Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi
, Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi] (listen)
; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general and a patriot. A republican, he contributed to the Italian unification
and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy
. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
and Giuseppe Mazzini
. Garibaldi is also known as the "Hero of the Two Worlds
" because of his military enterprises in South America and Europe.
Garibaldi was a follower of the Italian nationalist, Giuseppe Mazzini
, and embraced republican nationalism as exemplified by the Young Italy movement.
He became a life-long supporter of Italian unification under a democratic Republican government. After participating in an uprising in Piedmont, he was sentenced to death and he escaped by sailing to South America; he spent fourteen years in exile, taking part in several wars and learning the art of guerrilla warfare.
In 1835, in Brazil, he took up the cause of the Riograndense Republic
in its attempt to proclaim another republic within Santa Catarina, joining the rebels known as the Ragamuffins. Garibaldi also became involved in the Uruguayan Civil War
, raising an Italian force known as Redshirts
, and is today celebrated as an important contributor towards the independence of the country.
In 1848, he returned to Italy and commanded and fought in many military campaigns that eventually led to the Italian unification. The provisional government of Milan
made Garibaldi a general, and in 1849, the Minister of War promoted him to General of the Roman Republic
. When the war of independence
broke out in April 1859, he led his Hunters of the Alps
in the capture of Varese
and reached the frontier of South Tyrol; the war ended with the acquisition of Lombardy. The following year, he led the Expedition of the Thousand
on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. The expedition was a success and concluded with the annexation of Sicily, Southern Italy, Marche and Umbria to the Kingdom of Sardinia
, before the creation of a unified Kingdom of Italy on 17 March 1861. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War
, as commander of the Army of the Vosges
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