newspaper,
Jornal de Notícias . The
building where its offices are located (which has the same name as the
newspaper) was up to recently one of the tallest in the city (it has
been superseded by a number of modern buildings which have been built
since the 1990s).
Porto Editora , one of the biggest Portuguese publishers, is also in
Porto. Its dictionaries are among the most popular references used in
the country, and the translations are very popular as well.
The economic relations between the city of
Porto and the Upper Douro
River have been documented since the
Middle Ages . However, they were
greatly deepened in the modern ages. Indeed, sumach , dry fruits and
nuts and the
Douro olive oils sustained prosperous exchanges between
the region and Porto. From the riverside quays at the river mouth,
these products were exported to other markets of the Old and New World
. But the greatest lever to interregional trade relations resulted
from the commercial dynamics of the
Port wine (Vinho do Porto) agro
industry. It decidedly bolstered the complementary relationship
between the large coastal urban centre, endowed with open doors to the
sea, and a region with significant agricultural potential, especially
in terms of the production of extremely high quality fortified wines ,
known by the world-famous label Port. The development of
also closely connected with the left margin of River
Douro in Vila
Nova de Gaia , where is located the amphitheatre-shaped slope with the
Port wine cellars. South side of Douro,
Vila Nova de Gaia
In a study concerning competitiveness of the 18 Portuguese district
Porto was the worst-ranked. The study was made by Minho
University economics researchers and was published in Público
newspaper on 30 September 2006. The best-ranked cities in the study
Coimbra . Nevertheless, the validity of this
study was questioned by some Porto's notable figures (such as local
politicians and businesspersons) who argued that the city proper does
not function independently but in conurbation with other
municipalities. A new ranking, published in the newspaper Expresso
(Portuguese Newspaper) in 2007 which can be translated to "The Best
Cities to Live in Portugal" ranked
Porto in third place (tied with
Évora ) below
Lisbon . The two studies are not
directly comparable as they use different dependent measures.
Porto metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $43.0 billion ,
and $21,674 per capita.
ROADS AND BRIDGES
Porto Metro light rail . Francisco Sá Carneiro Airport
Internal highway São Bento
Railway Station STCP
bus Heritage tram
The road system capacity is augmented by the Via de Cintura Interna
or A20, an internal highway connected to several motorways and city
exits, complementing the Circunvalação 4-lane peripheric road, which
borders the north of the city and connects the eastern side of the
city to the Atlantic shore. The city is connected to Valença (Viana
do Castelo ) by highway A28, to Estarreja (Aveiro ) by the A29, to
Lisbon by the A1, to Bragança by the A4 and to
Braga by the A3. There
is also an outer-ring road, the A41, that connects all the main cities
around Porto, linking the city to other major metropolitan highways
such as the A7, A11, A42, A43 and A44. Since 2011, a new highway, the
A32, connects the metropolitan area to
São João da Madeira and
Oliveira de Azeméis .
During the 20th century, major bridges were built:
Arrábida Bridge ,
which at its opening had the biggest concrete supporting arch in the
world, and connects north and south shores of the
Douro on the west
side of the city, S. João , to replace D. Maria Pia and Freixo , a
highway bridge on the east side of the city. The newest bridge is
Ponte do Infante, finished in 2003. Two more bridges are said to be
under designing stages and due to be built in the next 10 years, one
on the Campo Alegre area, nearby the Faculty of Humanities and the
Arts, and another one in the area known as the Massarelos valley.
Porto is often referred to as Cidade das Pontes (City of the
Bridges), besides its more traditional nicknames of "Cidade Invicta"
(Unconquered/ Invincible City) and "Capital do Norte" (Capital of the
In July 2015 a new cruise terminal was opened at the port of
Leixões, which is north of the city in
Porto is served by
Francisco de Sá Carneiro Airport which is located
in Pedras Rubras, Moreira da Maia civil parish of the neighbouring
Municipality of Maia , some 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the north-west
of the city centre. The airport is a state-of-the-art facility, having
undergone a massive programme of refurbishment due to the Euro 2004
football championships being partly hosted in the city.
Porto's main railway station is situated in
Campanhã , located in
the eastern part of the city and connected to the lines of
da Régua/Tua/Pocinho), Minho (Barcelos/Viana do Castelo/Valença) and
Portugal (on the main line to Aveiro ,
From here, both light rail and suburban rail services connect to the
city centre. The main central station is São Bento Station , which is
itself a notable landmark located in the heart of Porto. SUBWAY AND
Currently the major project is the
Porto Metro , a light rail system.
