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Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
(Latin: Paulus VI; Italian: Paolo VI), born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini[a] (Italian pronunciation: [dʒioˈvanːi baˈtːista enˈriko anˈtonjo marˈija monˈtini]; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978), reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Succeeding John XXIII, he continued the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
which he closed in 1965, implementing its numerous reforms, and fostered improved ecumenical relations with Eastern Orthodox and Protestants, which resulted in many historic meetings and agreements.[7] Montini served in the Holy See's Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954. While in the Secretariat of State, Montini and Domenico Tardini were considered as the closest and most influential advisors of Pope
Pope
Pius XII, who in 1954 named him Archbishop
Archbishop
of Milan, the largest Italian diocese. Montini later became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops' Conference. John XXIII
John XXIII
elevated him to the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
in 1958, and after the death of John XXIII, Montini was considered one of his most likely successors.[8] Upon his election to the papacy, Montini took the name Paul VI. He re-convened the Second Vatican Council, which had automatically closed with the death of John XXIII. After the Council had concluded its work, Paul VI
Paul VI
took charge of the interpretation and implementation of its mandates, often walking a thin line between the conflicting expectations of various groups within Catholicism. The magnitude and depth of the reforms affecting all fields of Church life during his pontificate exceeded similar reform programmes of his predecessors and successors. Paul VI
Paul VI
spoke repeatedly to Marian conventions and mariological meetings, visited Marian shrines and issued three Marian encyclicals. Following his famous predecessor Saint
Saint
Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan, he named Mary as the Mother of the Church
Mother of the Church
during the Second Vatican Council.[9] Paul VI
Paul VI
described himself as a humble servant for a suffering humanity and demanded significant changes from the rich in North America and Europe in favour of the poor in the Third World.[10] His positions on birth control, promulgated famously in the 1968 encyclical Humanae vitae
Humanae vitae
were often contested, especially in Western Europe and North America. The same opposition emerged in reaction to the political aspects of some of his teaching. Following the standard procedures that lead to sainthood, Pope Benedict XVI declared that the late pontiff had lived a life of heroic virtue and conferred the title of Venerable
Venerable
upon him on 20 December 2012. Pope Francis
Pope Francis
beatified him on 19 October 2014 after the recognition of a miracle attributed to his intercession. His liturgical feast is celebrated on the date of his birth on 26 September. Pope Francis
Pope Francis
confirmed Paul VI's canonization which is to be celebrated in late 2018. Popes John Paul I, John Paul II, and Benedict XVI were made cardinals during his papacy.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Vatican career

2.1 Diplomatic service 2.2 Roman Curia

3 Archbishop
Archbishop
of Milan

3.1 Montini's philosophy 3.2 Pastoral progressivism 3.3 Cardinal

4 Papacy

4.1 Papal conclave 4.2 Reforms of papal ceremonial 4.3 Completion of the Vatican Council

4.3.1 Ecumenical orientation 4.3.2 Dialogue with the world 4.3.3 The Council priorities of Paul VI 4.3.4 Third and fourth sessions 4.3.5 Universal call to holiness

4.4 Church reforms

4.4.1 Synod of Bishops 4.4.2 Curia reform 4.4.3 Age limits and restrictions 4.4.4 Mass of Paul VI

4.5 Relations and dialogues

4.5.1 Dialogues 4.5.2 Foreign travels

4.6 Attempted assassination of Paul VI

4.6.1 New diplomacy

4.7 Theology

4.7.1 Mariology 4.7.2 Encyclicals

4.8 Ecumenism and ecumenical relations

4.8.1 Orthodox 4.8.2 Anglicans 4.8.3 Protestants

4.9 Beatifications and canonizations 4.10 Consistories

5 Final years and death

5.1 Denial of homosexuality 5.2 Death of Aldo Moro 5.3 Final days 5.4 Death

6 Canonization 7 Legacy and controversies 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 External links

Early life[edit]

His father, Giorgio Montini

Giovanni Battista Montini was born in the village of Concesio, in the province of Brescia, Lombardy, Italy, in 1897. His father Giorgio Montini was a lawyer, journalist, director of the Catholic Action and member of the Italian Parliament. His mother was Giudetta Alghisi, from a family of rural nobility. He had two brothers, Francesco Montini, who became a physician, and Lodovico Montini, who became a lawyer and politician.[11] On 30 September 1897, he was baptized with the name Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini.[12] He attended the Cesare Arici school, run by the Jesuits, and in 1916 received a diploma from the Arnaldo da Brescia
Brescia
public school in Brescia. His education was often interrupted by bouts of illness. In 1916, he entered the seminary to become a Catholic priest. He was ordained priest on 29 May 1920 in Brescia
Brescia
and celebrated his first Holy Mass
Holy Mass
in Brescia
Brescia
in the Basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie.[13] Montini concluded his studies in Milan
Milan
with a doctorate in Canon Law in the same year.[14] Afterwards he studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome La Sapienza
University of Rome La Sapienza
and, at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo
Giuseppe Pizzardo
at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. In 1922, at the age of twenty-five, again at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo, Montini entered the Secretariat of State, where he worked under Pizzardo together with Francesco Borgongini-Duca, Alfredo Ottaviani, Carlo Grano, Domenico Tardini and Francis Spellman.[15] Consequently, he never had an appointment as a parish priest. In 1925 he helped found the publishing house Morcelliana in Brescia, focused on promoting a 'Christian-inspired culture'.[16] Vatican career[edit] Diplomatic service[edit] Montini had just one foreign posting in the diplomatic service of the Holy See
Holy See
as Secretary in office of the papal nuncio to Poland
Poland
in 1923. Of the nationalism he experienced there he wrote: "This form of nationalism treats foreigners as enemies, especially foreigners with whom one has common frontiers. Then one seeks the expansion of one's own country at the expense of the immediate neighbours. People grow up with a feeling of being hemmed in. Peace becomes a transient compromise between wars."[17] He described his experience in Warsaw as "useful, though not always joyful".[18] When he became pope, the Communist government of Poland
Poland
refused him permission to visit Poland on a Marian pilgrimage. Roman Curia[edit]

