HOME
The Info List - Pope Sylvester II


--- Advertisement ---



Pope
Pope
Sylvester II or Silvester II (c.  946 – 12 May 1003) was Pope
Pope
from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Originally known as Gerbert of Aurillac (Latin: Gerbertus Aureliacensis or de Aurillac; French: Gerbert d'Aurillac),[n 1] he was a prolific scholar and teacher. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Greco-Roman arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy, reintroducing to Europe the abacus and armillary sphere, which had been lost to Latin (though not Byzantine) Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
era.[2][3][4][5] He is said to be the first to introduce in Europe the decimal numeral system using Arabic numerals. He was the first French Pope.

Contents

1 Life 2 Legend 3 Legacy

3.1 Abacus
Abacus
and Hindu–Arabic numerals 3.2 Armillary sphere
Armillary sphere
and sighting tube

4 Works 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography

8 Further reading 9 External links

Life[edit] Gerbert was born about 946 in the town of Belliac, near the present-day commune of Saint-Simon, Cantal, France.[6] Around 963, he entered the monastery of St. Gerald of Aurillac. In 967, Borrell II of Barcelona (947–992) visited the monastery, and the abbot asked the Count to take Gerbert with him so that the lad could study mathematics in Catalonia
Catalonia
and acquire there some knowledge of Arabic learning. In the following years, Gerbert studied under the direction of Atto, Bishop of Vic, some 60 km north of Barcelona, and probably also at the nearby Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll.[7] Neither place was under Islamic rule at the time. Borrell II of Barcelona was facing major defeat from the Andalusian powers so he sent a delegation to Córdoba to request a truce. Bishop Atto was part of the delegation that met with al-Ḥakam II of Cordoba, who received him with honor. Gerbert was fascinated by the stories of the Mozarab
Mozarab
Christian Bishops and judges who dressed and talked like the Arabs, well-versed in mathematics and natural sciences like the great teachers of the Islamic madrasahs. This sparked Gerbert's veneration for the Arabs and his passion for mathematics and astronomy. In 969, Count Borrell II made a pilgrimage to Rome, taking Gerbert with him. There Gerbert met Pope
Pope
John XIII (965–972) and the Emperor Otto I, nicknamed "the Great" (936–973). The Pope
Pope
persuaded Otto I to employ Gerbert as a tutor for his young son, the future Emperor Otto II
Otto II
(973–983). Some years later, Otto I gave Gerbert leave to study at the cathedral school of Rheims
Rheims
where he was soon appointed a teacher by Archbishop
Archbishop
Adalberon. When Otto II
Otto II
became Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in 973 (he was co-emperor with Otto I from 967), he appointed Gerbert the abbot of the monastery of Bobbio
Bobbio
and also appointed him as count of the district, but the abbey had been ruined by previous abbots, and Gerbert soon returned to Rheims. After the death of Otto II
Otto II
in 983, Gerbert became involved in the politics of his time. In 985, with the support of his archbishop, he opposed Lothair of France's (954–986) attempt to take the Lorraine from Emperor Otto III
Otto III
(983–1002) by supporting Hugh Capet (987–996). Capet became King of France, ending the Carolingian
Carolingian
line of Kings in 987.

Statue of Pope
Pope
Sylvester II in Aurillac, Auvergne, France.

Adalberon died on 23 January 989.[8] Gerbert was a natural candidate for his succession,[9] but Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
appointed Arnulf, an illegitimate son of Lothair instead. Arnulf was deposed in 991 for alleged treason against the King, and Gerbert was elected his successor. There was so much opposition to Gerbert's elevation to the See of Rheims, however, that Pope
Pope
John XV (985–996) sent a legate to France
France
who temporarily suspended Gerbert from his episcopal office. Gerbert sought to show that this decree was unlawful, but a further synod in 995 declared Arnulf's deposition invalid. Gerbert now became the teacher of Otto III, and Pope
Pope
Gregory V (996–999), Otto III's cousin, appointed him Archbishop
Archbishop
of Ravenna
Ravenna
in 998. With the Emperor's support, he was elected to succeed Gregory V as Pope
Pope
in 999. Gerbert took the name of Sylvester II, alluding to Pope
Pope
Sylvester I (314–335), the advisor to Emperor Constantine I (324–337). Soon after he was elected pope, Sylvester II confirmed the position of his former rival Arnulf as archbishop of Rheims. As pope, he took energetic measures against the widespread practices of simony and concubinage among the clergy, maintaining that only capable men of spotless lives should be allowed to become bishops. In 1001, the Roman populace revolted against the Emperor, forcing Otto III and Sylvester II to flee to Ravenna. Otto III
Otto III
led two unsuccessful expeditions to regain control of the city and died on a third expedition in 1002. Sylvester II returned to Rome
Rome
soon after the Emperor's death, although the rebellious nobility remained in power, and died a little later. Sylvester is buried in St. John Lateran. Legend[edit]

Pope
Pope
Sylvester II and the Devil in an illustration of c. 1460.