Consequently, the Infante bridge was built for urban traffic,
replacing the Dom Luís I, which was dedicated to the subway on the
second and higher of the bridge's two levels. Six lines are open:
lines A (blue), B (red), C (green) and E (purple) all begin at
Estádio do Dragão (home to
FC Porto ) and terminate at Senhor de
Póvoa de Varzim
Póvoa de Varzim (via
Vila do Conde
Vila do Conde ),
ISMAI (via Maia)
and Francisco Sá Carneiro airport respectively. Line D (yellow)
currently runs from Hospital S. João in the north to Santo Ovídio on
the southern side of the
Douro river. Line F (orange), from Senhora da
Hora (Matosinhos) to Fânzeres (Gondomar). The lines intersect at the
central Trindade station. Currently the whole network spans 60 km (37
mi) using 68 stations, thus being the biggest metro system in the
METRO DO PORTO
ESTáDIO DO DRAGãO ↔ SENHOR DE MATOSINHOS
7 DECEMBER 2002
FLEXITY OUTLOOK (EUROTRAM)
ESTáDIO DO DRAGãO ↔ PóVOA DE VARZIM
13 MARCH 2005
FLEXITY SWIFT (TRAM-TRAIN)
30 JULY 2005
FLEXITY SWIFT (TRAM-TRAIN)
HOSPITAL SãO JOãO ↔ SANTO OVíDIO
18 SEPTEMBER 2005
FLEXITY OUTLOOK (EUROTRAM)
ESTáDIO DO DRAGãO ↔ AEROPORTO
27 MAY 2006
FLEXITY OUTLOOK (EUROTRAM)
FâNZERES ↔ SENHORA DA HORA
2 JANUARY 2011
FLEXITY OUTLOOK (EUROTRAM)
RIBEIRA ↔ BATALHA
19 FEBRUARY 2004
FUNICULAR OF GUINDAIS
The city has an extensive bus network run by the STCP (Sociedade dos
Transportes Colectivos do Porto, or
Porto Public Transport Society)
which also operates lines in the neighbouring cities of Gaia , Maia,
Matosinhos and Gondomar . Other smaller companies connect such towns
Paços de Ferreira and
Santo Tirso to the town center. In the past
the city also had trolleybuses . A bus journey is 1.85 Euro, which
must be paid in cash. TRAMS
A tram network , of which only three lines remain one of them being a
tourist line on the shores of the Douro, saw its construction begin on
12 September 1895, therefore being the first in the Iberian Peninsula
. The lines in operation all use vintage tramcars, so the service has
become a heritage tramway . STCP also operates these routes. The first
line of the area's modern-tram, or light rail system, named Metro do
Porto , opened for revenue service in January 2003 (after a brief
period of free , introductory service in December 2002).
Sculpture of Ângelo de Sousa at Avenida da Boavista, a services
Porto shared the designation European Culture Capital . In
the scope of these events, the construction of the major concert hall
Casa da Música , designed by the Dutch architect
Rem Koolhaas ,
was initiated and finished in 2005.
The first Portuguese moving pictures were taken in
Porto by Aurélio
da Paz dos Reis and shown there on 12 November 1896 in Teatro do
Príncipe Real do Porto, less than a year after the first public
Auguste and Louis Lumière . The country's first movie
studios Invicta Filmes was also erected in
Porto in 1917 and was open
from 1918 to 1927 in the area of Carvalhido.
Manoel de Oliveira , a
Portuguese film director and the oldest director in the world to be
active until his death in 2015, is from Porto.
Fantasporto is an
international film festival organized in
Porto every year.
Many renowned Portuguese music artists and cult bands such as GNR ,
Rui Veloso ,
Sérgio Godinho ,
Clã , Pluto , Azeitonas and Ornatos
Violeta are from the city or its metropolitan area.
Porto has several
museums, concert halls, theaters, cinemas, art galleries , libraries
and book shops. The best-known museums of
Porto are the National
Museum Soares dos Reis (Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis), which is
dedicated especially to the Portuguese artistic movements from the
16th to the 20th century, and the Museum of Contemporary Art of the
Serralves Foundation (Museu de Arte Contemporânea).
The city has concert halls of a rare beauty and elegance such as the
Coliseu do Porto by the Portuguese architect Cassiano Branco; an
exquisite example of the Portuguese decorative arts . Other notable
venues include the historical
São João National Theatre , the Rivoli
theatre, the Batalha cinema and
Casa da Música , inaugurated in 2005.