Montini on the day of his ordination in 1920

His organisational skills led him to a career in the Roman Curia, the papal civil service. In 1931, Pacelli appointed him to teach history at the Pontifical Academy for Diplomats[14] In 1937, after his mentor Giuseppe Pizzardo
Giuseppe Pizzardo
was named a cardinal and was succeeded by Domenico Tardini, Montini was named Substitute for Ordinary Affairs under Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State. His immediate supervisor was Domenico Tardini, with whom he got along well. Pacelli became Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
in 1939 and confirmed Montini's appointement as Substitute under the new Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione. In that role, roughly that of a chief of staff, he met the pope every morning until 1954 and developed a rather close relationship with him. Of his service to two popes he wrote:

It is true, my service to the pope was not limited to the political or extraordinary affairs according to Vatican language. The goodness of Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
opened to me the opportunity to look into the thoughts, even into the soul of this great pontiff. I could quote many details how Pius XII, always using measured and moderate speech, was hiding, nay revealing a noble position of great strength and fearless courage.[19]

When war broke out, Maglione, Tardini and Montini were the principal figures in the Secretariat of State of the Holy See.[20][page needed] Montini was in charge of taking care of the "ordinary affairs" of the Secretariat of State, which took much of the mornings of every working day. In the afternoon he moved to the third floor into the Office of the Private Secretary of the Pontiff. Pius XII did not have a personal secretary. As did several popes before him, he delegated the secretarial functions he needed to the Secretariat of State.[21] During the war years, thousands of letters from all parts of the world arrived at the desk of the pope, most of them asking for understanding, prayer and help. Montini's task was to formulate the replies in the name of Pius XII, expressing his empathy, and understanding and providing help, where possible.[21] At the request of the pope, Montini created an information office regarding prisoners of war and refugees, which from 1939 until 1947 received almost ten million requests for information about missing persons and produced over eleven million replies.[22] Montini was several times attacked by Benito Mussolini's government for meddling in politics, but the Holy See
Holy See
consistently defended him.[23] When Maglione died in 1944, Pius XII
Pius XII
appointed Tardini and Montini together as joint heads of Secretariat of State, each with the title of Pro-Secretary of State. Montini's admiration was almost filial, when he described Pope
Pope
Pius XII:

His richly cultivated mind, his unusual capacity for thought and study led him to avoid all distractions and every unnecessary relaxation. He wished to enter fully into the history of his own afflicted time: with a deep understanding, that he was himself a part of that history. He wished to participate fully in it, to share his sufferings in his own heart and soul.[24]

As Pro-Secretary of State, Montini coordinated the activities of assistance to the persecuted hidden in convents, parishes, seminaries, and in Catholic schools.[25] At the request of the pope, Montini established together with Ferdinando Baldelli and Otto Faller
Otto Faller
the Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza (Pontifical Commission for Assistence), which aided large number of Romans and refugees from everywhere with shelter, food and other material assistance. In Rome alone this organization distributed almost two million portions of free food in the year 1944.[26] The Papal Residence of Castel Gandolfo was opened to refugees, as was Vatican City
Vatican City
in so far as space allowed. Some 15,000 persons lived in Castel Gandolfo
Castel Gandolfo
alone, supported by the Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza.[26] At the request of Pius XII, Montini was also involved in the re-establishment of Church Asylum, providing protection to hundreds of Allied soldiers, who had escaped from Axis prison camps, Jews, anti-Fascists, Socialists, Communists, and after the liberation of Rome, German soldiers, partisans, displaced persons and others.[27] As pope in 1971, Montini turned the Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza into Caritas Italiana.[28] Archbishop
Archbishop
of Milan[edit]

Cardinal Montini at the opening of the new building of the RAS, Milan, 1962. Photo by Paolo Monti.

After the death of the Benedictine Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, in 1954, Montini was appointed to succeed him as Archbishop of Milan, which made him the Secretary of the Italian Bishops Conference.[29] Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
presented the new Archbishop
Archbishop
Giovanni Battista Montini "as his personal gift to Milan". He was consecrated bishop in Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Peter's Basilica
by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, since Pius XII
Pius XII
was forced to stay in bed due to his severe illness. Pius XII
Pius XII
delivered an address about Montini's appointment from his sick-bed over radio to those assembled in St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
on 12 December 1954.[30] Both Montini and the pope had tears in their eyes when Montini parted for his diocese, with its 1,000 churches, 2,500 priests and 3,500,000 souls.[31] On 5 January 1955, Montini formally took possession of his Cathedral of Milan. After a period of settling in, Montini liked his new tasks as archbishop, connecting to all groups of faithful in Milan. He enjoyed meetings with intellectuals, artists and writers.[32] Montini's philosophy[edit]

Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini walking in Saint Peter's Square
Saint Peter's Square
in 1962

