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India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE. By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions. By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism, and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity. Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin. Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.

National Anthem of India
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Selected articles

A photograph of Hrithik Roshan smiling away from the camera
Roshan at an event for Rado in 2016

Hrithik Roshan (English: /ˈrɪtɪk ˈrɒʃən/, born 10 January 1974) is an Indian actor who appears in Bollywood films. He has portrayed a variety of characters and is known for his dancing skills. One of the highest-paid actors in India, he has won many awards, including six Filmfares, four for Best Actor and one each for Best Debut and Best Actor (Critics). Starting in 2012, he appeared in Forbes India's Celebrity 100 based on his income and popularity.

Roshan has frequently collaborated with his father. He made brief appearances as a child actor in several films in the 1980s and later worked as an assistant director on four of his father's films. His first leading role was in the box-office success Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai (2000), for which he received several awards. Performances in the 2000 terrorism drama Fiza and the 2001 ensemble melodrama Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... consolidated his reputation but were followed by several poorly received films.

The 2003 science fiction film Koi... Mil Gaya, for which Roshan won two Filmfare Awards, was a turning point in his career; he also appeared in its sequels: Krrish (2006) and Krrish 3 (2013). He earned praise for his portrayal of a thief in the 2006 adventure film Dhoom 2, Mughal emperor Akbar in the 2008 historical romance Jodhaa Akbar and a quadriplegic in the 2010 drama Guzaarish. He played the lead in the 2011 drama Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara, the 2012 revenge film Agneepath, the 2014 action comedy Bang Bang!, the 2019 biopic Super 30, and the 2019 action thriller War. The lattermost ranks as his highest-grossing release. Read more...

Selected picture

A Bengal Tiger

The Bengal tiger or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger found in parts of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. It is the most common tiger subspecies, and lives in a variety of habitats - grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests and mangroves. Its fur is orange-brown with black stripes, although there are also white tigers.

Photo credit: Hollingsworth, John and Karen (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

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News

29 December 2019 – Citizenship Amendment Act protests
The Indian tourism industry reports that, as a result of protests, December visits to the Taj Mahal and the state of Assam declined by 60% and 90% respectively compared to the same period last year. These declines are also occurring in the midst of general economic slowdown in the country. (Reuters)
26 December 2019 – Citizenship Amendment Act protests
Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Yogi Adityanath threatens to confiscate property from more than 200 people, mostly Muslims, allegedly to pay for damages caused by protesters. The northern Indian state has seen the most violence from the protests, with 18 out of the 25 killings happening there. (Al Jazeera)
23 December 2019 – 2019 Jharkhand Legislative Assembly election
In an election occurring in the midst of massive protests against the central government, the incumbent right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party is projected to lose its majority to the United Progressive Alliance parties in the eastern Indian state of Jharkhand. (Al Jazeera)
20 December 2019 – Citizenship Amendment Act protests
Further clashes between protesters and police in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh leaves six people dead. (Al Jazeera)
19 December 2019 – Citizenship Amendment Act protests
Thousands of demonstrators take to the streets in various parts of India to protest the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019. Some are arrested, and internet service is shut down in many parts of the country. (ndtv)
15 December 2019 – Citizenship (Amendment) Bill protests in India
Violent protests against the new citizenship bill break out in Delhi, leaving at least six dead. The protestors, numbering in the thousands and containing numerous students, were dispersed by police using tear gas and baton charges. The police also stormed the campus of Jamia Millia Islamia University to arrest protestors fleeing the scene while clashing against students. (Al Jazeera)
12 December 2019 – Indian Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019
As anger over the new citizenship law grows in the Indian states of Assam and Tripura, the government calls in the Army to restore peace. Prime Minister Narendra Modi appeals for calm. (BBC)

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Topics related to India

History

Timeline of Indian history, Indus Valley Civilization, Dholavira, Science and technology in ancient India, Meluhha, Aryan invasion theory, Out of India theory, Greek Conquests in India, Indian Ancient Maritime History, Mauryan dynasty, Ashokan Era, Sunga dynasty, Hoysala, Vijayanagara, Satavahana, Indo-Greek kingdom, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Kushan Empire, Western Kshatrapas, Gupta Empire, Cholas, Pala Empire, Islamic incursions in India, Mughal Era, Maratha Empire, British Raj, British East India Company, Governor-General, Viceroy, War of Independence, 1857, Indian independence movement, Indian National Army, Azad Hind, Quit India Movement, Partition of India, History of Republic of India, Non-Aligned Movement, Sino-Indian War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War, 2001 India Pakistan standoff, Military, Demographic


Politics

Law, Hindu law, Constitution, Political parties (Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party), Foreign relations, Elections, Political divisions, Reservations in India


Government

Government agencies, Legislative branch (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha) Executive branch (President & Vice-President, Prime Minister & Deputy Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, Cabinet Secretary of India, Election Commission, Foreign Minister; Law enforcement: CBI, CID, Intelligence: IB, RAW), Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation Judicial branch (Supreme Court), Military (Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Force, Coast Guard)


Geography

The Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Indo Gangetic Plain, Deccan Plateau, Thar Desert, Ganges River, Rann of Kutch, Brahmaputra River, North-East India; Mountains, Valleys, Islands, Rivers; States and territories, Cities, Districts, Regions, Fauna and flora


Economy

Rupee, Bombay Stock Exchange, National Stock Exchange, Standard of living, Companies, Reserve Bank of India, Energy policy (Solar, Wind, Nuclear), Tourism, Transport (Highways, Rail transport, Auto rickshaw),


Demographics

Languages, Standard of living, Religion


Arts & Culture

Music (Carnatic, Hindustani, Indi-pop), Dance, Languages, Literature, Architecture, Film & TV, Cuisine, Holidays, Folklore, Education, Media, Indian martial arts


Science & Tech

Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR), Indian Institute of Astrophysics, National Centre for Software Technology, AIIMS, IISc, IIT, NIT, BITS-Pilani, INRegistry, Indian numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, India Internet Exchange, ICRISAT, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad


Other

Indian English, Indian nationality law, Numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, Communications, National Highways Development Project, Flag, Licence plates, Indian nationalism, Metrication in India

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