The city has the
Lello Bookshop , which is frequently rated among the
top bookstores in the world.
Porto houses the largest synagogue in the
Iberian Peninsula and one
of the largest in
Europe – Kadoorie
Synagogue , inaugurated in 1938.
Synagogue , the biggest in the
Casa da Musica
Porto's most popular event is St. John (São João Festival ) on the
night of 23–24 June. In this season it's a tradition to have a vase
with bush basil decorated with a small poem. During the dinner of the
great day people usually eat sardines and boiled potatoes together
with red wine.
Another major event is
Queima das Fitas , that starts in the first
Sunday of May and ends in the second Sunday of the month. Basically,
before the beginning of the study period preceding the school year’s
last exams, academia tries to have as much fun as possible. The week
has 12 major events, starting with the Monumental Serenata on Sunday,
and reaching its peak with the Cortejo Académico on Tuesday, when
about 50,000 students of the city's higher education institutions
march through the downtown streets till they reach the city hall.
During every night of the week a series of concerts takes place on the
Queimódromo, next to the city’s park, where it’s also a tradition
for the students in their second-to-last year to erect small tents
where alcohol is sold in order to finance the trip that takes place
during the last year of their course of study; an average of 50,000
students attend these shows.
Porto was considered the fourth best value destination for 2012, by
On the waterfront,
She Changes sculpture by artist Janet
In 2005, the municipality funded a public sculpture to be built in
the Waterfront Plaza of
Matosinhos . The resulting sculpture is
She Changes by American artist,
Janet Echelman , and spans
the height of 50 × 150 × 150 meters.
Due to its long history, the city of
Porto carries an immense
architectural patrimony. From the Romanesque Cathedral to the Social
Housing projects developed through the late 20th century, much could
be said surrounding architecture .
Porto is home to the
Porto School of
Architecture , one of the most
prestigious architecture schools in
Europe and the world. It is also
home to two earners of the Pritzker
Architecture Prize (two former
students of the aforementioned school ):
Álvaro Siza Vieira and
Eduardo Souto de Moura
Eduardo Souto de Moura .
Porto is home to a number of dishes from traditional Portuguese
cuisine . A typical dish from this city is
Tripas à Moda do Porto
Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá (Gomes de Sá Bacalhau
) is another typical codfish dish born in
Porto and popular in
Francesinha – literally Frenchy, or more accurately little
French (female) – is the most famous popular native snack food in
Porto. It is a kind of sandwich with several meats covered with cheese
and a special sauce made with beer and other ingredients.
Port wine , an internationally renowned wine, is widely accepted as
the city's dessert wine , especially as the wine is made along the
Douro River which runs through the city.
Over the last years,
Porto has been experiencing an important
touristic expansion, mainly caused by the
Ryanair hub at Francisco de
Sá Carneiro Airport.
Porto won the European Best Destination 2012,
2014 and 2017 awards.
The rectory of the
University of Porto
The city has a large number of public and private elementary and
secondary schools , as well as kindergartens and nurseries. Due to the
depopulation of the city's interior, however, the number of students
has dropped substantially in the last decade, forcing a closure of
some institutions. The oldest and largest international school located
Porto is the
Oporto British School , established in 1894. There are
more internationals schools in the city, such as the French School
and the Deutsch School , both created in the 20th century.
Porto has several institutions of higher education, the largest one
being the state-managed
University of Porto (Universidade do Porto),
which is the second largest Portuguese university , after the
Lisbon , with approximately 28,000 students and
considered one of the 100 best Universities in Europe. There is also
a state-managed polytechnic institute, the Instituto Politécnico do
Porto (a group of technical colleges), and private institutions like
University of Porto , Universidade Fernando Pessoa (UFP),
the Porto's Higher Education School of Arts (ESAP- Escola Superior
Artística do Porto) and a Vatican state university, the Portuguese
Porto (Universidade Católica Portuguesa –
Porto) and the Portucalense
Portucalense – Infante D. Henrique). Due to the recognition,
potential for employment and higher revenue, there are many students
from the entire country, particularly from the north of
attending a college or university in Porto.
For foreigners wishing to study Portuguese in the city there are a
number of options. As the most popular city in
Portugal for ERASMUS
students, most universities have facilities to assist foreigners in
learning the language. There are also several private learning
institutions in the city.