In his first months Montini showed his interest in working conditions and labour issues by personally contacting unions, associations and giving related speeches. Believing that churches are the only non-utilitarian buildings in modern society and a most necessary place of spiritual rest, he initiated the building of over 100 new churches for service and contemplation.[33] His public speeches were noticed not only in Milan
Milan
but also in Rome and elsewhere. Some considered him a liberal, when he asked lay people to love not only Catholics but also schismatics, Protestants, Anglicans, the indifferent, Muslims, pagans, atheists.[34] He gave a friendly welcome to a group of Anglican
Anglican
clergy visiting Milan
Milan
in 1957 and a subsequently exchanged letters with the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[35] Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
revealed at the 1952 secret consistory that both Montini and Tardini had declined appointments to the cardinalate[36][37] and in fact Montini was never to be made a cardinal by Pius XII, who held no consistory and created no cardinals from the time he appointed Montini to Milan
Milan
and his own death four years later. After Angelo Roncalli became Pope
Pope
John XXIII, he made Montini a cardinal in December 1958. Montini and Angelo Roncalli
Angelo Roncalli
were considered to be friends, but when Roncalli, as Pope
Pope
John XXIII
John XXIII
announced a new Ecumenical Council, Cardinal Montini reacted with disbelief and said to Giulio Bevilacqua: "This old boy does not know what a hornets nest he is stirring up."[38] He was appointed to the Central Preparatory Commission in 1961. During the Council, Pope
Pope
John XXIII
John XXIII
asked him to live in the Vatican. He was a member of the Commission for Extraordinary Affairs but did not engage himself much in the floor debates on various issues. His main advisor was Monsignore Giovanni Colombo, whom he later appointed to be his successor in Milan[39] The Commission was greatly overshadowed by the insistence of John XXIII
John XXIII
that the Council complete all its work in one single session before Christmas 1962, to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the Council of Trent, an insistence which may have also been influenced by the Pope's having recently been told that he had cancer.[40] Pastoral progressivism[edit] During his period in Milan, Montini was widely seen as a progressive member of the Catholic hierarchy. He reformed pastoral care, adopting new approaches. He used his authority to ensure that the liturgical reforms of Pius XII
Pius XII
were carried out at the local level and employed innovative methods to reach the people of Milan. For example, huge posters announced throughout the city that 1,000 voices would speak to them from 10 to 24 November 1957. More than 500 priests and many bishops, cardinals and lay people delivered 7,000 sermons in the period not only in churches but in factories, meeting halls, houses, courtyards, schools, offices, military barracks, hospitals, hotels and other places, wherever people congregated.[41] His goal was the re-introduction of faith to a city without much religion. "If only we can say Our Father and know what this means, then we would understand the Christian faith."[42] Pius XII
Pius XII
asked Archbishop
Archbishop
Montini to Rome October 1957, where he gave the main presentation to the Second World Congress of Lay Apostolate. Previously as Pro-Secretary of State, he had worked hard to form a unified worldwide organization of lay people of 58 nations, representing 42 national organizations. He presented them to Pius XII in Rome in 1951. The second meeting in 1957 gave Montini an opportunity to express the lay apostolate in modern terms: "Apostolate means love. We will love all, but especially those, who need help... We will love our time, our technology, our art, our sports, our world."[43] Cardinal[edit]

Montini as the Archbishop of Milan
Archbishop of Milan
circa 1956

Although some cardinals seem to have viewed him as papabile, a likely candidate to become pope, and although he may consequently have received some votes in the 1958 conclave,[44] Montini was not yet a cardinal, which made him an unlikely choice.[b] Angelo Roncalli
Angelo Roncalli
was elected pope on 28 October 1958 and took the name John XXIII. On 17 November 1958, L'Osservatore Romano
L'Osservatore Romano
announced a consistory for the creation of new cardinals. Montini's name led the list.[45] When the pope raised Montini to the cardinalate on 15 December 1958, he became Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti. He appointed him simultaneously to several Vatican congregations which resulted in many visits by Montini to Rome in the coming years.[46] As a Cardinal, Montini journeyed to Africa (1962), where he visited Ghana, Sudan, Kenya, Congo, Rhodesia, South Africa, and Nigeria. After this journey, John XXIII
John XXIII
called Montini to a private audience for a debriefing on his trip which lasted for several hours. In fifteen other trips he visited Brazil
Brazil
(1960) and the USA (1960), including New York City, Washington DC, Chicago, the University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame
in Indiana, Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. While a cardinal, he usually vacationed in Engelberg Abbey, a secluded Benedictine monastery in Switzerland.[47] Papacy[edit]

