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A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg, Manchester and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore
Singapore
and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan.

Contents

1 Ancient ports 2 Modern ports 3 Types

3.1 Inland port 3.2 Fishing port 3.3 Dry port 3.4 Warm-water port 3.5 Seaport

3.5.1 Cruise home port 3.5.2 Port
Port
of call 3.5.3 Cargo
Cargo
port

4 Environmental impact 5 World's major ports

5.1 Africa 5.2 Asia 5.3 Europe 5.4 North America 5.5 Oceania 5.6 South America

6 See also

6.1 Other logistics hubs 6.2 Lists

7 References 8 External links

Ancient ports[edit] Main article: Historical Ports Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf
Wadi al-Jarf
on the Red Sea.[1] Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have also been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
China
China
and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis
against the Persians in 480 BC. In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal
Lothal
was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica
Ostia Antica
was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius
Claudius
and enlarged by Trajan
Trajan
to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima
Dejima
was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka
Osaka
was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer exist or function as modern ports. Even in more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn
Ravenspurn
and Dunwich
Dunwich
have been lost to coastal erosion. Modern ports[edit] Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, river, canal, road, rail and air routes. Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, and will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are often on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres, warehouses and freight-forwarders, canneries and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports usually have specialised functions: some tend to cater mainly for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some specialise in container traffic or general cargo; and some ports play an important military role for their nation's navy. Some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena
St Helena
still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch (respectively). In modern times, ports survive or decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London
Port of London
was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport,[2] a small semi-automated container port (with links to the Port
Port
of Felixstowe, the UK's largest container port) thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway
London Gateway
port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned partly by the state and partly by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port
Port
of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport
John Lennon Airport
and the Manchester Ship Canal. Even though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters. For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. Types[edit]

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The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. Inland port[edit] Main article: Inland port An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river (fluvial port), or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo. An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway
which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, and Chicago.[3] Fishing port[edit] A fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish. It may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. Dry port[edit] Main article: Dry port A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations.[4] Warm-water port[edit] A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime. Because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. Such settlements as Dalian
Dalian
in China, Vostochny Port,[5] Murmansk
Murmansk
and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
in Russia, Odessa
Odessa
in Ukraine, Kushiro in Japan and Valdez at the terminus of the Alaska Pipeline
Alaska Pipeline
owe their very existence to being ice-free ports. The Baltic Sea and similar areas have ports available year-round beginning in the 20th century thanks to icebreakers, but earlier access problems prompted Russia to expand its territory to the Black Sea. Seaport[edit] A seaport is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port". Additionally, "cruise ports" are also known as a "home port" or a "port of call". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port". Cruise home port[edit] A cruise home port is the port where cruise ship passengers board (or embark) to start their cruise and disembark the cruise ship at the end of their cruise. It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits, vegetables, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise. "Cruise home ports" are very busy places during the day the cruise ship is in port, because off-going passengers debark their baggage and on-coming passengers board the ship in addition to all the supplies being loaded. Currently, the Cruise Capital of the World is the Port
Port
of Miami, Florida, closely followed behind by Port Everglades, Florida
Florida
and the Port
Port
of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Port
Port
of call[edit] A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship on its sailing itinerary. At these ports, cargo ships may take on supplies or fuel, as well as unloading and loading cargo while cruise liners have passengers get on or off ship. Cargo
Cargo
port[edit] Cargo
Cargo
ports, on the other hand, are quite different from cruise ports, because each handles very different cargo, which has to be loaded and unloaded by very different mechanical means. The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports". Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known as container ports. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. Additionally, the individual cargo ports are divided into different operating terminals which handle the different cargoes, and are operated by different companies, also known as terminal operators or stevedores. Environmental impact[edit] There are several initiatives to decrease negative environmental impacts of ports. These include SIMPYC, the World Ports Climate Initiative, the African Green Port
Port
Initiative and EcoPorts.[6] World's major ports[edit] Main article: List of seaports Africa[edit] See also: Ports and harbours in South Africa The busiest port in Africa is Port Said
Port Said
in Egypt. Asia[edit] See also: List of East Asian ports
List of East Asian ports
and List of ports and harbours of the Indian Ocean

The port of Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
in Andhra Pradesh, India

The port of Shanghai is the largest port in the world in both cargo tonnage and activity. It regained its position as the world's busiest port by cargo tonnage and the world's busiest container port in 2009 and 2010, respectively. It is followed by the ports of Singapore
Singapore
and Hong Kong, both of which are in Asia. Europe[edit] See also: List of busiest ports in Europe Europe's busiest container port and biggest port by cargo tonnage by far is the Port
Port
of Rotterdam, in the Netherlands. It is followed by the Belgian Port of Antwerp
Port of Antwerp
or the German Port
Port
of Hamburg, depending on which metric is used.[7] In turn, Valencia (Spain)
Valencia (Spain)
is the busiest port in the Mediterranean basin. North America[edit] See also: List of North American ports and Ports of the United States The largest ports include the ports of Los Angeles and South Louisiana in the U.S., Manzanillo in Mexico and Vancouver in Canada. Panama
Panama
also has the Panama
Panama
Canal
Canal
that connects the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is a key conduit for international trade. Oceania[edit] The largest port in Australia is the Port
Port
of Melbourne. South America[edit] According to ECLAC's "Maritime and Logistics Profile of Latin America and the Caribbean", the largest ports in South America are the Port
Port
of Santos in Brazil, Cartagena in Colombia, Callao
Callao
in Peru, Guayaquil
Guayaquil
in Ecuador and the Port of Buenos Aires
Port of Buenos Aires
in Argentina.[8] See also[edit]

