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Port Royal
Port Royal
is a village located at the end of the Palisadoes
Palisadoes
at the mouth of the Kingston Harbour, in southeastern Jamaica. Founded in 1518 by the Spanish, it was once the largest city in the Caribbean, functioning as the centre of shipping and commerce in the Caribbean Sea by the latter half of the 17th century.[1] It was destroyed by an earthquake on June 7, 1692, which had an accompanying tsunami. Severe hurricanes have regularly damaged it. Another severe earthquake occurred in 1907. Port Royal
Port Royal
was once home to privateers encouraged to attack Habsburg Spain's vessels when smaller European powers dared not directly make war on Spain. As a port city, it was notorious for its gaudy displays of wealth and loose morals. It was a popular homeport for the English and Dutch-sponsored privateers to spend their treasure during the 17th century. When those governments abandoned the practice of issuing letters of marque to privateers against the Spanish treasure fleets and possessions in the later 16th century, many of the crews turned pirate. They continued to use the city as their main base during the 17th century. Pirates
Pirates
from around the world congregated at Port Royal, coming from waters as far away as Madagascar. After the 1692 disaster, Port Royal's commercial role was steadily taken over by the nearby town (and later, city) of Kingston. Plans were developed in 1999 to redevelop the small fishing town as a heritage tourism destination to serve cruise ships. It could capitalize on its unique heritage, with archaeological findings from pre-colonial and privateering years as the basis of possible attractions.[1]

Contents

1 Colonization of Port Royal

1.1 Taino 1.2 Spanish 1.3 English

2 Defence of the port 3 17th century economy 4 Climate 5 Piracy
Piracy
in Port Royal 6 The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in Port Royal 7 Earthquake
Earthquake
of 1692 and its aftermath 8 Recent history 9 In popular culture

9.1 Film 9.2 Literature

10 References 11 External links

Colonization of Port Royal[edit] Taino[edit] The Taino Indians occupied this area for centuries before European encounter. They used the area, which they called Caguay or Caguaya,[2] during their fishing expeditions. Although it is not known whether they ever settled at the spit, they did inhabit other parts of Jamaica.[3] Spanish[edit] The Spanish first landed in Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1494 under the leadership of Christopher Columbus. Permanent settlement occurred when Juan de Esquivel brought a group of settlers in 1509. They came in search of new lands and valuable resources, like gold and silver. Instead they began to cultivate and process the sugar cane. Much like the Taino before them, the Spanish did not appear to have much use for the Port Royal area. They did, however, retain its Taino name.[2] Spain
Spain
kept control of Jamaica
Jamaica
mostly so that it could prevent other countries from gaining access to the island, which was strategically sited within the trade routes of the Caribbean. Spain
Spain
maintained control over the island for 146 years, until the English took control following their invasion of 1655. English[edit] Main article: Invasion of Jamaica The town was captured by England in 1655 during the invasion of Jamaica.[3][4] By 1659 two hundred houses, shops and warehouses had been built around the fort; by 1692 five forts defended the port.[5] The English initially called the place Cagway but soon renamed it as Port Royal.[2] For much of the period between the English conquest and the 1692 earthquake, Port Royal
Port Royal
served as the capital of Jamaica. After the earthquake, Spanish Town
Spanish Town
was designated as the capital. In 1872 the government designated Kingston, the largest city, as the capital.[5] Defence of the port[edit]