Porto district has the highest rate of tuberculosis positive cases in
Porto tuberculosis rates are at
Third World proportions
London faces a similar phenomenon). The incidence of
positive cases was 23/100 000 nationwide in 1994, with a rate of
24/100 000 in
Lisbon and 37/100 000 in Porto.
Porto area represented
the worst epidemiological situation in the country, with very high
rates in some city boroughs and in some poor fishing and declining
industrial communities. Epidemiological analysis indicated the
existence of undisclosed sources of infection in these communities,
responsible for continuing transmission despite a control rate of 83%
in the district. In 2002, the situation was not better with 34/100
000 nationwide and 64/100 000 in
Porto district. In 2004 the situation
improved to 53/100 000.
Pavilhão Rosa Mota
Porto, in addition to football, is the home to many athletic sports
arenas, most notably the city-owned
Pavilhão Rosa Mota , swimming
pools in the area of Constituição (between the Marquês and
Boavista), and other minor arenas, such as the Pavilhão do
Porto is home to northern Portugal's only cricket club , the Oporto
Cricket and Lawn Tennis Club . Annually, for more than 100 years, a
Kendall Cup ) has been played between the Oporto Club and
the Casuals Club of
Lisbon , in addition to regular games against
touring teams (mainly from
England ). The club's pitch is located off
the Rua Campo Alegre.
In 1958 and 1960, Porto's streets hosted the
Formula One Portuguese
Grand Prix on the Boavista street circuit , which are reenacted
annually, in addition to a
World Touring Car Championship race.
Every year in October the
Porto Marathon is held through the streets
of the old city of Porto.
Estádio do Dragão , home of
FC Porto Estádio do Bessa
XXI , home of Boavista FC
As in most Portuguese cities, football is the most important sport.
There are two main teams in Porto:
FC Porto in the parish of Campanhã
, in the eastern part of the city and Boavista in the area of Boavista
in the parish of
Ramalde , in the western part of the city, close to
the city center.
FC Porto is one of the Big Three teams in the
Portuguese league, and was European champion in 1987 and 2004, won the
UEFA Cup (2003) and Europa League (2011) and the Intercontinental
Toyota Cup in 1987 and 2004. Boavista have won the championship once,
in the 2000–01 season and reached the semi finals of the UEFA Cup in
2003, where they lost 2-1 to Celtic .
Formerly, Salgueiros from Paranhos was a regular first division club
during the 1980s and 1990s but, due to financial indebtedness, the
club folded in the 2000s. The club was refounded in 2008 , and started
to play at the regional level. They now play at the 3rd level of
Portugal's national football pyramid. The new Salgueiros club,
however, plays outside the city in
Pedrouços , Maia .
The biggest stadiums in the city are FC Porto's Estádio do Dragão
Estádio do Bessa . The first team in
Porto to own a
stadium was Académico , who played in the Estádio do Lima,
Académico was one of the eight teams to dispute the first division.
Salgueiros , who sold the grounds of Estádio Engenheiro Vidal
Pinheiro field to the
Porto Metro and planned on building a new field
in the Arca d'Água area of Porto. Located a few hundred meters away
from the old grounds, it became impossible to build on this land due
to a large underground water pocket, and, consequently, they moved to
Estádio do Mar in
Matosinhos (owned by Leixões ). For the Euro
2004 football competition, held in Portugal, the Estádio do Dragão
was built (replacing the old
Estádio das Antas ) and the Estádio do
Bessa was renovated.