The legend of Gerbert grows from the work of the English monk William of Malmesbury in De Rebus Gestis Regum Anglorum
De Rebus Gestis Regum Anglorum
and a polemical pamphlet, Gesta Romanae Ecclesiae contra Hildebrandum, by Cardinal Beno, a partisan of Emperor Henry IV
Emperor Henry IV
who opposed Pope
Pope
Gregory VII in the Investiture Controversy.[citation needed] According to the legend, Gerbert, while studying mathematics and astrology in the Muslim cities of Córdoba and Seville, was accused of having learned sorcery.[10] Gerbert was supposed to be in possession of a book of spells stolen from an Arab philosopher in Spain. Gerbert fled, pursued by the victim, who could trace the thief by the stars, but Gerbert was aware of the pursuit, and hid hanging from a wooden bridge, where, suspended between heaven and earth, he was invisible to the magician.[citation needed] Gerbert was supposed to have built a brazen head. This "robotic" head would answer his questions with "yes" or "no". He was also reputed to have had a pact with a female demon called Meridiana, who had appeared after he had been rejected by his earthly love, and with whose help he managed to ascend to the papal throne (another legend tells that he won the papacy playing dice with the Devil).[11] According to the legend, Meridiana (or the bronze head) told Gerbert that if he should ever read a mass in Jerusalem, the Devil would come for him. Gerbert then cancelled a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but when he read mass in the church Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
("Holy Cross of Jerusalem") in Rome, he became sick soon afterwards and, dying, he asked his cardinals to cut up his body and scatter it across the city. In another version, he was even attacked by the Devil while he was reading the Mass, and the Devil mutilated him and gave his gouged-out eyes to demons to play with in the Church. Repenting, Sylvester II then cut off his hand and his tongue. The inscription on Gerbert's tomb reads in part Iste locus Silvestris membra sepulti venturo Domino conferet ad sonitum ("This place will yield to the sound [of the last trumpet] the limbs of buried Sylvester II, at the advent of the Lord", mis-read as "will make a sound") and has given rise to the curious legend that his bones will rattle in that tomb just before the death of a Pope.[12] The alleged story of the crown and papal legate authority given to Stephen I of Hungary
Stephen I of Hungary
by Sylvester in the year 1000 (hence the title 'Apostolic King') is noted by the 19th-century historian Lewis L. Kropf as a possible forgery of the 17th century.[13] Likewise, the 20th-century historian Zoltan J. Kosztolnyik states that "it seems more than unlikely that Rome
Rome
would have acted in fulfilling Stephen's request for a crown without the support and approval of the Emperor."[14] Legacy[edit] Gerbert of Aurillac was a humanist long before the Renaissance. He read Virgil, Cicero
Cicero
and Boethius; he studied Latin translations of Porphyry, but also of Aristotle. He had a very accurate classification of the different disciplines of philosophy. In 967, he went to Catalonia
Catalonia
to visit the Count of Barcelona, and remained three years in the monastery of Vic, in Catalonia
Catalonia
which, like all Catalans Monasteries, contained manuscripts from the Muslim Spain and especially from Cordoba, one of the intellectual centres of Europe at that time: the library of Al-Hakam II, for example, had thousands of books (from Science to Greek philosophy). This is where he was introduced to mathematics and astronomy.[15] Gerbert was said to be one of the most noted scientists of his time. Gerbert wrote a series of works dealing with matters of the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music), which he taught using the basis of the trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric). In Rheims, he constructed a hydraulic-powered organ with brass pipes that excelled all previously known instruments,[16] where the air had to be pumped manually. In a letter of 984, Gerbert asks Lupitus of Barcelona for a book on astrology and astronomy, two terms historian S. Jim Tester says Gerbert used synonymously.[17] Gerbert may have been the author of a description of the astrolabe that was edited by Hermannus Contractus some 50 years later. Besides these, as Sylvester II he wrote a dogmatic treatise, De corpore et sanguine Domini—On the Body and Blood of the Lord. Abacus
Abacus
and Hindu–Arabic numerals[edit]

Reconstructed Ancient Roman Abacus.