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Paul VI

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style Blessed

Papal conclave[edit] Main article: Papal conclave, 1963 Montini was generally seen as the most likely successor to Pope
Pope
John XXIII because of his closeness to both Popes Pius XII
Pius XII
and John XXIII, his pastoral and administrative background, and his insight and determination.[48] John XXIII
John XXIII
was not exactly a newcomer to the Vatican, since he had been an official of the Holy See
Holy See
in Rome and until his appointment to Venice
Venice
was a papal diplomat, but returning to Rome at the age of 76 he may have felt outflanked by the professional Roman Curia
Roman Curia
at times; Montini knew its most inner workings well due to the fact that he had worked there for a generation.[48] Unlike the papabile cardinals Giacomo Lercaro
Giacomo Lercaro
of Bologna
Bologna
and Giuseppe Siri of Genoa, Montini was not identified with either the left or right, nor was he seen as a radical reformer. He was viewed as most likely to continue the Second Vatican Council,[48] which already, without any tangible results, had lasted longer than John XXIII anticipated. John had a vision but "did not have a clear agenda. His rhetoric seems to have had a note of over-optimism, a confidence in progress, which was characteristic of the 1960s."[49] When John XXIII died of stomach cancer on 3 June 1963, this triggered a conclave to elect a new pope. Montini was elected pope on the sixth ballot of the papal conclave on 21 June and he took the name of "Paul VI". When the Dean of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
Eugène Tisserant
Eugène Tisserant
asked if he accepted the election, Montini said "Accepto, in nomine Domini" ("I accept, in the name of the Lord"). At one point during the conclave, it was said, Cardinal Gustavo Testa lost his temper and demanded that opponents of Montini halt their efforts to thwart his election.[50] Montini took the name "Paul" in honor of Saint
Saint
Paul.[51] The white smoke first rose from the chimney of the Sistine Chapel at 11:22 am, Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani
Alfredo Ottaviani
in his role as Protodeacon, announced to the public the successful election of Montini. When the new pope appeared on the central loggia, he gave the shorter episcopal blessing as his first Apostolic Blessing
Apostolic Blessing
rather than the longer, traditional Urbi et Orbi. Of the papacy, Paul VI
Paul VI
wrote in his journal: "The position is unique. It brings great solitude. 'I was solitary before, but now my solitude becomes complete and awesome.'"[52] Reforms of papal ceremonial[edit] Paul VI
Paul VI
did away with much of the regal splendor of the papacy. He was the last pope to date to be crowned; his successor Pope
Pope
John Paul I replaced the papal coronation (which Paul had already substantially modified, but which he left mandatory in his 1975 apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo) with an inauguration. Paul VI donated his own tiara, a gift from his former Archdiocese of Milan, to the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception
Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception
in Washington, DC (where it is on permanent display in the Crypt) as a gift to American Catholics. In 1968, with the motu proprio Pontificalis Domus, he discontinued most of the ceremonial functions of the old Roman nobility at the court, save for the Prince Assistants to the Papal Throne. He also abolished the Palatine Guard
Palatine Guard
and the Noble Guard, leaving the Swiss Guard as the sole military order of the Vatican. Completion of the Vatican Council[edit] Main article: Second Vatican Council

Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
fully supported Cardinal Augustin Bea, credited with ecumenical breakthroughs during the Second Vatican Council.

Paul VI
Paul VI
decided to continue Vatican II
Vatican II
(canon law dictates that a council is suspended at the death of a pope), and brought it to completion in 1965. Faced with conflicting interpretations and controversies, he directed the implementation of its reform goals. Ecumenical orientation[edit] Main article: Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
and Ecumenism During Vatican II, the Council Fathers avoided statements which might anger Christians of other faiths.[53][page needed] Cardinal Augustin Bea, the President of the Christian Unity Secretariat, always had the full support of Paul VI
Paul VI
in his attempts to ensure that the Council language was friendly and open to the sensitivities of Protestant and Orthodox Churches, whom he had invited to all sessions at the request of Pope
Pope
John XXIII. Bea also was strongly involved in the passage of Nostra aetate, which regulates the Church's relations with the Jewish faith and members of other religions.[c] Dialogue with the world[edit] After his election as Bishop of Rome, Paul VI
Paul VI
first met with the priests in his new diocese. He told them that in Milan
Milan
he started a dialogue with the modern world and asked them to seek contact with all people from all walks of life. Six days after his election he announced that he would continue Vatican II
Vatican II
and convened the opening to take place on 29 September 1963.[29] In a radio address to the world, Paul VI
Paul VI
recalled the uniqueness of his predecessors, the strength of Pius XI, the wisdom and intelligence of Pius XII
Pius XII
and the love of John XXIII. As "his pontifical goals" he mentioned the continuation and completion of Vatican II, the reform of the Canon Law and improved social peace and justice in the world. The Unity of Christianity would be central to his activities.[29] The Council priorities of Paul VI[edit] The pope re-opened the Ecumenical Council on 29 September 1963 giving it four key priorities:

A better understanding of the Catholic Church Church reforms Advancing the unity of Christianity Dialogue with the world[29]

Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
after his election with the first and only Catholic U.S. president with whom he visited as pope, John F. Kennedy, 2 July 1963

He reminded the council fathers that only a few years earlier Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
had issued the encyclical Mystici corporis
Mystici corporis
about the mystical body of Christ. He asked them not to repeat or create new dogmatic definitions but to explain in simple words how the Church sees itself. He thanked the representatives of other Christian communities for their attendance and asked for their forgiveness if the Catholic Church is guilty for the separation. He also reminded the Council Fathers that many bishops from the east could not attend because the governments in the East did not permit their journeys.[54]

