Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] (listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.
Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. Welsh national feeling grew over the century; Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters.
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The Holy Bible is the third studio album by Welsh alternative rock band Manic Street Preachers. It was released on 29 August 1994 by Epic Records and was the last of the band's albums released before the disappearance of lyricist and guitarist Richey Edwards (credited as "Richey James" on the album sleeve), on 1 February 1995.
Edwards was facing problems with alcohol abuse, self-harm and anorexia nervosa at the time the album was written and recorded, and its contents are considered by some sources to reflect his mental state. The songs focus on themes relating to politics and human suffering.
The album won widespread critical acclaim and features in "Best Album of All Time" polls in the UK. It has been described by the NME as "a work of genuine genius". Although it reached number six on the UK albums charts, global sales were disappointing compared to previous albums, and the record did not chart in mainland Europe or North America. The album was promoted with tours and festival appearances in the UK, Ireland and mainland Europe, in part without Edwards.
An expanded 10th Anniversary Edition of the album was released in 2004.
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Did you know...?/A wyddwch...?
Selected biography/Bywgraffiad dethol
(13 July 1527 – 1609) was a noted English mathematician
, and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I
. He also devoted much of his life to alchemy
, and Hermetic philosophy
. Dee straddled the worlds of science
just as they were becoming distinguishable. One of the most learned men of his time, he had lectured to crowded halls at the University of Paris
when still in his early twenties. John was an ardent promoter of mathematics, a respected astronomer and a leading expert in navigation
, having trained many of those who would conduct England
's voyages of discovery
(he coined the term "British Empire
"). At the same time, he immersed himself deeply in magic and Hermetic philosophy
, devoting the last third of his life almost exclusively to these pursuits. For Dee, as with many of his contemporaries, these activities were not contradictory, but particular aspects of a consistent world-view.
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