Port Royal
Port Royal
Fort defences

In 1657, as a solution to his defence concerns, Governor Edward D'Oley invited the Brethren of the Coast
Brethren of the Coast
to come to Port Royal
Port Royal
and make it their home port. The Brethren was made up of a group of pirates who were descendants of cattle-hunting boucaniers (later anglicized to buccaneers), who had turned to piracy after being robbed by the Spanish (and subsequently thrown out of Hispaniola).[4] These pirates concentrated their attacks on Spanish shipping, whose interests were considered the major threat to the town. These pirates later became legal English privateers who were given letters of marque by Jamaica’s governor. Around the same time that pirates were invited to Port Royal, England launched a series of attacks against Spanish shipping vessels and coastal towns. By sending the newly appointed privateers after Spanish ships and settlements, England had successfully set up a system of defence for Port Royal. Spain
Spain
was forced to continually defend their property, and did not have the means with which to retake its land.[4] 17th century economy[edit] Spain
Spain
could not retake the island and, due to pirates, could no longer regularly provide their colonies in the New World with manufactured goods. The progressive irregularity of annual Spanish fleets, combined with an increasing demand by colonies for manufactured goods, stimulated the growth of Port Royal. Merchants
Merchants
and privateers worked together in what is now referred to as "forced trade." Merchants
Merchants
would sponsor trading endeavors with the Spanish, while also sponsoring privateers to attack Spanish ships and rob Spanish coastal towns.[4] While the merchants most certainly had the upper hand, the privateers were an integral part of the operation. Nuala Zahedieh, a lecturer at the University of Edinburgh, wrote, “Both opponents and advocates of so-called ‘forced trade’ declared the town’s fortune had the dubious distinction of being founded entirely on the servicing of the privateers’ needs and highly lucrative trade in prize commodities.”[6] She added, "A report that the 300 men who accompanied Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan
to Portobello in 1668 returned to the town with a prize to spend of at least £60 each (two or three times the usual annual plantation wage) leaves little doubt that they were right.”[6] The forced trade became almost a way of life in Port Royal. Michael Pawson and David Busseret wrote “...one way or the other nearly all the propertied inhabitants of Port Royal
Port Royal
seem to have an interest in privateering.”[7] Forced trade was rapidly making Port Royal
Port Royal
one of the wealthiest communities in the English territories of North America, far surpassing any profit made from the production of sugar cane. Zahedieh wrote, “The Portobello raid [in 1668] alone produced plunder worth £75,000, more than seven times the annual value of the island’s sugar exports, which at Port Royal
Port Royal
prices did not exceed £10,000 at this time.”[6] Climate[edit] Port Royal
Port Royal
has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with a short dry season from January to April and a lengthy wet season from May to October. Temperatures remain steady throughout the year with the dry season being slightly cooler and range from 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) in January to 27.7 °C (81.9 °F) in May. The average annual precipitation is 1,345 millimetres (53 in).[8] Piracy
Piracy
in Port Royal[edit]

An 18th-century pirate flag ( Calico Jack
Calico Jack
Rackham).

Port Royal
Port Royal
provided a safe harbour initially for privateers and subsequently for pirates plying the shipping lanes to and from Spain and Panama. Buccaneers found Port Royal
Port Royal
appealing for several reasons. Its proximity to trade routes allowed them easy access to prey, but the most important advantage was the port's proximity to several of the only safe passages or straits giving access to the Spanish Main from the Atlantic.[5] The harbour was large enough to accommodate their ships and provided a place to careen and repair these vessels. It was also ideally situated for launching raids on Spanish settlements. From Port Royal, Christopher Myngs sacked Campeche and Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan
attacked Panama, Portobello, and Maracaibo. Additionally, buccaneers Roche Brasiliano, John Davis and Edward Mansvelt
Edward Mansvelt
used Port Royal as a base of operations. Since the English lacked sufficient troops to prevent either the Spanish or French from seizing it, the Jamaican governors eventually turned to the pirates to defend the city.[9] By the 1660s the city had, for some, become a pirate utopia and had gained a reputation as the "Sodom of the New World", where most residents were pirates, cutthroats, or prostitutes. When Charles Leslie wrote his history of Jamaica, he included a description of the pirates of Port Royal:

Wine and women drained their wealth to such a degree that [...] some of them became reduced to beggary. They have been known to spend 2 or 3,000 pieces of eight in one night; and one gave a strumpet 500 to see her naked.[10] They used to buy a pipe of wine, place it in the street, and oblige everyone that passed to drink.

The taverns of Port Royal
Port Royal
were known for their excessive consumption of alcohol such that records even exist of the wild animals of the area partaking in the debauchery. During a passing visit, famous Dutch explorer Jan van Riebeeck
Jan van Riebeeck
is said to have described the scenes:

The parrots of Port Royal
Port Royal
gather to drink from the large stocks of ale with just as much alacrity as the drunks that frequent the taverns that serve it.