The opening of the second session of Vatican II

Third and fourth sessions[edit] Paul VI
Paul VI
opened the third period on 14 September 1964, telling the Council Fathers that he viewed the text about the Church as the most important document to come out from the Council. As the Council discussed the role of bishops in the papacy, Paul VI
Paul VI
issued an explanatory note confirming the primacy of the papacy, a step which was viewed by some as meddling in the affairs of the Council[55] American bishops pushed for a speedy resolution on religious freedom, but Paul VI
Paul VI
insisted this to be approved together with related texts such as ecumenism.[56] The Pope
Pope
concluded the session on 21 November 1964, with the formal pronouncement of Mary as Mother of the Church.[57] Between the third and fourth sessions the pope announced reforms in the areas of Roman Curia, revision of Canon Law, regulations for mixed marriages involving several faiths, and birth control issues. He opened the final session of the council, concelebrating with bishops from countries where the Church was persecuted. Several texts proposed for his approval had to be changed. But all texts were finally agreed upon. The Council was concluded on 8 December 1965, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception.[56] In the final session of the Council, Paul VI
Paul VI
announced that he would open the canonization processes of his immediate predecessors: Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
and Pope
Pope
John XXIII. Universal call to holiness[edit] According to Pope
Pope
Paul VI, "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council" is the universal call to holiness:[58] "all the faithful of Christ of whatever rank or status, are called to the fullness of the Christian life and to the perfection of charity; by this holiness as such a more human manner of living is promoted in this earthly society." This teaching is found in Lumen Gentium, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, promulgated by Paul VI on 21 November 1964. Church reforms[edit]

Following his predecessor Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan, Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
named Mary the "Mother of the Church" during Vatican II.

Synod of Bishops[edit] On 14 September 1965, he established the Synod of Bishops as a permanent institution of the Church and an advisory body to the papacy. Several meetings were held on specific issues during his pontificate, such as the Synod of Bishops on evangelization in the modern world, which started 9 September 1974.[59] Curia reform[edit] Main article: Pope
Pope
Paul VI's reform of the Roman Curia Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
knew the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
well, having worked there for a generation from 1922 to 1954. He implemented his reforms in stages. On 1 March 1968, he issued a regulation, a process that had been initiated by Pius XII
Pius XII
and continued by John XXIII. On 28 March, with Pontificalis Domus, and in several additional Apostolic Constitutions in the following years, he revamped the entire Curia, which included reduction of bureaucracy, streamlining of existing congregations and a broader representation of non-Italians in the curial positions.[60] Age limits and restrictions[edit] On 6 August 1966, Paul VI
Paul VI
asked all bishops to submit their resignations to the pontiff by their 75th birthday. They were not required to do so but "earnestly requested of their own free will to tender their resignation from office".[61] He extended this requirement to all cardinals in Ingravescentem aetatem
Ingravescentem aetatem
on 21 November 1970, with the further provision that cardinals would relinquish their offices in the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
upon reaching their 80th birthday.[62] These retirement rules enabled the Pope
Pope
to fill several positions with younger prelates and reduce the Italian domination of the Roman Curia.[63] His 1970 measures also revolutionized papal elections by restricting the right to vote in papal conclaves to cardinals who had not yet reached their 80th birthday, a class known since then as "cardinal electors". This reduced the power of the Italians and the Curia in the next conclave. Some senior cardinals objected to losing their voting privilege, without effect.[64][65] Paul VI's measures also limited the number of cardinal-electors to a maximum of 120,[66] a rule sometimes circumvented by Pope
Pope
John Paul II[67] but respected by Pope
Pope
Francis.[68] Some prelates questioned whether he should not apply these retirement rules to himself.[69] When Pope
Pope
Paul was asked towards the end of his papacy whether he would retire at age 80, he replied "Kings can abdicate, Popes cannot."[citation needed] Mass of Paul VI[edit] Main article: Mass of Paul VI Reform of the liturgy had been a part of the liturgical movements in the 20th century mainly in France, and Germany which were officially recognized by Pius XII
Pius XII
in his encyclical Mediator Dei. During the pontificate of Pius XII, the Vatican eased regulations on the use of Latin in Catholic liturgies, permitting some use of vernacular languages during baptisms, funerals and other events. In 1951 and 1955, the Easter liturgies underwent revision, most notably including the reintroduction of the Easter Triduum.[70] The Second Vatican Council made no changes to the Roman Missal, but in the document Sacrosanctum Concilium mandated that a general revision of it take place. After the Vatican Council, in April 1969, Paul VI
Paul VI
approved the "new Order of Mass" promulgated in 1970, as stated in the Acta Apostolica Sedis to "end experimentation" with the Mass and which included the introduction of three new Eucharistic Prayers to what was up to then a single Roman Canon. The Mass of Paul VI
Mass of Paul VI
was also in Latin but approval was given for the use of vernacular languages. There had been other instructions issued by the Pope
Pope
in 1964, 1967, 1968, 1969 and 1970 which centered on the reform of all liturgies of the Roman Church.[71] These major reforms were not welcomed by all and in all countries. The sudden apparent "outlawing" of the 400-year-old Mass, the last typical edition of which being promulgated only a few years earlier in 1962 by Paul's predecessor, Pope
Pope
John XXIII, was not always explained well. Further experimentation with the new Mass by liturgists, such as the usage of pop/folk music (as opposed to the Gregorian Chant advocated by Pope Pius X), along with concurrent changes in the order of sanctuaries, was viewed by some as vandalism.[48] In 2007, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI clarified that the 1962 Mass of John XXIII
John XXIII
and the 1970 Mass of Paul VI are two forms of the same Roman Rite, the first, which had never been "juridically abrogated", now being an "extraordinary form of the Roman Rite", while the other "obviously is and continues to be the normal Form – the Forma ordinaria – of the Eucharistic Liturgy".[72] Relations and dialogues[edit]

Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
during an October 1973 audience

To Paul VI, a dialogue with all of humanity was essential not as an aim but as a means to find the truth. Dialogue according to Paul, is based on full equality of all participants. This equality is rooted in the common search for the truth[73] He said: "Those who have the truth, are in a position as not having it, because they are forced to search for it every day in a deeper and more perfect way. Those who do not have it, but search for it with their whole heart, have already found it."[73] Dialogues[edit]

Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
meets Jafar Shahidi, an Iranian Shia cleric.

