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POPULATION DENSITY (in agriculture : standing stock and standing crop ) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density . It is frequently applied to living organisms , and most of the time to humans . It is a key geographical term.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biological population densities

* 1.1 Human
Human
population density

* 1.1.1 By political boundaries * 1.1.2 Other methods of measurement

* 2 See also

* 2.1 Lists of entities by population density

* 3 References * 4 External links

BIOLOGICAL POPULATION DENSITIES

Population
Population
density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate.

Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it. Examples of the causes in low population densities include:

* Increased problems with locating sexual mates * Increased inbreeding

HUMAN POPULATION DENSITY

Monaco
Monaco
in Southern Europe , currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world. Mongolia
Mongolia
is the least densely populated country in the world. This population cartogram of the European Union (2007-2012) uses areas and colors to represent population. Main article: List of countries and territories by population density

For humans , population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometer or square mile (which may include or exclude, for example, areas of water or glaciers). Commonly this may be calculated for a county , city , country , another territory or the entire world .

The world\'s population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth
Earth
's total area (including land and water) is 510,000,000 square kilometers (197,000,000 sq. mi.). Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2 (38 per sq. mi). If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq. mi.) is taken into account, then human population density increases to 50 per km2 (129 per sq. mile). This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica
Antarctica
. If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to over 55 people per km2 (over 142 per sq. mile). However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density.

Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states , microstates and dependencies . These territories have a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation .

Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, though Cairo
Cairo
and Lagos
Lagos
in Africa
Africa
also fall into this category.

City
City
population and especially area are, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are almost invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area , the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee
Milwaukee
has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded.

In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet (one square metre) per person ( Jacobs Method ), would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware
Delaware
's land area.

By Political Boundaries

With population above 1,000,000 RANK COUNTRY/REGION POPULATION AREA (KM2) Density (Pop. per km2)

1 _ Singapore
Singapore
5,535,000 719 7698

2 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
7,234,800 1,104 6553

3 Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
_ 1,816,379 360 5045

4 Bahrain
Bahrain
1,404,900 750 1873

5 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
161,609,000 147,570 1095

6 Taiwan
Taiwan
23,361,147 36,190 646

7 Mauritius
Mauritius
1,288,000 2,040 631

8 Lebanon
Lebanon
6,237,738 10,452 597

9 South Korea
South Korea
51,529,338 99,720 517

10 Rwanda
Rwanda
11,262,564 26,338 428

With population above 10,000,000 RANK COUNTRY/REGION POPULATION AREA (KM2) Density (Pop. per km2)

1 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
161,609,000 147,570 1095

2 Taiwan
Taiwan
(R.O.C) 23,361,147 36,190 646

3 South Korea
South Korea
51,529,338 99,720 517

4 Rwanda
Rwanda
11,262,564 26,338 428

5 India
India
1,326,801,576 3,287,263 417

6 Netherlands
Netherlands
17,071,100 41,526 411

7 Haiti
Haiti
10,413,211 27,750 375

8 Belgium
Belgium
11,239,755 30,528 368

9 Burundi 10,114,505 27,834 363

10 Philippines
Philippines
102,078,300 300,076 340

Other Methods Of Measurement

Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area.

* ARITHMETIC DENSITY: The total number of people / area of land (measured in square miles or square kilometers ). * PHYSIOLOGICAL DENSITY : The total population / area of arable land . * AGRICULTURAL DENSITY: The total _rural_ population / area of arable land . * RESIDENTIAL DENSITY: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. * URBAN DENSITY : The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land. * ECOLOGICAL OPTIMUM: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources.

SEE ALSO

* Demography
Demography
* Human
Human
geography * Idealized population * Optimum population * Population
Population
genetics * Population
Population
health * Population
Population
momentum * Population
Population
pyramid * Rural transport problem * Small population size
Small population size
* Distance sampling * List of population concern organizations

LISTS OF ENTITIES BY POPULATION DENSITY

* List of cities by population density * List of city districts by population density * List of European cities proper by population density * List of islands by population density * List of countries by population density * List of U.S. states by population density

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Matt Rosenberg Population
Population
Density. Geography.about.com. March 2, 2011. Retrieved on December 10, 2011. * ^ Minimum viable population size. Eoearth.org (March 6, 2010). Retrieved on December 10, 2011. * ^ U.S. ">(PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved March 12, 2009. * ^ The Monaco
Monaco
government uses a smaller surface area figure resulting in a population density of 18,078 per km2 * ^ Human
Human
Population. Global Issues. Retrieved on December 10, 2011. * ^ The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density. Citymayors.com. Retrieved on December 10, 2011. * ^ The Population
Population
of Milwaukee