There is even speculation in pirate folklore that the infamous Blackbeard
Blackbeard
(Edward Thatch) met a howler monkey, while at leisure in a Port Royal
Port Royal
alehouse, whom he named Jefferson and formed a strong bond with during the expedition to the island of New Providence. Recent genealogical research indicates that Blackbeard
Blackbeard
and his family moved to Jamaica
Jamaica
where Edward Thatch, Jr. is listed as being a mariner in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
aboard the HMS Windsor in 1706.[11] Port Royal benefited from this lively, glamorous infamy and grew to be one of the two largest towns and the most economically important port in the English colonies. At the height of its popularity, the city had one drinking house for every 10 residents. In July 1661 alone, 40 new licenses were granted to taverns. During a 20-year period that ended in 1692, nearly 6,500 people lived in Port Royal. In addition to prostitutes and buccaneers, there were four goldsmiths, 44 tavern keepers, and a variety of artisans and merchants who lived in 2,000 buildings crammed into 51 acres (21 ha) of real estate. 213 ships visited the seaport in 1688. The city’s wealth was so great that coins were preferred for payment over the more common system of bartering goods for services. Following Henry Morgan’s appointment as lieutenant governor, Port Royal began to change. Pirates
Pirates
were no longer needed to defend the city. The selling of slaves took on greater importance. Upstanding citizens disliked the reputation the city had acquired. In 1687, Jamaica
Jamaica
passed anti-piracy laws. Consequently, instead of being a safe haven for pirates, Port Royal
Port Royal
became noted as their place of execution. Gallows Point welcomed many to their death, including Charles Vane
Charles Vane
and Calico Jack, who were hanged in 1720. About five months later, the famous woman pirate Mary Read
Mary Read
died in the Jamaican prison in Port Royal. Two years later, 41 pirates met their death in one month.[12] The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in Port Royal[edit]

Remains of the Naval Hospital, rebuilt 1818 by Edward Holl.

Under British rule the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
made use of a careening wharf at Port Royal
Port Royal
and rented a building on the foreshore to serve as a storehouse. From 1675 a resident Naval Officer was appointed to oversee these facilities;[13] however, development was cut short by the 1692 earthquake. After the earthquake, an attempt was made to establish a naval base at Port Antonio
Port Antonio
instead, but the climate there proved disagreeable. From 1735, Port Royal
Port Royal
once more became the focus of the Admiralty's attention. New wharves and storehouses were built at this time, as well as housing for the officers of the Yard. Over the next thirty years, more facilities were added: cooperages, workshops, sawpits, and accommodation (including a canteen) for the crews of ships being careened there.[14] A Royal Naval Hospital
Royal Naval Hospital
was also established on land a little to the west of the Naval Yard; and by the end of the 18th century a small Victualling Yard
Victualling Yard
had been added to the east (prior to this ships had had to go to Kingston and other settlements to take on supplies).[14] At the start of the 19th century a significant amount of rebuilding took place in what was by now a substantial Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Dockyard serving the fleet in the Caribbean. A sizeable storehouse with a clocktower formed the centrepiece, with a covered way leading from it to the careening wharves. The adjacent Port Admiral's (later Commodore's) House included a watch tower, to counter the threat of privateers. The Yard continued to expand to meet the new requirements of steam-powered vessels: the victualling wharf became a coaling depot in the 1840s, and twenty years later a small engineering complex was built.[14] The Yard continued to expand through to the beginning of the 20th century, but then (with the Admiralty focusing more and more on the situation in Europe) the Navy withdrew from its station in Jamaica
Jamaica
and the Dockyard closed in 1905. Many of the Dockyard buildings (most of which were of timber construction) were subsequently demolished or destroyed (some in the 1907 Kingston earthquake, others by Hurricane
Hurricane
Charlie in 1951).[15] A few remain in place, however, including the Naval Hospital complex, some of the steam engineering buildings and a set of officers' houses.[16] There is also a slipway, completed as late as 1904, which (with its accompanying sheds) was designed for housing and launching torpedo boats, stationed there for the Yard's protection. In 2014 it was announced that some of the Historic Naval Hospital buildings would be restored to house a museum as part of a broader Port Royal
Port Royal
Heritage Tourism Project.[17] Earthquake
Earthquake
of 1692 and its aftermath[edit] Main article: 1692 Jamaica
Jamaica
earthquake