In 1964, Paul VI
Paul VI
created a Secretariat for non-Christians, later renamed the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue and a year later a new Secretariat (later Pontifical Council) for Dialogue with Non-Believers. This latter was in 1993 incorporated by Pope
Pope
John Paul II in the Pontifical Council for Culture, which he had established in 1982. In 1971, Paul VI
Paul VI
created a papal office for economic development and catastrophic assistance. To foster common bonds with all persons of good will, he decreed an annual peace day to be celebrated on January first of every year. Trying to improve the condition of Christians behind the Iron Curtain, Paul VI
Paul VI
engaged in dialogue with Communist authorities at several levels, receiving Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko
Andrei Gromyko
and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Nikolai Podgorny
Nikolai Podgorny
in 1966 and 1967 in the Vatican. The situation of the Church in Hungary, Poland
Poland
and Romania, improved during his pontificate.[74] Foreign travels[edit]

The countries visited by Pope
Pope
Paul VI

Relief commemorating Pope
Pope
Paul VI's visit to Nazareth, 5 January 1964

Pope
Pope
Paul VI's Diamond Ring and Cross donated to the United Nations

Main article: List of pastoral visits of Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
outside Italy Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
became the first pope to visit six continents. He traveled more widely than any of his predecessors, earning the nickname "the Pilgrim Pope". He visited the Holy Land
Holy Land
in 1964 and participated in Eucharistic Congresses in Bombay, India and Bogotá, Colombia. In 1966, he was twice denied permission to visit Poland
Poland
for the 1,000th anniversary of the introduction of Christianity in Poland. In 1967, he visited the shrine of Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of Fátima
in Portugal
Portugal
on the fiftieth anniversary of the apparitions there. He undertook a pastoral visit to Uganda in 1969,[75] the first by a reigning pope to Africa.[76] On 27 November 1970 he was the target of an assassination attempt at Manila International Airport in the Philippines. He was only lightly stabbed by Benjamín Mendoza y Amor Flores,[77][78] who was subdued by the pope's personal bodyguard and travel organizer, Monsignor Paul Marcinkus.[79] Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
became the first reigning pontiff to visit the Western hemisphere when he addressed the United Nations in New York City in October 1965.[d] As the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
was escalating, Paul VI
Paul VI
pleaded for peace before the UN:

Our very brief visit has given us a great honour; that of proclaiming to the whole world, from the Headquarters of the United Nations, Peace! We shall never forget this extraordinary hour. Nor can We bring it to a more fitting conclusion than by expressing the wish that this central seat of human relationships for the civil peace of the world may ever be conscious and worthy of this high privilege.[83]

No more war, never again war. Peace, it is peace that must guide the destinies of people and of all mankind."[84]

Attempted assassination of Paul VI[edit] Shortly after arriving at the airport in Manila, Philippines on 27 November 1970, the Pope, closely followed by President Ferdinand Marcos and personal aide Pasquale Macchi, who was private secretary to Pope
Pope
Paul VI, were encountered suddenly by a crew-cut, cassock-clad man who tried to attack the Pope
Pope
with a knife. Macci pushed the man away; police identified the would-be assassin as Benjamin Mendoza y Amor, 35, of La Paz, Bolivia. Mendoza was an artist living in the Philippines. The Pontiff continued with his trip and thanked Marcos and Macci, who both had moved to protect him during the attack.[85] New diplomacy[edit] Like his predecessor Pius XII, Paul VI
Paul VI
put much emphasis on the dialogue with all nations of the world through establishing diplomatic relations. The number of foreign embassies accredited to the Vatican doubled during his pontificate.[86] This was a reflection of a new understanding between Church and State, which had been formulated first by Pius XI
Pius XI
and Pius XII
Pius XII
but decreed by Vatican II. The pastoral constitution Gaudium et spes
Gaudium et spes
stated that the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is not bound to any form of government and willing to cooperate with all forms. The Church maintained its right to select bishops on its own without any interference by the State.[87] Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
sent one of 73 Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages
Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages
to NASA
NASA
for the historic first lunar landing. The message still rests on the lunar surface today. It has the Psalm 8 and the pope wrote, "To the Glory of the name of God who gives such power to men, we ardently pray for this wonderful beginning."[88] Theology[edit] Mariology[edit] Main article: Mariology
Mariology
of Pope
Pope
Paul VI

Paul VI
Paul VI
with Albino Luciani
Albino Luciani
(later John Paul I) in Venice

Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
made extensive contributions to Mariology
Mariology
(theological teaching and devotions) during his pontificate. He attempted to present the Marian teachings of the Church in view of her new ecumenical orientation. In his inaugural encyclical Ecclesiam suam (section below), the pope called Mary the ideal of Christian perfection. He regards "devotion to the Mother of God as of paramount importance in living the life of the Gospel."[89] Encyclicals[edit] Main article: List of Encyclicals of Pope
Pope
Paul VI

Ecclesiam suam

Main article: Ecclesiam suam Ecclesiam suam was given at St. Peter's, Rome, on the Feast of the Transfiguration, 6 August 1964, the second year of his Pontificate. It is considered an important document, identifying the Catholic Church with the Body of Christ. A later Council document Lumen Gentium stated that the Church subsists in the Body of Christ, raising questions as to the difference between "is" and "subsists in". Paul VI
Paul VI
appealed to "all people of good will" and discussed necessary dialogues within the Church and between the Churches and with atheism.[59]

