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Pope
Pope
Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope
Pope
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, and enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal. As Pope, he energetically rooted out corruption and lawlessness across Rome, and launched a far-sighted rebuilding programme that continues to provoke controversy, as it involved the destruction of antiquities. The cost of these works was met by heavy taxation that caused much suffering. His foreign policy was regarded as over-ambitious, and he excommunicated both Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
and Henry IV of France. He is recognized as a significant figure of the Counter-Reformation.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Papacy

2.1 Election as pope 2.2 Church administration 2.3 Foreign relations 2.4 Vittoria Accoramboni
Vittoria Accoramboni
affair 2.5 Contraception, abortion, adultery 2.6 Death and legacy

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Early life[edit] Felice Peretti was born on 13 December 1521 at Grottammare, in the Papal States,[1][2] to Pier Gentile (also known as Peretto Peretti), and Marianna da Frontillo.[3] His family was poor.[3] Felice later adopted Peretti as his family name in 1551, and was known as "Cardinal Montalto".[3] He himself claimed that he was "nato di casa illustre" — born of an illustrious (i.e., "shining") house.[citation needed] According to the biographer and church historian Isidoro Gatti, the Peretti family came from Piceno, today's Marche, in Italy.[4] Another possibility is that the Montalto name originates from his father having come from the village of that name, which is in fact near Peretti's village of Grottamare. Motoki Nomachi, however, holds that he was of Dalmatian Slavic origin,[5][6] and according to Sava Nakićenović, he hailed from the Svilanović family from Kruševice in the Bay of Kotor.[7] The theory that his family originated in Kruševice is supported by the fact that the Pope
Pope
used three pears for his coat of arms (the toponym Kruševice is derived from kruška, "pear").[8] According to this theory, Peretti may be an Italian rendition of the Slavic surname, as Peretti itself links to pears (pere in Italian). About 1552 he was noticed by Cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Protector of the Franciscan order, Cardinal Ghislieri (later Pope
Pope
Pius V) and Cardinal Caraffa (later Pope
Pope
Paul IV), and from that time his advancement was assured. He was sent to Venice
Venice
as inquisitor general, but was so severe and conducted matters in such a high-handed manner that he became embroiled in quarrels. The government asked for his recall in 1560.

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Sixtus V

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style None

After a brief term as procurator of his order, he was attached to the Spanish legation headed by Ugo Cardinal Boncampagni (later Pope Gregory XIII) in 1565, which was sent to investigate a charge of heresy levelled against Bartolomé Carranza, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Toledo. The violent dislike he conceived for Boncampagni exerted a marked influence upon his subsequent actions. He hurried back to Rome
Rome
upon the accession of Pius V, who made him apostolic vicar of his order, and, later (1570), cardinal. During the pontificate of his political enemy Gregory XIII (1572–85), Cardinal Montalto, as he was generally called, lived in enforced retirement, occupied with the care of his property, the Villa Montalto, erected by Domenico Fontana
Domenico Fontana
close to his beloved church on the Esquiline Hill, overlooking the Baths of Diocletian. The first phase (1576–80) was enlarged after Peretti became pope and was able to clear buildings to open four new streets in 1585–6. The villa contained two residences, the Palazzo Sistino or "di Termini" ("of the Baths") and the casino, called the Palazzetto Montalto e Felice. Displaced Romans were furious, and resentment of this act was still felt centuries later, when the decision was taken to build the central pontifical railroad station (begun in 1869) in the area of the Villa, marking the beginning of its destruction. Cardinal Montalto's other concern was with his studies, one of the fruits of which was an edition of the works of Ambrose. As pope he personally supervised the printing of an improved edition of Jerome's Vulgate
Vulgate
– said to be "as splendid a translation of the Bible into Latin as the King James version is into English."[9] Papacy[edit] Election as pope[edit] Though not neglecting to follow the course of affairs, Felice carefully avoided every occasion of offence. This discretion contributed not a little to his election to the papacy on 24 April 1585, with the title of Sixtus V. The story of his having feigned decrepitude in the conclave, in order to win votes, is pure invention[citation needed]. One of the things that commended his candidacy to certain cardinals may have been his physical vigour[citation needed], which seemed to promise a long pontificate.

A statue of Sixtus V in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome.