Old map of Port Royal. Light section at top and going down toward the right is the part of the city lost in 1692 earthquake; slightly shaded middle section part of city that was flooded; darkly shaded bottom section is part of city that survived

Shoreline changes in the Port Royal
Port Royal
earthquake

The town grew rapidly, reaching a population of around 6,500 people and approximately 2,000 dwellings, by 1692. As land on which to build diminished, it became common practice to either fill in areas of water and build new infrastructure on top of it, or simply build buildings taller. Additionally, buildings gradually became heavier as the residents adopted the brick style homes of their native England. Some[who?] urged the population to adopt the low, wooden building style of the previous Spanish inhabitants, but many refused. In the end, all of these separate factors contributed to the impending disaster.

The fortress

On June 7, 1692, a devastating earthquake hit the city causing most of its northern section to be lost - and with it many of the town’s houses and other buildings. Many of the forts were destroyed, as well; Fort Charles survived, but Forts James and Carlisle sank into the sea, Fort Rupert became a large region of water, and great damage was done to an area known as Morgan’s Line.[3] Although the earthquake hit the entire island of Jamaica, the citizens of Port Royal
Port Royal
were at a greater risk of death due to the perilous sand, falling buildings, and the tsunami that followed. Though the local authorities tried to remove or sink all of the corpses from the water, they were unsuccessful; some simply got away from them, while others were trapped in places that were inaccessible. Improper housing, a lack of medicine or clean water, and the fact that most of the survivors were homeless led to many people dying of malignant fevers.[18] The earthquake and tsunami killed between 1,000 and 3,000 people combined, nearly half the city's population.[citation needed] Disease ran rampant in the next several months, claiming an estimated 2,000 additional lives.[citation needed] The historical Jamaica
Jamaica
earthquake of June 7, 1692 can be dated closely not only by date, but by time of day as well. This is documented by recovery from the sea floor in the 1960s of a pocket watch stopped, at 11:43 a.m., recording the time of the devastating earthquake.[19][20][21] The earthquake caused the sand under Port Royal
Port Royal
to liquefy and flow out into Kingston Harbour. The water table was generally only two feet down before the impact, and the town was built on a layer of some 65 feet of water-saturated sand. This type of area did not provide a solid foundation on which to build an entire town. Unlike the Spanish before them, the English had decided to settle and develop the small area of land, even while acknowledging that the area was nothing but “hot loose sand”.[22]

Ships at Port Royal
Port Royal
c. 1820

According to Mulcahy, “[Modern] scientists and underwater archaeologists now believe that the earthquake was a powerful one and that much of the damage at Port Royal
Port Royal
resulted from a process known as liquefaction.”[22] Liquefaction occurs when earthquakes strike ground that is loose, sandy, and water-saturated, increasing the water pressure and causing the particles to separate from one another and form a sludge resembling quicksand. Eyewitness accounts attested to buildings sliding into the water, but it is likely[clarification needed] some simply sank straight down into the now unstable layer.[22] Underwater archeology, some of which can be seen in the National Geographic Channel show Wicked Pirate
Pirate
City, reveals the foundations of building underwater, showing there was subsidence, as do comparisons of post-earthquake maps and pre-earthquake maps. Some attempts were made to rebuild the city, starting with the one third that was not submerged, but these met with mixed success and numerous disasters.[citation needed] An initial attempt at rebuilding was again destroyed in 1703 by fire. Subsequent rebuilding was hampered by several hurricanes in the first half of the 18th century, including flooding from the sea in 1722, a further fire in 1750, and a major hurricane in 1774, and soon Kingston eclipsed Port Royal
Port Royal
in importance. In 1815, what repairs were being undertaken were destroyed in another major fire, while the whole island was severely affected by an epidemic of cholera in 1850.[clarification needed] Recent history[edit]