Anchorage (shipping) Megaproject Marina
Marina
- port for recreational boating Port
Port
operator Ship transport

Other logistics hubs[edit]

Airport Spaceport Port
Port
of entry

Lists[edit]

Lists of ports List of busiest cruise ports by passengers

References[edit]

^ Rossella Lorenzi (12 April 2013). "Most Ancient Port, Hieroglyphic Papyri Found". Discovery News. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ Thamesport
Thamesport
[1] ^ "Seaway System". greatlakes-seaway.com.  ^ "Feasibility Study on the network operation of Hinterland Hubs (Dry Port
Port
Concept) to improve and modernise ports' connections to the hinterland and to improve networking" (PDF). InLoc. January 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-13. Retrieved 2008-03-10.  ^ " Vostochny Port
Vostochny Port
JSC, Geography, Location". Vostochny Port
Vostochny Port
website. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. ...  Vostochny Port
Vostochny Port
is located in the south of Primorsky Region, in the southeast of Nakhodka bay, in Vrangel bay. This is unique natural harbor is no ice restrictions even in severe winters. ...  ^ EOS magazine, 6,2012 ^ "World Port
Port
Rankings 2011 (PDF)" (PDF).  ^ "Los 10 mayores puertos de América Latina y Caribe en tráfico de contenedores". Revista de Ingeniería Naval (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain: Asociación de Ingenieros Navales y Oceánicos de España. September 28, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ports and harbours.

Port
Port
Industry Statistics, American Association of Port
Port
Authorities Information on yachting facilities at ports around the world from Noonsite.com Social & Economic Benefits of PORTS from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative Antunes, Cátia: Early Modern Ports, 1500-1750, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: November 2, 2011.

v t e

Ports and harbors

Types

Home port Fuelling station Inland harbor Inland port Landing Outport Port
Port
of entry Trust port Dry port Anchorage Wharf Natural gas terminals Oil terminals Coal terminals Container terminals Free port Naval base

Individual sites

Lists of ports By sea or ocean By continent By country

Rankings

World's busiest port Busiest container ports Busiest transshipment ports Busiest by tonnage Busiest by cruise passengers

Port
Port
management

Infrastructure Port
Port
authority Port
Port
state control Harbour engineer Port
Port
operator Security Ship transport Port
Port
operations simulator Terminal Operating System

Conventions

SOLAS MARPOL 73/78 STCW Ballast Water Management Convention

Organizations

Port
Port
operating companies Port
Port
workers' trade unions

Category Commons Wiktionary "Port" Wiktionary "Harbor" WikiProject

v t e

Public infrastructure

assets and facilities

Airports Bridges Broadband Canals Critical infrastructure Dams Electricity generation Energy development Hazardous waste Hospitals Levees Lighthouses Municipal solid waste Parks Ports Public housing Public spaces Public transport Public utilities Public works Rail transport Roads Sewage State schools Telecommunications Wastewater Water supply network Wind power

concepts

Appropriation Infrastructure asset management Build–operate–transfer Design–build Earmark Engineering contracts Externality Fixed cost Government debt Life-cycle assessment Lindahl tax Maintenance, repair, and operations Natural monopoly Property tax Public capital Public finance Public good Public sector Public–private partnership Renovation Spillover effect Supply chain Taxation Upgrade

issues and ideas

Air traffic control Brownfield land Bus rapid transit Carbon footprint Congestion pricing Containerization Ethanol fuel Fuel efficiency Fuel tax Groundwater High-speed rail Hybrid vehicles Land-use planning Mobile data terminal Pork barrel Recycling Renewable resources Reverse osmosis Smart grid Smart growth Stormwater Sustainable urban infrastructure Traffic congestion Transit-oriented development Urban sprawl Waste-to-energy Weatherization Wireless

fields of study

Architecture Civil engineering Electrical engineering Mechanical engineering Public economics Public policy Urban planning

examples

Akashi Kaikyō Bridge Autobahn Brooklyn Bridge Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit
systems Channel Tunnel Controlled-access highway systems Electric power transmission High-speed trains Hong Kong International Airport Hoover Dam Humber Bridge Kansai International Airport Millau Viaduct Nuclear power Offshore wind farms Panama
Panama
Canal Port
Port
of Shanghai San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge Solar power Three Gorges Dam Trans-Alaska pipeline Transcontinental railroads

v t e

Real estate developments

Commercial

Airport Business park Commercial area Mixed-use development Office building Port

inland

Retail park Riverfront Shopping mall
Shopping mall
/ center Shopping streets and districts Warehouse District

Industrial

Business cluster Industrial district Industrial park Technology centers

Residential

Apartment
Apartment
complex Bungalow court City block Company town Golf course community Gated community Housing estate Intentional community Mixed-use development Model dwellings for the poor Multi-family residential Private community Public housing Residential area Retirement community Revenue house Single room occupancy Subdivision Tract housing

Science / Education

Campus Research park

list

Satellite campus Science park

Municipal

Arcology Garden city movement Model village Planned cities Planned community Urban open space

parks

Buildings

Apartment House

types

Skyscraper Tower block Villa

Miscellaneous

Brownfield land Cemetery Cluster development Construction Context theory Eminent domain Greenfield land Greyfield land Land-use planning Park Parking Playground Redevelopment Regional planning Urban design Urban planning Zoning

Authority control

GND: 40228

.