Gerbert learned of Hindu–Arabic digits and applied this knowledge to the abacus, but probably without the numeral zero.[n 2] According to the 12th-century historian William of Malmesbury, Gerbert got the idea of the computing device of the abacus from a Spanish Arab.[citation needed] The abacus that Gerbert reintroduced into Europe had its length divided into 27 parts with 9 number symbols (this would exclude zero, which was represented by an empty column) and 1,000 characters in all, crafted out of animal horn by a shieldmaker of Rheims.[9][19][20] According to his pupil Richer, Gerbert could perform speedy calculations with his abacus that were extremely difficult for people in his day to think through in using only Roman numerals.[9] Due to Gerbert's reintroduction, the abacus became widely used in Europe once again during the 11th century.[20] Armillary sphere
Armillary sphere
and sighting tube[edit] Although lost to Europe since the terminus of the Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
era, Gerbert reintroduced the astronomical armillary sphere to Latin Europe via the Islamic civilization of Al-Andalus, which was at that time at the "cutting edge" of civilization.[21][22] The details of Gerbert's armillary sphere are revealed in letters from Gerbert to his former student and monk Remi of Trèves and to his colleague Constantine, the abbot of Micy, as well as the accounts of his former student and French nobleman Richer, who served as a monk in Rheims.[23] Richer stated that Gerbert discovered that stars coursed in an oblique direction across the night sky.[24] Richer described Gerbert's use of the armillary sphere as a visual aid for teaching mathematics and astronomy in the classroom, as well as how Gerbert organized the rings and markings on his device:

An armillary sphere in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, c. 1480.

First [Gerbert] demonstrated the form of the world by a plain wooden sphere... thus expressing a very big thing by a little model. Slanting this sphere by its two poles on the horizon, he showed the northern constellations toward the upper pole and the southern toward the lower pole. He kept this position straight using a circle that the Greeks called horizon, the Latins limitans, because it divides visible stars from those that are not visible. On this horizon line, placed so as to demonstrate practically and plausibly... the rising and setting of the stars, he traced natural outlines to give a greater appearance of reality to the constellations... He divided a sphere in half, letting the tube represent the diameter, the one end representing the north pole, the other the south pole. Then he divided the semicircle from one pole to the other into thirty parts. Six lines drawn from the pole he drew a heavy ring to represent the arctic polar circle. Five divisions below this he placed another line to represent the tropic of Cancer. Four parts lower he drew a line for the equinoctial circle [the equator]. The remaining distance to the south pole is divided by the same dimensions.[24]

Given this account, historian Oscar G. Darlington asserts that Gerbert's division by 60 degrees instead of 360 allowed the lateral lines of his sphere to equal to six degrees.[25] By this account, the polar circle on Gerbert's sphere was located at 54 degrees, several degrees off from the actual 66° 33'.[25] His positioning of the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
at 24 degree was nearly exact, while his positioning of the equator was correct by definition.[25] Richer also revealed how Gerbert made the planets more easily observable in his armillary sphere:

He succeeded equally in showing the paths of the planets when they come near or withdraw from the earth. He fashioned first an armillary sphere. He joined the two circles called by the Greeks coluri and by the Latins incidentes because they fell upon each other, and at their extremities he placed the poles. He drew with great art and accuracy, across the colures, five other circles called parallels, which, from one pole to the other, divided the half of the sphere into thirty parts. He put six of these thirty parts of the half-sphere between the pole and the first circle; five between the first and the second; from the second to the third, four; from the third to the fourth, four again; five from the fourth to the fifth; and from the fifth to the pole, six. On these five circles he placed obliquely the circles that the Greeks call loxos or zoe, the Latins obliques or vitalis (the zodiac) because it contained the figures of the animals ascribed to the planets. On the inside of this oblique circle he figured with an extraordinary art the orbits traversed by the planets, whose paths and heights he demonstrated perfectly to his pupils, as well as their respective distances.[26]

Richer wrote about another of Gerbert's last armillary spheres, which had sighting tubes fixed on the axis of the hollow sphere that could observe the constellations, the forms of which he hung on iron and copper wires.[27] This armillary sphere was also described by Gerbert in a letter to his colleague Constantine.[28] Gerbert instructed Constantine that, if doubtful of the position of the pole star, he should fix the sighting tube of the armillary sphere into position to view the star he suspected was it, and if the star did not move out of sight, it was thus the pole star.[29] Furthermore, Gerbert instructed Constantine that the north pole could be measured with the upper and lower sighting tubes, the Arctic Circle through another tube, the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
through another tube, the equator through another tube, and the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
through another tube.[29] Works[edit]

12th century copy of De geometria.