Giddy House

Inside the Giddy House

A final devastating earthquake on January 14, 1907, again liquefied the sand spit, destroying nearly all of the rebuilt city, submerging additional portions, and tilting The Giddy House, an artillery storage room built c. 1880 that is today a minor tourist attraction. Today, the area is a shadow of its former self with a population of less than 2,000 that has little to no commercial or political importance. This is in part a result of abandonment of plans begun in the early 1960s to develop the town as a cruise ship port and destination.[23] The plans stimulated the archaeological explorations on the site which, in turn, led to the suspension of development solely as a port but now included archaeological and other attractions.[5] In 1981, the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University began a 10-year underwater archaeological investigation of the portion of Port Royal
Port Royal
that sank underwater during the 17th century. The area the team focused on had sunk directly into the sea and suffered very little damage. Due to very low oxygen levels, a large amount of organic material could be recovered. The efforts made by the program have allowed everyday life in the English colonial port city to be reconstructed in great detail.[24] In 1998, the Port Royal
Port Royal
Development Company commissioned architectural firm The Jerde Partnership to create a master plan for the redevelopment of Port Royal, which was completed in 2000.[25] The focus of the plan is a 17th-century-themed attraction that reflects the city's heritage. It has two anchor areas: Old Port Royal
Port Royal
and the King’s Royal Naval Dockyard. Old Port Royal
Port Royal
features a cruise ship pier extending from a reconstructed Chocolata Hole harbour and Fisher's Row, a group of cafes and shops on the waterfront. The King’s Royal Naval Dockyard features a combination shipbuilding-museum and underwater aquarium with dioramas for views of the native tropical sealife.[25] The Royal Naval Dockyard also includes the headquarters for the Admiral of the Royal Navy. The redevelopment plan also includes a five-star hotel.[26] Today, Port Royal
Port Royal
is known to post-medieval archaeologists as the "City that Sank".[27] Robert Marx considers it the most important underwater archaeological site in the western hemisphere[citation needed], yielding 16th–and-17th-century artifacts and many important treasures from indigenous peoples predating its 1588 founding, some from as far away as Guatemala. Several 17th and early 18th century pirate ships sank within Kingston Harbour
Kingston Harbour
and are being carefully harvested, under controlled conditions, by various teams of archaeologists. Other "digs" are staked out along various quarters and streets by different teams.[citation needed] In popular culture[edit] Film[edit]

Port Royal
Port Royal
is the "City Beneath the Sea" in the 1953 film of that name. Port Royal
Port Royal
appears in the film Cutthroat Island
Cutthroat Island
directed by Renny Harlin, shot in Thailand and Malta Port Royal
Port Royal
has been featured as a location within Disney's Pirates
Pirates
of the Caribbean
Caribbean
film series, though much of the location work for Port Royal was actually done on the island of Saint Vincent, not in Jamaica.[28]

Literature[edit]

Extensive scenes in Michael Crichton's posthumous novel, Pirate Latitudes (2009), take place in Port Royal
Port Royal
in the mid-1660s. James Michener's historical novel, The Caribbean
Caribbean
(1989), details the history, atmosphere, and geography of Port Royal
Port Royal
accurately.[citation needed]

References[edit]