The terrible condition in which Pope
Pope
Gregory XIII
Gregory XIII
had left the ecclesiastical states called for prompt and stern measures. Sixtus proceeded with an almost ferocious severity against the prevailing lawlessness. Thousands of brigands were brought to justice: within a short time the country was again quiet and safe. It was claimed[by whom?] that there were more heads on spikes across the Ponte Sant'Angelo than melons for sale in the marketplace. And clergy and nuns were executed if they broke their vows of chastity.[10] Next Sixtus set to work to repair the finances. By the sale of offices, the establishment of new "Monti" and by levying new taxes, he accumulated a vast surplus, which he stored up against certain specified emergencies, such as a crusade or the defence of the Holy See. Sixtus prided himself upon his hoard, but the method by which it had been amassed was financially unsound: some of the taxes proved ruinous, and the withdrawal of so much money from circulation could not fail to cause distress. Immense sums were spent upon public works, in carrying through the comprehensive planning that had come to fruition during his retirement, bringing water to the waterless hills in the Acqua Felice, feeding twenty-seven new fountains; laying out new arteries in Rome, which connected the great basilicas, even setting his engineer-architect Domenico Fontana
Domenico Fontana
to replan the Colosseum
Colosseum
as a silk-spinning factory housing its workers. Inspired by the ideal of the Renaissance city, Pope
Pope
Sixtus V’s ambitious urban reform programme transformed the old environment to emulate the “long straight streets, wide regular spaces, uniformity and repetitiveness of structures, lavish use of commemorative and ornamental elements, and maximum visibility from both linear and circular perspective."[11] The Pope
Pope
set no limit to his plans, and achieved much in his short pontificate, always carried through at top speed: the completion of the dome of St. Peter's; the loggia of Sixtus in the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano; the chapel of the Praesepe in Santa Maria Maggiore; additions or repairs to the Quirinal, Lateran
Lateran
and Vatican palaces; the erection of four obelisks, including that in Saint Peter's Square; the opening of six streets; the restoration of the aqueduct of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
("Acqua Felice"); the integration of the Leonine City
Leonine City
in Rome
Rome
as XIV rione (Borgo).[12] Besides numerous roads and bridges, he sweetened the city air by financing the reclamation of the Pontine Marshes. Consequently, the spatial organization, monumental inscriptions and restorations throughout the city reinforced the control, surveillance, and authority that alluded to the power of Pope
Pope
Sixtus V.[13] Good progress was made with more than 9,500 acres (38 km2) reclaimed and opened to agriculture and manufacture. The project was abandoned upon his death. Sixtus had no appreciation of antiquities, which were employed as raw material to serve his urbanistic and Christianising programs: Trajan's Column and the Column of Marcus Aurelius
Column of Marcus Aurelius
(at the time misidentified as the Column of Antoninus Pius) were made to serve as pedestals for the statues of SS Peter and Paul; the Minerva
Minerva
of the Capitol was converted into an emblem of Christian Rome; the Septizodium
Septizodium
of Septimius Severus was demolished for its building materials. Church administration[edit] The subsequent administrative system of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
owed much to Sixtus. He limited the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
to seventy. He doubled the number of the congregations and enlarged their functions, assigning to them the principal role in the transaction of business (1588). He regarded the Jesuits
Jesuits
with disfavour and suspicion. He meditated radical changes to their constitution, but death prevented the execution of his purpose. In 1589 was begun a revision of the Vulgate, the so-called Editio Sixtina. Foreign relations[edit]

