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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.[1][2] The area that is used to define a sexual population is defined as the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas.[3] In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations. Population
Population
in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, region, country or world; population is usually determined by a process called census (a process of collecting, analyzing, compiling and publishing data) This article refers mainly to human population.

Contents

1 Population genetics
Population genetics
(ecology) 2 World human population

2.1 Predicted growth and decline 2.2 Control

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Population genetics
Population genetics
(ecology)[edit] In population genetics a sexual population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together. This means that they can regularly exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, and such a breeding group is also known therefore as a Gamo deme. This also implies that all members belong to the same species.[4] If the Gamo deme is very large (theoretically, approaching infinity), and all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic. Under this state, allele (gamete) frequencies can be converted to genotype (zygote) frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics.[5] This seldom occurs in nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are virtually separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors. This may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population (panmictic) into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: (1) the component Gamo demos vary (through gamete sampling) in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original (this is known as dispersion, and its details can be estimated using expansion of an appropriate binomial equation); and (2) the level of homozygosity rises in the entire collection of Gamo demes. The overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient (f or φ). Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable. The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original – which is known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, however, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, and some will be inferior. The probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion (such as line breeding, pure-line breeding, backcrossing). It can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance (ΔG=change in the phenotypic mean), and is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both allogamous (random fertilization)[6] and autogamous (self-fertilization) Gamo demes.[7] In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. World human population[edit] Main article: World population As of today's date, the world's population is estimated by the United States Census Bureau to be 7.613 billion.[8] The US Census Bureau estimates the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population
Population
Fund.[9] According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population
Population
Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion. This was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, and 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not even known to the nearest million,[10] so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates.[11] Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have probably been born in the last 2000 years.[12] Predicted growth and decline[edit]

The years taken for every billion people to be added to the world's population, and the years that population was reached (with future estimates).

Main article: Population
Population
growth Population growth
Population growth
increased significantly as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards.[13] The last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth[13] due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity, particularly beginning in the 1960s,[14] made by the Green Revolution.[15] In 2007 the United Nations Population
Population
Division projected that the world's population will likely surpass 10 billion in 2055.[16]

PRB 2017 Data Sheet Largest Populations

In the future, the world's population is expected to peak,[17] after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is very likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will actually decline before 2100.[18][19] Population
Population
has already declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States.[20] The population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by gradually declining birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates.[21] This transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates is often referred to as the demographic transition.[21] Control[edit] Main article: Human
Human
population control Human
Human
population control is the practice of altering the rate of growth of a human population. Historically, human population control has been implemented with the goal of increasing the rate of population growth. In the period from the 1950s to the 1980s, concerns about global population growth and its effects on poverty, environmental degradation, and political stability led to efforts to reduce population growth rates. While population control can involve measures that improve people's lives by giving them greater control of their reproduction, a few programs, most notably the Chinese government's one-child per family policy, have resorted to coercive measures. In the 1970s, tension grew between population control advocates and women's health activists who advanced women's reproductive rights as part of a human rights-based approach.[22] Growing opposition to the narrow population control focus led to a significant change in population control policies in the early 1980s.[23] See also[edit]

Community (ecology) Population
Population
geography List of countries by population Lists of organisms by population

References[edit]

^ "Population". Biology Online. Retrieved 5 December 2012.  ^ "Definition of population (biology)". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 December 2012. a community of animals, plants, or humans among whose members interbreeding occurs  ^ Hartl, Daniel (2007). Principles of Population
Population
Genetics. Sinauer Associates. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-87893-308-2.  ^ Hartl, Daniel (2007). Principles of Population
Population
Genetics. Sinauer Associates. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-87893-308-2.  ^ Fisher, R. A. (1999). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850440-3.  ^ Gordon, Ian L. (2000). "Quantitative genetics of allogamous F2 : an origin of randomly fertilized populations". Heredity. 85: 43–52. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2540.2000.00716.x. PMID 10971690.  ^ Gordon, Ian L. (2001). "Quantitative genetics of autogamous F2". Hereditas. 134 (3): 255–262. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.2001.00255.x. PMID 11833289.  ^ U.S. Census Bureau – World Pop Clock Projection Archived 1 February 2008 at WebCite ^ to a World of Seven Billion People Archived 13 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. UNFPA
UNFPA
12 September 2011 ^ "Cities in Nigeria: 2005 Population
Population
Estimates – MongaBay.com". Retrieved 1 July 2008.  ^ "Country Profile: Nigeria". BBC News. 24 December 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2008.  ^ Haub, C. 1995/2004. "How Many People Have Ever Lived On Earth?" Population
Population
Today, http://www.prb.org/Articles/2002/HowManyPeopleHaveEverLivedonEarth.aspx ^ a b As graphically illustrated by population since 10,000BC and population since 1000AD ^ "The end of India's green revolution?". BBC News. 29 May 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2009.  ^ Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy Archived 14 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " World population
World population
will increase by 2.5 billion by 2050; people over 60 to increase by more than 1 billion" (Press release). United Nations Population
Population
Division. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2007. The world population continues its path towards population ageing and is on track to surpass 9 billion persons by 2050.  ^ World Population
Population
Development Statistics: Forecast, United Nations, 2011. ^ "The End of World Population
Population
Growth". Nature. 412: 543–545. doi:10.1038/35087589. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  ^ Ojovan, M.I.; Loshchinin, M.B. (2015). "Heuristic Paradoxes of S.P. Kapitza Theoretical Demography" (PDF). European Researcher. 92 (3): 237–248. doi:10.13187/er.2015.92.237.  ^ Shackman, Gene, Xun Wang and Ya-Lin Liu. 2011. Brief review of world population trends. Available at http://gsociology.icaap.org/report/demsum.html ^ a b http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Populations.html ^ Knudsen, Lara (2006). Reproductive Rights in a Global Context. Vanderbilt University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8265-1528-5.  ^ Knudsen, Lara (2006). Reproductive Rights in a Global Context. Vanderbilt University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-8265-1528-5. 