^ a b Davis, Nick (2012-07-25). "Jamaica's 'wickedest city' Port Royal banks on heritage". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ a b c Higman, B W; Hudson, B J (2009). Jamaican Place Names (Softcover) (1st ed.). Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. p. 26. ISBN 9789766402174. Retrieved April 9, 2014.  ^ a b c Michael Pawson and David Buisseret, Port Royal, Jamaica (London: Oxford University Press, 1975). ^ a b c d Donny L. Hamilton, " Pirates
Pirates
and Merchants: Port Royal, Jamaica," in X Marks the Spot: The Archaeology of Piracy, ed. Russell K. Skowronek and Charles R. Ewen, 13–30 (Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2006). ^ a b c d Sin City Jamaica. 1998-12-26. History Channel.  ^ a b c Nuala Zahedieh, "Trade, Plunder, and Economic Development in Early English Jamaica, 1655–89," The Economic History Review 39, no. 2 (1986): 205–222. ^ Michael Pawson and David Buisseret, Port Royal, Jamaica
Jamaica
(Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 2000). ^ Climate Summary for Port Royal ^ Breverton, Terry (2005). Admiral Sir Henry Morgan: "king of the Buccaneers". Pelican Publishing. ISBN 1455600148.  ^ The original source of this story is Alexandre Exquemelin's History of the Bouccaneers of America. The original text adds: "yes, and many other impieties", so "see her naked" is a euphemism for sex. ^ Brooks, Baylus C. (2015). Blackbeard
Blackbeard
Reconsidered – Mist's Piracy, Thache's Genealogy. North Carolina Office of Archives and History. pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-0-86526-479-3.  ^ Cindy Vallar. "Notorious Pirate
Pirate
Havens Part 4: Port Royal". Pirates and Privateers
Privateers
– The History of Maritime Piracy. Retrieved September 20, 2008.  ^ "Royal Museums Greenwich research guide".  ^ a b c Coad, Jonathan (2013). Support for the Fleet: architecture and engineering of the Royal Navy's bases 1700–1914. Swindon: English Heritage.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
National Heritage Trust".  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
National Heritage Trust".  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
Information Service".  ^ Pawson, Michael & Buisseret, David (1975). Port Royal, Jamaica. London: Oxford University Press. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Historic Earthquakes". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008.  ^ frozen hands on a retrieved watch, the first time in history archaeologists have an (nearly) exact time for an earthquake. ^ History Channel. Ancient Almanac.  ^ a b c Mulcahy, Matthew (2008). "The Port Royal
Port Royal
Earthquake
Earthquake
and the World of Wonders in Seventeenth-Century Jamaica". Early American Studies. 6 (2): 391–422.  ^ Cerruti, James (1967). " Jamaica
Jamaica
Goes It Alone". National Geographic. 132: 843–873.  ^ Donny L. Hamilton, "The Port Royal
Port Royal
Project: History of Port Royal," Nautical Archaeology Program, June 1, 2001, . Retrieved March 20, 2009. ^ a b Hamilton, Donny L. (April 2006). "Port Royal, Jamaica: Archaeological Past and Development Potential" (PDF). Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk. International Council on Monuments and Sites: 49–52.  ^ " Port Royal
Port Royal
Heritage Master Plan". The Jerde Partnership. January 1, 2000. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.  ^ Nancy Lanthier (March 24, 2007). " Talk
Talk
tells story of Jamaican 'underwater city'". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on May 18, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.  ^ Debra Miller, ed. (2005). Caribbean
Caribbean
Islands (4 ed.). Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 610. ISBN 978-1-74104-055-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Port Royal.

"360° Virtual Tour". VirtualTravelGlobe.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012.  Brown, Shawn (Cartographer). "Map: Old Port Royal". ShawnBrown.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007.  (artistic interpretation of the city before the 1692 earthquake ) Hamilton, Dr. Donny L. (Principal Investigator). "The Port Royal Project". Nautarch.tamu.edu.  (historical and archaeological research) "Notorious Pirate
Pirate
Havens, Part 4: Port Royal". Great Lakes Pirate Fest. Vermilion Ohio News. [permanent dead link] Vallar, Cindy (Editor and Reviewer). " Piracy
Piracy
in Port Royal". Pirates and Privateers: The History of Maritime Piracy.  Yosomono, Eric (June 2, 2011). "The 5 Most Extravagant Ways Cities Have Been Wiped Out". Cracked.com.  Yosomono, Eric Yosomono & Miller, Drew (October 21, 2011). "Absurd Pirate
Pirate
Myths Everyone Believes (Thanks to Movies)". Cracked.com. p. 2. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