Mense maio

Main article: Mense maio The encyclical Mense maio (from 29 April 1965) focused on the Virgin Mary, to whom traditionally the month of May is dedicated as the Mother of God. Paul VI
Paul VI
writes that Mary is rightly to be regarded as the way by which people are led to Christ. Therefore, the person who encounters Mary cannot help but encounter Christ.[90]

Mysterium fidei

Main article: Mysterium fidei (encyclical) On 3 September 1965, Paul VI
Paul VI
issued Mysterium fidei, on the mystery of the faith. He opposed relativistic notions which would have given the Eucharist
Eucharist
a symbolic character only. The Church, according to Paul VI, has no reason to give up the deposit of faith in such a vital matter.[59]

Populorum progressio

Main article: Populorum progressio

Paul VI
Paul VI
at an audience in October 1977

Populorum progressio, released on 26 March 1967, dealt with the topic of "the development of peoples" and that the economy of the world should serve mankind and not just the few. It touches on a variety of traditional principles of Catholic social teaching: the right to a just wage; the right to security of employment; the right to fair and reasonable working conditions; the right to join a union and strike as a last resort; and the universal destination of resources and goods. In addition, Populorum progressio opines that real peace in the world is conditional on justice. He repeats his demands expressed in Bombay in 1964 for a large-scale World Development Organization, as a matter of international justice and peace. He rejected notions to instigate revolution and force in changing economic conditions.[91]

Sacerdotalis caelibatus

Main article: Sacerdotalis caelibatus Sacerdotalis caelibatus (Latin for "Of the celibate priesthood"), promulgated on 24 June 1967, defends the Catholic Church's tradition of priestly celibacy in the West. This encyclical was written in the wake of Vatican II, when the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was questioning and revising many long-held practices. Priestly celibacy is considered a discipline rather than dogma, and some had expected that it might be relaxed. In response to these questions, the Pope
Pope
reaffirms the discipline as a long-held practice with special importance in the Catholic Church. The encyclical Sacerdotalis caelibatus from 24 June 1967, confirms the traditional Church teaching, that celibacy is an ideal state and continues to be mandatory for Catholic priests. Celibacy symbolizes the reality of the kingdom of God amid modern society. The priestly celibacy is closely linked to the sacramental priesthood.[59] However, during his pontificate Paul VI
Paul VI
was considered generous in permitting bishops to grant laicization of priests who wanted to leave the sacerdotal state, a position which was drastically reversed by John Paul II
John Paul II
in 1980 and cemented in the 1983 Canon Law that only the pope can in exceptional circumstances grant laicization.

Humanae vitae

Main article: Humanae vitae Of his eight encyclicals, Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
is best known for his encyclical Humanae vitae
Humanae vitae
(Of Human Life, subtitled On the Regulation of Birth), published on 25 July 1968. In this encyclical he reaffirmed the Catholic Church's traditional view of marriage and marital relations and a continued condemnation of artificial birth control.[92] There were two Papal committees and numerous independent experts looking into the latest advancement of science and medicine on the question of artificial birth control.[93] which were noted by the Pope
Pope
in his encyclical[94] The expressed views of Paul VI
Paul VI
reflected the teachings of his predecessors, especially Pius XI,[95] Pius XII[96] and John XXIII[97] and never changed, as he repeatedly stated them in the first few years of his Pontificate[98] To the pope as to all his predecessors, marital relations are much more than a union of two people. They constitute a union of the loving couple with a loving God, in which the two persons create a new person materially, while God completes the creation by adding the soul. For this reason, Paul VI
Paul VI
teaches in the first sentence of Humanae vitae that the transmission of human life is a most serious role in which married people collaborate freely and responsibly with God the Creator.[99] This divine partnership, according to Paul VI, does not allow for arbitrary human decisions, which may limit divine providence. The Pope
Pope
does not paint an overly romantic picture of marriage: marital relations are a source of great joy, but also of difficulties and hardships.[99] The question of human procreation exceeds in the view of Paul VI
Paul VI
specific disciplines such as biology, psychology, demography or sociology.[100] The reason for this, according to Paul VI, is that married love takes its origin from God, who "is love". From this basic dignity, he defines his position:

Love is total—that very special form of personal friendship in which husband and wife generously share everything, allowing no unreasonable exceptions and not thinking solely of their own convenience. Whoever really loves his partner loves not only for what he receives, but loves that partner for the partner's own sake, content to be able to enrich the other with the gift of himself.[101]