External links[edit]

UNFPA, The United Nations Population
Population
Fund United Nations Population
Population
Division CICRED homepage a platform for interaction between research centres and international organizations, such as the United Nations Population Division, UNFPA, WHO
WHO
and FAO. Current World Population NECSP HomePage Overpopulation Population
Population
Matters Population
Population
Reference Bureau (2005). Retrieved 13 February 2005. Population
Population
World: Population
Population
of World. Retrieved 13 February 2004. SIEDS, Italian Society of Economics Demography
Demography
and Statistics United Nations Economic Commission for Europe – Official Web Site World Population
Population
Counter, and separate regions. WorldPopClock.com. (French) Populations du monde. (French) OECD population data Understanding the World Today Reports about world and regional population trends Lee, Ronald Demos (2008). "Population". In David R. Henderson
David R. Henderson
(ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN 978-0-86597-665-8. OCLC 237794267. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)

v t e

Global human population

Major topics

Biocapacity Optimum population Overpopulation

Malthusian catastrophe

Population Population
Population
ethics Population
Population
momentum Sustainable development Women's reproductive rights Zero population growth

Biological and related topics

Family planning

Pledge two or fewer

Human
Human
population planning

One-child policy Two-child policy

Population
Population
biology Population
Population
decline Population
Population
density

Physiological density

Population
Population
dynamics Population
Population
growth Population
Population
model Population
Population
pyramid Projections of population growth

Human
Human
impact on the environment

Deforestation Desalination Desertification Environmental impact

of agriculture of aviation of biodiesel of concrete of electricity generation of the energy industry of fishing of irrigation of mining of off-roading of oil shale industry of palm oil of paper of the petroleum industry of reservoirs of shipping of war

Industrialisation Land degradation Land reclamation Overconsumption Pollution Quarrying Urbanization

Loss of green belts Urban sprawl

Waste Water scarcity

Overdrafting

Population ecology

Carrying capacity Deep ecology Earth's energy budget Food security Habitat destruction I = P × A  × T Malthusian growth model Overshoot (population) World energy consumption World energy resources World3 model

Literature

A Modest Proposal Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. An Essay on the Principle of Population "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth Population
Population
Control: Real Costs, Illusory Benefits The Limits to Growth The Population
Population
Bomb The Skeptical Environmentalist The Ultimate Resource

Publications

Population
Population
and Environment Population
Population
and Development Review

Lists

Population
Population
and housing censuses by country Metropolitan areas by population Population
Population
milestone babies

Events and organizations

7 Billion Actions International Conference on Population
Population
and Development Population
Population
Action International Population
Population
Connection Population
Population
Matters Population
Population
Research Institute United Nations Population
Population
Fund Voluntary Human
Human
Extinction Movement World Population
Population
Day World Population
Population
Foundation

Related topics

Classic Maya collapse Fertility and intelligence Green Revolution Holocene extinction Migration

Commons Human
Human
overpopulation Human
Human
activities with impact on the environment Human
Human
migration

v t e

Lists of countries by population statistics

Global

Current population Current population (United Nations)

(Sub-)Continents

Africa Asia Europe North America

Caribbean

Oceania South America

Intercontinental

Americas Arab world Commonwealth of Nations Eurasia European Union Islands Latin America Middle East

Cities/urban regions

National capitals Cities proper Metropolitan areas Urban areas Megacities Megalopolises

Past and future

Past population (United Nations) Past and future population 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1907 1939 1989 2000 2005 2010 Future population

Population
Population
density

Current density Current real density based on food growing capacity

Growth indicators

Population growth
Population growth
rate Natural increase Birth rate Mortality rate Fertility rate

Other demographics

Age at first marriage Divorce rate Ethnic and cultural diversity level Foreign-born population Immigrant population Linguistic diversity Median age Net migration rate Number of households Sex
Sex
ratio Urban population Urbanization

Health

Antiviral medications for pandemic influenza HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate Infant and under-five mortality rates Life expectancy Percentage suffering from undernourishment Health
Health
expenditure covered by government Suicide rate Total health expenditure per capita Body Mass Index (BMI)

Education and innovation

Bloomberg Innovation Index Education Index International Innovation Index Innovation Union Scoreboard Literacy rate Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies Progress in International Reading Literacy Study Student skills Tertiary education attainment Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Women's average years in school World Intellectual Property Indicators

Economic

Development aid given

Official Development Assistance received

Employment rate Irrigated land area Human
Human
Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Human
Human
Poverty Index Imports Income equality Job security Labour force Number of millionaires (US dollars) Number of billionaires (US dollars) Percentage living in poverty Public sector Sen social welfare function Unemployment rate

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country

v t e

Hierarchy of life

Biosphere > Ecosystem > Biocoenosis > Population > Organism > Organ system > Organ > Tissue > Cell > Organelle > Biomolecular complex > Macromolecule > Biomolecule

v t e

Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

Africa

Arab League

Americas

Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America

Asia

Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia

Australia

Indigenous

Europe Oceania

Indigenous European

Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist movements Xenophobia

Authority control

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