Pope
Pope
Sixtus V

In his larger political relations, Sixtus entertained fantastic ambitions, such as the annihilation of the Turks, the conquest of Egypt, the transport of the Holy Sepulchre
Holy Sepulchre
to Italy, and the accession of his nephew to the throne of France. The situation in which he found himself was difficult: he could not countenance the designs of those he considered as heretical princes, and yet he mistrusted Philip II of Spain and viewed with apprehension any extension of his power. Sixtus agreed to renew the excommunication of Queen Elizabeth I of England, and to grant a large subsidy to the Armada of Philip II, but, knowing the slowness of Spain, would give nothing until the expedition actually landed in England. This way, he saved a fortune that would otherwise have been lost in the failed campaign. Sixtus had Cardinal Allen draw up the An Admonition to the Nobility and Laity of England, a proclamation to be published in England if the invasion had been successful. The extant document comprised all that could be said against Elizabeth I, and the indictment is therefore fuller and more forcible than any other put forward by the religious exiles, who were generally very reticent in their complaints. Allen carefully consigned his publication to the fire, and we only know of it through one of Elizabeth's spies, who had stolen a copy.[14] Sixtus excommunicated Henry of Navarre
Henry of Navarre
(future Henry IV of France), and contributed to the Catholic League, but he chafed under his forced alliance with Philip II of Spain, and looked for escape. The victories of Henry and the prospect of his conversion to Catholicism raised Sixtus V's hopes, and in corresponding degree determined Philip II to tighten his grip upon his wavering ally. The Pope's negotiations with Henry's representative evoked a bitter and menacing protest and a categorical demand for the performance of promises. Sixtus took refuge in evasion, and temporised until his death on 27 August 1590. Vittoria Accoramboni
Vittoria Accoramboni
affair[edit] In 1581 Francesco Peretti, the nephew of the then Cardinal Montalto, had married Vittoria Accoramboni, a woman famous for her great beauty and accomplishments who had many admirers. The future pope's nephew was, however, soon assassinated, and his widow married the powerful Paolo Giordano I Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, who was widely considered to have been involved in the killing of her first husband. On becoming pope, Sixtus V immediately vowed vengeance on both the Duke of Bracciano
Bracciano
and Vittoria Accoramboni. Warned in time, they fled - first to Venice
Venice
and then to Salò
Salò
in Venetian territory. Here the Duke of Bracciano
Bracciano
died in November 1585, bequeathing all his personal property to his widow. A month later Vittoria Accoramboni, who went to live in Padua, was assassinated by a band of bravos hired by Lodovico Orsini, a relative of her late husband. Contraception, abortion, adultery[edit] Sixtus extended the penalty of excommunication relating to the Roman Catholic Church's teaching on contraception and abortion. While the Church taught that abortion and contraception were gravely sinful actions ("mortal sins"), it did not apply to all mortal sins the additional penalty of excommunication[citation needed]. Although homicide had always required this penalty, contraception had not. Patristic and Medieval theologians and physicians had long speculated and debated over the exact moment the fertilised egg became a human being. While there was broad agreement among them that life was present at conception and that it could only become a human being, the thinking was that this did not necessarily mean God had infused the rational, immortal soul into the body at conception. Following Aristotle, many in the West had theorized that the matter had to be prepared to a certain point before this could happen and, prior to then, there was only a vegetative or sensitive soul, but not a human soul. This meant that killing an organism before the human soul is infused would still be a grave sin of abortion (or at least contraception), but that it was not properly a homicide and, thus, did not require excommunication[citation needed]. Some theologians argued that only after proof of the "quickening" (when the mother can feel the fetus's movement in her womb, usually about 20 weeks into gestation) that there was incontrovertible evidence that ensoulment had already occurred. Until Sixtus V, canon lawyers had applied the code from Gratian
Gratian
whereby excommunications were only given to abortions after the quickening. In 1588 the pope issued a papal bull, Effraenatam or Effrenatam ("Without Restraint"), which declared that the canonical penalty of excommunication would be levied for any form of contraception and for abortions at any stage in fetal development.[15] The reasoning on the latter would be that the soul of the unborn child would be denied Heaven.[16] Sixtus also attempted in 1586 to introduce into the secular law in Rome
Rome
the Old Testament
Old Testament
penalty for adultery, that is death. The measure ultimately failed.[17] Death and legacy[edit] Sixtus V died on 27 August 1590. He was the last Pope
Pope
to date to use the name Sixtus. As Sixtus V lay on his death bed, he was loathed by his political subjects, but history has recognized him as a significant figure in the Counter Reformation. On the negative side, he could be impulsive, obstinate, severe, and autocratic. On the positive side, he was open to large ideas and threw himself into his undertakings with great energy and determination. This often led to success. His pontificate saw great enterprises and great achievements. He slept little and worked hard. Having inherited a bankrupt treasury, he administered his funds with competence and care, and left five million crowns in the coffers of the Holy See
Holy See
at his death.[18] The changes wrought by Sixtus on the street plan of Rome
Rome
were documented in a film, Rome: Impact of an Idea, featuring Edmund N. Bacon and based on sections of his book Design of Cities. See also[edit]