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Kingston Montego Bay

Towns

Above Rocks Albert Town Alexandria Alligator Pond Anchovy Annotto Bay Balaclava Bamboo Bath Bethel Town Black River Bluefields Bog Walk Brown's Town Buff Bay Bull Savanna Cambridge Cascade Cave Valley Chapelton Christiana Claremont Clark's Town Coleyville Croft's Hill Dalvey Darliston Discovery Bay Duncans Easington Ewarton Falmouth Frankfield Franklin Town Frome Gayle Golden Grove Gordon Town Grange Hill Green Island Guy's Hill Hayes Highgate Hope Bay Hopewell, Hanover Islington Kellits Lacovia Linstead Lionel Town Little London Lluidas Vale Lucea Lucky Hill Maggotty Malvern Manchioneal Mandeville Maroon Town Mavis Bank May Pen Moneague Moore Town Morant Bay Nain Negril Ocho Rios Old Harbour Old Harbour Bay Oracabessa Osbourne Store Petersfield Point Hill Port Antonio Port Maria Portmore (conurbation of Kingston) Porus Race Course Richmond Rio Bueno Riversdale Rocky Point Runaway Bay Saint Ann's Bay Sandy Bay Santa Cruz Savanna-la-Mar Seaford Town Seaforth Siloah Spanish Town Southfield Stonehenge Trinity Ville Ulster Spring Wakefield White House Williamsfield Yallahs

Villages

Accompong Aeolus Valley Airy Castle Barking Lodge Big Woods Bog Boscobel Broughton Bull Bay Carmel Cattawood Springs Clarendon Park Claverty Cottage Cotterwood Duckenfield Haddersfield Hagley Gap Hodges Hopeton Hopewell Hall Hopewell, Clarendon Hopewell, Manchester Hopewell, Saint Andrew Hopewell, Saint Ann Hopewell, Saint Elizabeth Hopewell, Westmoreland Kendal Long Wood Mavis Bank Middle Quarters Montpelier Nanny Town New Holland New Market New Roads Newcastle Nine Mile Old Pera Paynes Town Port Esquivel Port Morant Revival Roxborough San San Sherwood Content Sligoville White Hall Wood Hall

Neighbourhoods

Kingston and St Andrew

Allman Town Arcadia Barbican Beverly Hills Bournemouth Gardens Camperdown Cassava Piece Cherry Gardens Cockburn Gardens Constant Spring Cooreville Gardens Cross Roads Delacree Park Denham Town Duhaney Park Eastwood Park Elleston Flats Fletcher's Land Forest Hills Garden Four Mile Grants Pen Greenwich Town Half Way Tree Hannah Town Harbour View Havendale Hope Pastures Hope Tavern Hughenden Jack's Hill Jones Town Kencot Kingston Gardens Kintyre Liguanea Manley Meadows Mannings Hill Maxfield Meadowbrook Meadowbrook Estate Molynes Gardens Mona Mona Heights Mountain View Gardens Nannyville Gardens New Haven New Kingston Newport West Newton Square Norbrook Norman Gardens Oaklands Olympic Gardens Papine Passmore Town Patrick City Pembroke Hall Perkins Estate Port Royal Queensborough Queensbury Rae Town Red Hills Richmond Park Rockfort/Rennock lodge Rollington Town Seaview Gardens Shooters Hill Six Miles South Side St Mary Stony Hill Three Mile Three Oaks Gardens Tivoli Gardens Trench Town Vineyard Town Washington Gardens Whitfield Town Wilton Gardens Woodford Park Ziadie Gardens

Jamaica
Jamaica
portal Geography portal

v t e

National Heritage Sites in Jamaica

As designated by the Jamaica
Jamaica
National Heritage Trust

Clarendon

Halse Hall Great House Mason River Botanical Station May Pen
May Pen
Clock Tower Milk River Spa St. Peter's Church, Alley

Hanover

Barbican Estate Tamarind Lodge Old Hanover Gaol, Lucea Old Police Barracks, Lucea Tryall Great House Tryall sugar works (ruins) Fort Charlotte, Lucea Blenheim

Kingston

Buildings

40 Harbour Street Coke Methodist Church, East Parade Fort Charles Headquarters House Holy Trinity Cathedral, North Street Kingston Parish Church Kingston railway station Liberty Hall, King Street Old Jewish Cemetery, Hunts Bay Port Royal The Admiralty Houses Wesley Methodist Church, Tower Street Palisadoes Ward Theatre George William Gordon House

Monuments & statues

General Antonio Maceo Cenotaph Donald Sangster George William Gordon & Paul Bogle Marcus Garvey Nanny of the Maroons Norman Manley Sam Sharp Sir Alexander Bustamante Negro Aroused Statue of Father Joseph Dupont Statue of Hon. Edward Jordan Statue of Queen Victoria Statue of Sir Alexander Bustamante Statue of Sir Charles Metcalfe