Gerbert's writings were printed in volume 139 of the Patrologia Latina. Darlington notes that Gerbert's preservation of his letters might have been an effort of his to compile them into a textbook for his pupils that would illustrate proper letter writing.[25] His books on mathematics and astronomy were not research-oriented; his texts were primarily educational guides for his students.[25]

Mathematical writings

Libellus de numerorum divisione[30] De geometria[30] Regula de abaco computi[30] Liber abaci[30] Libellus de rationali et ratione uti[30]

Ecclesiastical writings

Sermo de informatione episcoporum De corpore et sanguine Domini Selecta e concil. Basol., Remens., Masom., etc.

Letters

Epistolae ante summum pontificatum scriptae

218 letters, including letters to the emperor, the pope, and various bishops

Epistolae et decreta pontificia

15 letters to various bishops, including Arnulf, and abbots one dubious letter to Otto III. five short poems

Other

Acta concilii Remensis ad S. Basolum Leonis legati epistola ad Hugonem et Robertum reges

See also[edit]

List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics Barcelona's astrolabe

Notes[edit]

^ Other names include Gerbert of Reims (Latin: Gebertus Remensis) or Ravenna
Ravenna
(Gebertus Ravennatensis) or Auvergne (Italian: Gerberto dell'Alvernia) and Gibert (Latin: Gibertus).[1] ^ Charles Seife: "He probably learned about the numerals during a visit to Spain and brought them back with him when he returned to Italy. But the version he learned did not have a zero."[18]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ "Silvester <Papa, II.>," CERL Thesaurus. ^ Morris Bishop (2001). The Middle Ages. p. 47. ISBN 9780618057030.  ^ Jana K. Schulman, ed. (2002). The Rise of the Medieval World, 500-1300: A Biographical Dictionary. p. 410. ISBN 9780313308178.  ^ Toby E. Huff (1993). The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West. p. 50. ISBN 9780521529945.  ^ Nancy Marie Brown, "The Abacus
Abacus
and the Cross: The Story of the Pope Who Brought the Light of Science to the Dark Ages"; see a presentation at http://www.religiondispatches.org/books/rd10q/3878/everything_you_think_you_know_about_the_dark_ages_is_wrong/ ^ Darlington (1947, p. 456, footnote 2) ^ Mayfield, Betty (August 2010). "Gerbert d'Aurillac and the March of Spain: A Convergence of Cultures". Mathematical Association of America.  ^ Darlington (1947, p. 471). ^ a b c Darlington (1947, p. 472). ^ Brian A. Catlos, Infidel Kings and Unholy Warriors (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus And Giroux, 2014), 83. ^ Butler, E. M. (1948). The Myth of the Magus. Cambridge University Press. p. 157.  ^ Lanciani, Rodolfo (1892). "Papal Tombs". Pagan and Christian Rome. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.  ^ Kropf (1898), p. 290. ^ Kosztolnyik (1977), p. 35. ^ Gerbert biography ^ Darlington (1947, p. 473). ^ Tester (1987), p. 132. ^ Seife (2000), p. 77. ^ Tester (1987), pp. 131–132. ^ a b Buddhue (1941), p. 266. ^ Tester (1987), pp. 130–131. ^ Darlington (1947, pp. 467–472). ^ Darlington (1947, pp. 464, 467–472). ^ a b Darlington (1947, p. 467). ^ a b c d e Darlington (1947, p. 468). ^ Darlington (1947), pp. 468–469. ^ Darlington (1947, p. 469). ^ Darlington (1947, pp. 469–470). ^ a b Darlington (1947, p. 470). ^ a b c d e Darlington (1947, p. 468, footnote 43)

Bibliography[edit]

Buddhue, John Davis (1941). "The Origin of Our Numbers". The Scientific Monthly. 52 (3): 265–267. Bibcode:1941SciMo..52..265D.  Darlington, Oscar G. (1947). "Gerbert, the Teacher". American Historical Review. 52 (3): 456–476. doi:10.2307/1859882. JSTOR 1859882.  Kosztolnyik, Zoltan J. (1977). "The Relations of Four Eleventh-Century Hungarian Kings with Rome
Rome
in the Light of Papal Letters". Church History. 46 (1): 33–47. doi:10.2307/3165157.  Kropf, Lewis L. (1898). " Pope
Pope
Sylvester II and Stephen I of Hungary". English Historical Review. 13 (50): 290–295. doi:10.1093/ehr/XIII.L.290. JSTOR 547228.  Seife, Charles (2000). Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-88457-X.  Tester, S. Jim (1987). A History of Western Astrology. Rochester: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 0-85115-446-8. 