FC Porto (basketball) team plays its home games at the Dragão
Caixa . Its squad won the second most championships in the history of
Portugal\'s 1st Division . Traditionally, the club provides the
Portuguese national basketball team with numerous key players.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES
Porto is twinned with:
Belgium , since 1977
France , since 1978
England , UK , since 1984
Vigo , Galicia ,
Spain , since 1986
Japan , since 1978
Italy , since 2010
Germany , since 1984
China , since 1997
Duruelo de la Sierra ,
Castile and León
Castile and León , Spain, since 1989
Czech Republic , since 2004
China , since 1995
* Beira ,
Mozambique , since 1989
Angola , since 1989
* Neves ,
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe , since 1987
* León ,
Castile and León
Castile and León , Spain, since 2001
Zambia , since 1978
Guiné Bissau , since 2001
Lithuania , since 2007
Brazil , since 1981
Cape Verde , since 1992
Monument to Prince
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
Alexandre Quintanilha (born 9 August 1945) – scientist and
Member of Parliament
Almeida Garrett (1799–1854) – notable writer, theater director
Álvaro Siza Vieira (born 25 June 1933) – architect
André Villas-Boas (born 17 October 1977) – football manager
António Nobre (António Pereira Nobre, 16 August 1867 – 18
March 1900) – poet, died of tuberculosis in Foz do Douro, Porto, in
1900, after trying to recover in a number of places. His masterpiece
Só (Paris, 1892), was the only book he published
António Pinho Vargas (born 15 August 1951) – composer
António da Silva Porto (Francisco Ferreira da Silva Porto, 24
August 1817 – 1890) – Portuguese trader and explorer in Angola, in
the Portuguese West Africa. The town of Kuito, founded by the
Portuguese and named Belmonte at that time, was renamed Silva Porto
António Soares dos Reis (1847–1889) – sculptor
Armando de Basto (1889–1923) – painter
Artur Loureiro (1853–1932) – painter
Brás Cubas (1507–1589) – Portuguese explorer, colonial
administrator and founder of Santos in Brazil
Bruno Alves (born 27 November 1981) – footballer
Charles Albert of Sardinia (1798–1849) – Italian monarch
Diogo Vasconcelos (1968–2011) – politician and social
Duarte Coelho Pereira (c. 1485–1554) – Portuguese nobleman,
military leader, colonial administrator and founder of
* Duda (born 27 June 1980) – footballer
Eduardo Souto de Moura
Eduardo Souto de Moura (born 25 July 1952) – architect
Estevão Gomes , also known as Esteban Gómez and Estevan Gómez,
(c. 1483–1538) – cartographer and explorer . He sailed at the
Spain in the fleet of Ferdinand Magellan, but deserted the
expedition before reaching the
Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan , and returned to
Spain in May 1521. In 1524 he explored present-day
Nova Scotia sailing
South along the
Maine coast. He entered
New York Harbor
New York Harbor , saw the
Hudson River , and eventually reached
Florida in August 1525. Because
of his expedition, the 1529
Diogo Ribeiro world map outlines the East
coast of North America almost perfectly.
* Fernão de Magalhães (Ferdinand Magellan) (c. 1480–1521) –
the globe circumnavigation navigator; probably born in Porto, but
surely lived and studied in this town.
Francisco Laranjo (born 5 June 1955) – painter
* Francisco Sá Carneiro (1934–1980) – former Prime Minister
* Francisco Vieira de Matos (1765–1805) – painter (a.k.a. Vieira
* Freitas-Magalhães (born 1966) – psychologist and scientist
Guilhermina Suggia (1885–1950) – cellist; born at Porto
Henrique Hilário (born 21 October 1975) – Chelsea Football Club
goalkeeper; born in Porto
Jorge Nuno Pinto da Costa (born 28 December 1937) – President of
Futebol Clube do
José Pacheco Pereira (born 6 January 1949) – politician,
professor and political analyst
Júlio Dinis (1839–1871) – doctor and writer
* J.K. Rowling – writer of the
Harry Potter saga
Kaúlza de Arriaga (1915–2004) – general of the Portuguese
Manoel de Oliveira (11 December 1908 – 2 April 2015) – film
Miguel Sousa Tavares (born 25 June 1952) – writer
Pedro Abrunhosa (born 20 December 1960) – singer-songwriter
Pedro de Escobar (c. 1465–after 1535) – Renaissance composer
Pêro Vaz de Caminha (1450–1500) – wrote the letter Carta do
Achamento do Brasil , announcing the discovery of Brazil
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator (1394–1460) – responsible for the
early development of European exploration and maritime trade with
Ramalho Ortigão (1836–1912) – writer
Raul Meireles (born 17 March 1983) – footballer
Richard Zimler (born 1956) – novelist
Rosa Mota (born 29 June 1958) – marathon runner, Olympic gold
medalist (Seoul 1988)
Rui Reininho (born 28 February 1955) – singer
Sara Sampaio 1991 – supermodel
Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen (1919–2004) – writer
Tiago Monteiro (born 24 July 1976) – racing driver
Uriel da Costa (1580–1640) – Jewish philosopher
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to PORTO .
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* Coordination and Development Committee of the North Region
* Metropolitan Area of Porto
* Tourism of
Porto and Norte Region, Portugal
LIBRARIES AND BOOKSTORES
* Biblioteca Infantil
Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto
* Livraria Lello