Manchester

Mandeville Court House Marlborough Great House Marshall's Pen Great House Roxborough Castle Plantation Sutton railway station Williamsfield railway station NCU Chapel NCU Rose Cottage NCU Siberia NCU One other

Portland

Buff Bay Court House Cenotaph, Port Antonio Christ Church Anglican, Port Antonio DeMontevin Lodge Fort George Old Military Barracks, Titchfield Orange Bay railway station Port Antonio
Port Antonio
Court House Port Antonio
Port Antonio
railway station Titchfield Peninsula

St Andrew

“Regardless” 24 Tucker Avenue Admiral's Mountain Great House Bob Marley Museum Charlottenburgh House Cherry Garden Great House Devon House Half Way Tree
Half Way Tree
Clock Tower Hope Botanical Gardens Jamaica
Jamaica
Free Baptist Church, August Town Road JC Assembly Hall JC Chapel JC Scotland Building JC Simms Building MC Kelvin Lodge & Cottage MC Buxton House MC Chapel MC Porter's Lodge Mona Great House Oakton House Papine-Mona Aqueduct Rockfort Mineral Bath and Spa St. Andrew Parish Church, Hagley Park Road UWI Chapel UWI Mona Campus

St Ann

32 Market Street, St. Ann's Bay Bellevue Great House, Orange Hall Cave Valley Chimney Edinburgh Castle Iolaus MCC Moneague
Moneague
Hotel Moneague
Moneague
Inn Mount Plenty Great House, Orange Hall Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church, St. Ann's Bay Seville Great House St. Peter Martyr (ruin), St. Ann's Bay

St Catherine

Altenheim House, Spanish Town Bushy Park Aqueduct Cathedral of St. Jago de la Vega Colbeck Castle (ruin) Flat Bridge Highgate House, Sligoville Mountain River Cave, Cudjoe Hill Old Harbour railway station Phillippo Baptist Church, Spanish Town Port Henderson Spanish Town
Spanish Town
Cathedral Spanish Town
Spanish Town
Historic District Spanish Town
Spanish Town
railway station St. Dorothy's Anglican Church Two Sisters Caves, Hellshire Whitemarl Arawak Museum

St Elizabeth

Appleton railway station Golmont View House, Reading Invercauld House, Black River Magdala House, Black River MC Coke Farquharson Dining Room MC Chapel MC Terman Calder Building Magdala House & Mineral Spa Balaclava railway station Black River historic district Black River Spa Lover’s Leap Lighthouse

St James

Anchovy railway station Barnett Street Police Station, Montego Bay Cambridge railway station Cinnamon Hill Great House Greenwood Great House Grove Hill House, Montego Bay Harrison House, Montego Bay Montpelier railway station No. 1 King Street, Montego Bay No. 2 Orange Street, Montego Bay No. 6 Corner Lane, Montego Bay Roehampton Great House Rose Hall Great House Town House, Montego Bay Salter's Hill Baptist Church (ruin) St. Mary's Anglican Church, Montpelier Old Court House, Montego Bay Sam Sharpe Monument Ironshore Windmill Tower Old Albert Market, Montego Bay Old Slave Ring, Montego Bay The Dome, Montego Bay

St Mary

Claude Stuart Park Firefly Hill Fort Haldane Harmony Hall Great House Old Court House, Port Maria Rio Nuevo Battle Site Wentworth Estate

St Thomas

Bath Botanical Gardens Bath Fountain Spa Christ Church, Morant Bay Morant Bay
Morant Bay
Court House Orange Park Paul Bogle statue Stony Gut

Trelawny

Barrett House (ruin), Falmouth Carlton House Duncans Clock Tower Falmouth Courthouse Falmouth Post Office Falmouth Historic District Fort Balcarres, Falmouth Hyde Hall Great House St. Peter's Anglican Church, Falmouth Stewart Castle (ruin) Vale Royal Great House

Westmoreland

Cast Iron Fountain Savanna-la-mar Fort Thomas Manning Building

Underwate

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