Further reading[edit]

Brown, Nancy Marie. The Abacus
Abacus
and the Cross: The Story of the Pope Who Brought the Light of Science to the Dark Ages (Basic Books; 2010) 310 pages, ISBN 9780465009503 Carrara, Bellino (1908). L'opera sicentifica di Gerberto o Papa Silvestro II novellamente discussa ed illustrata (in Italian). Rome: Tipografia pontificia dell' Istituto Pio IX.  Pladevall i Font, Antoni (1998). Silvestre II (Gerbert d'Orlhac) (in French). Barcelona: Columna. ISBN 978-84-8300-514-9.  A translation of the letters of Gerbert (982–987) with introduction and notes, Harriet Pratt Lattin, tr., Columbus, OH, H. L. Hedrick, 1932. Letters of Gerbert, with His Papal Privileges as Sylvester II, Translated with an introduction by Harriet Pratt Lattin, Columbia University Press (1961), ISBN 0-231-02201-8 ISBN 9780231022019 The Peasant Boy who Became Pope: Story of Gerbert, Harriet Pratt Lattin, Henry Schuman, 1951. The Policy of Gerbert in the Election of Hugh Capet, 987: Based on a Study of His Letters, Harriet Pratt Lattin, Ohio State University, 1926. Montecchio, Luca (2011). Gerberto d’Aurillac. Silvestro II (in Italian). Graphe.it Edizioni. ISBN 978-88-97010-05-0.  Lindgren, Uta (1976). Gerbert von Aurillac und das Quadrivium: Unters. zur Bildung im Zeitalter d. Ottonen (in German). Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-02449-5.  Olleris, Alexandre (1867). Oeuvres de Gerbert pape sous le nom de Sylvestre II...: collationnées sur les manuscrits (in French and Latin). Paris: Dumoulin.  Schärlig, Alain (2012). Un portrait de Gerbert d'Aurillac: inventeur d'un abaque, utilisateur précoce des chiffres arabes, et pape de l'an mil (in French). Lausanne: PPUR Presses polytechniques. ISBN 978-2-88074-944-6.  Truitt, E. R. (2012). "Celestial Divination and Arabic Science in Twelfth-Century England: The History of Gerbert of Aurillac's Talking Head". Journal of the History of Ideas. 73 (2): 201–222. doi:10.1353/jhi.2012.0016. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Sylvester II

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sylvester II.

Catholic Encyclopedia Betty Mayfield, "Gerbert d'Aurillac and the March of Spain: A Convergence of Cultures" Gerbert of Aurillac (ca. 955–1003), lecture by Lynn H. Nelson. Women's Biography: Adelaide of Burgundy, Ottonian empress, includes four of his letters to Adelaide of Italy.

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
titles

Preceded by Arnulf Archbishop
Archbishop
of Reims 991–996 Succeeded by Arnulf

Preceded by Gregory V Pope 999–1003 Succeeded by John XVII

v t e

Popes of the Catholic Church

List of popes

graphical canonised

Papal names Tombs

extant non-extant

Antipope Pope
Pope
emeritus

Papal resignation

Pope-elect

1st–4th centuries During the Roman Empire (until 493) including under Constantine (312–337)

Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleutherius Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

5th–8th centuries Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857)

Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus III Leo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius I John III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene I Vitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory III Zachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III

9th–12th centuries Papal selection before 1059 Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012) Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044/1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)

Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III

13th–16th centuries Viterbo (1257–1281) Orvieto (1262–1297) Perugia (1228–1304) Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417) Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present) World War II (1939–1945) Cold War (1945–1991)

Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II

21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

Under Constantine (312–337)

Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857) Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present)

WWII (1939–1945)

Book Category Pope
Pope
portal Catholicism portal

v t e

Catholic Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

Category Templates WikiProject

v t e

History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France
France
during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264422706 LCCN: n50053288 ISNI: 0000 0003 8221 4952 GND: 11861438X SELIBR: 199517 SUDOC: 028820398 BNF: cb120577541 (data) BIBSYS: 90939555 NKC: skuk0005254 BN

.