Cardinals created by Sixtus V

Notes[edit]

^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Pope, (HarperCollins, 2000), 292. ^ Name and date information sourced from Library of Congress Authorities data, via corresponding WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities linked authority file (LAF). Retrieved on 20 August 2009. ^ a b c "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Biographical Dictionary - Consistory of 17 May 1570".  ^ Isidoro Gatti, Sisto V Papa piceno. Le testimonianze e i documenti autentici, Ripatransone, Maroni, 1990 and Isidoro Gatti - Raffaele Tassotti, Ancora su Sisto V papa piceno. Commento ad un recente opuscolo, 1999 ^ Tomasz Kamusella; Motoki Nomachi; Catherine Gibson (29 April 2016). "The Rise, Fall and Revival of the Banat Bulgarian Literary Language: Sociolinguistic History from the Perspective of Trans-Border Interactions" in The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 421. ISBN 978-1-137-34839-5.  ^ Srpska kraljevska akademija (1907). Posebna izdanja (in Serbian). 25-27. SKA. p. 26. Тада ]е на папско] стол иди био папа Сикст V, старином Словении са ]адранских обала а по ро- г)енъу земл>ак Калвучэдев.  ^ Nakićenović, Sava (1999). Boka (in Serbian). CID. p. 90. Знаменит ]е био Бокел. папа Сикст V. нз породице СвилановиЬа, са Крушевице.  ^ Srpska kraljevska akademija (1913). Srpski etnografski zbornik. 20. SKA. p. 268. Из овог је племена, како је доказивано, био папа Сиксто V, који је у свом грбу, за знак, да је с Крушевица уметнуо три крушке, а потписивао се „РегеШ". И данас Крушевичани приповије- дају, како су, са »Карос воде" језуити одвели  ^ Durant, Will, The Story of Civilization: Vol. VII, Chapter ix, p. 241 ^ Eamon Duffy, Saints and Sinners: A history of the popes, Yale, 2006, p219 ^ Petrucci, Armando (1993). Public Lettering. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 36.  ^ Della trasportatione dell'obelisco Vaticano et delle fabriche di Nostro Signore Papa Sisto V, fatte dal caualier Domenico Fontana architetto di Sua Santita, In Roma, 1590 ^ Drucker, Johanna (2010). "Species of Espaces and other spurious concepts addressed to reading invisible features of signs within systems of relations". Design and Culture. 2 (2).  ^ Catholic encyclopedia, "Spanish Armada". ^ [1] Archived 18 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Effraenatam in English". Who will not detest such an abhorrent and evil act, by which are lost not only the bodies but also the souls? (Popes believe in the limbo of the little ones) Who will not condemn to a most grave punishment the impiety of him who will exclude a soul created in the image of God and for which Our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ has shed His precious Blood, and which is capable of eternal happiness and is destined to be in the company of angels, from the blessed vision of God, and who has impeded as much as he could the filling up of heavenly mansions (left vacant by the fallen angels), and has taken away the service to God by His creature?  ^ Diarmuid MacCulloch, Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490-1700 (London, 2008) ^ Ibid. #3, p. 241

References[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Sixtus V

 Ott, Michael (1912). " Pope
Pope
Sixtus V". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Collier, Theodore Freylinghuysen (1911). "Sixtus". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

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Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran
Lateran
Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

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Franciscans

General

Rule of St. Francis Rule of St. Clare Tau Cross Custodian of the Holy Land Minister Generals Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Assisi Monte di Pietá Franciscan missions to the Maya Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Franciscans
Franciscans
International Franciscan orders in Protestantism

Orders and groups

Order of Friars Minor Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Conventual Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Capuchin Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate Poor Clares Capuchin Poor Clares Colettine Poor Clares Conceptionists Secular Franciscan Order Third Order of Saint Francis Order of Minims Militia Immaculatae

Popes

Nicholas IV Sixtus IV Sixtus V Clement XIV Pius X John XXIII

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Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 7525513 LCCN: n80049584 ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 5239 GND: 118765671 SELIBR: 279588 SUDOC: 029179440 BNF: cb13164007c (data) ULAN: 500231367 NLA: 47753500 NKC: xx0025213 BNE: XX824

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