The reaction to the encyclical's continued prohibitions of artificial birth control was very mixed. In Italy, Spain, Portugal
Portugal
and Poland, the encyclical was welcomed.[102] In Latin America, much support developed for the Pope
Pope
and his encyclical. As World Bank President Robert McNamara
Robert McNamara
declared at the 1968 Annual Meeting of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group that countries permitting birth control practices would get preferential access to resources, doctors in La Paz, Bolivia called it insulting that money should be exchanged for the conscience of a Catholic nation. In Colombia, Cardinal archbishop Aníbal Muñoz Duque
Aníbal Muñoz Duque
declared, if American conditionality undermines Papal teachings, we prefer not to receive one cent.[103] The Senate of Bolivia passed a resolution stating that Humanae vitae
Humanae vitae
could be discussed in its implications for individual consciences, but was of greatest significance because the papal document defended the rights of developing nations to determine their own population policies.[103] The Jesuit
Jesuit
Journal Sic dedicated one edition to the encyclical with supportive contributions.[104] Paul VI
Paul VI
was concerned but not surprised by the negative reaction in Western Europe and the United States. He fully anticipated this reaction to be a temporary one: "Don't be afraid", he reportedly told Edouard Gagnon
Edouard Gagnon
on the eve of the encyclical, "in twenty years time they'll call me a prophet."[105] His biography on the Vatican's website notes of his reaffirmations of priestly celibacy and the traditional teaching on contraception that "[t]he controversies over these two pronouncements tended to overshadow the last years of his pontificate".[106] Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
later reaffirmed and expanded upon Humanae vitae
Humanae vitae
with the encyclical Evangelium vitae. Ecumenism and ecumenical relations[edit] After the Council, Paul VI
Paul VI
contributed in two ways to the continued growth of ecumenical dialogue. The separated brothers and sisters, as he called them, were not able to contribute to the Council as invited observers. After the Council, many of them took initiative to seek out their Catholic counterparts and the Pope
Pope
in Rome, who welcomed such visits. But the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
itself recognized from the many previous ecumenical encounters, that much needed to be done within, to be an open partner for ecumenism.[107] To those who are entrusted the highest and deepest truth and therefore, so Paul VI, believed that he had the most difficult part to communicate. Ecumenical dialogue, in the view of Paul VI, requires from a Catholic the whole person: one's entire reason, will, and heart.[108] Paul VI, like Pius XII
Pius XII
before him, was reluctant to give in on a lowest possible point. And yet, Paul felt compelled to admit his ardent Gospel-based desire to be everything to everybody and to help all people[109] Being the successor of Peter, he felt the words of Christ, "Do you love me more" like a sharp knife penetrating to the marrow of his soul. These words meant to Paul VI
Paul VI
love without limits,[110] and they underscore the Church's fundamental approach to ecumenism. Orthodox[edit] Paul VI
Paul VI
visited the Orthodox Patriarchs of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Constantinople in 1964 and 1967. He was the first pope since the ninth century to visit the East, labeling the Eastern Churches as sister Churches.[111] He was also the first pope in centuries to meet the heads of various Eastern Orthodox faiths. Notably, his meeting with Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I
Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I
in 1964 in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
led to rescinding the excommunications of the Great Schism, which took place in 1054.[112] This was a significant step towards restoring communion between Rome and Constantinople. It produced the Catholic-Orthodox Joint declaration of 1965, which was read out on 7 December 1965, simultaneously at a public meeting of the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
in Rome and at a special ceremony in Istanbul. The declaration did not end the schism, but showed a desire for greater reconciliation between the two churches.[111] In May 1973, the Coptic Patriarch
Patriarch
Shenouda III of Alexandria visited the Vatican, where he met three times with Pope Paul VI. A common declaration and a joint Creed
Creed
issued after the visit proclaimed unity in a number of theological issues,[86] though also that other theological differences "since the year 451" "cannot be ignored" while both traditions work to a greater unity.[113] Anglicans[edit] Paul VI
Paul VI
was the first pope to receive an Anglican
Anglican
Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury, Michael Ramsey
Michael Ramsey
in official audience as Head of Church, after the private audience visit of Archbishop
Archbishop
Geoffrey Fisher
Geoffrey Fisher
to Pope John XXIII
John XXIII
on 2 December 1960.[114] Ramsey met Paul three times during his visit and opened the Anglican
Anglican
Centre in Rome to increase their mutual knowledge.[115] He praised Paul VI[e] and his contributions in the service of unity.[115] Paul replied that "by entering into our house, you are entering your own house, we are happy to open our door and heart to you."[115] The two Church leaders signed a common declaration, which put an end to the disputes of the past and outlined a common agenda for the future. Cardinal Augustin Bea, the head of the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity, added at the end of the visit, "Let us move forward in Christ. God wants it. Humanity is waiting for it."[116] Unmoved by a harsh condemnation by the Congregation of Faith on mixed marriages precisely at this time of the visit, Paul VI
Paul VI
and Ramsey appointed a preparatory commission which was to put the common agenda into practice on such issues as mixed marriages. This resulted in a joint Malta declaration, the first joint agreement on the Creed
Creed
since the Reformation.[117] Paul VI
Paul VI
was a good friend of the Anglican
Anglican
Church, which he described as "our beloved sister Church". This description was unique to Paul and not used by later popes. Protestants[edit] In 1965, Paul VI
Paul VI
decided on the creation of a joint working group with the World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
to map all possible avenues of dialogue and cooperation. In the following three years, eight sessions were held which resulted in many joint proposals.[118] It was proposed to work closely together in areas of social justice and development and Third World Issues such as hunger and poverty. On the religious side, it was agreed to share together in the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, to be held every year. The joint working group was to prepare texts which were to be used by all Christians.[119] On 19 July 1968, the meeting of the World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
took place in Uppsala, Sweden, which Pope
Pope
Paul called a sign of the times. He sent his blessing in an ecumenical manner: "May the Lord bless everything you do for the case of Christian Unity."[120] The World Council of Churches decided on including Catholic theologians in its committees, provided they have the backing of the Vatican. The Lutherans were the first Protestant Church offering a dialogue to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in September 1964 in Reykjavík, Iceland.[121] It resulted in joint study groups of several issues. The dialogue with the Methodist Church
Methodist Church
began October 1965, after its representatives officially applauded remarkable changes, friendship and cooperation of the past five years. The Reformed Churches entered four years later into a dialogue with the Catholic Church.[122] The President of the Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation and member of the central committee of the World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
Fredrik A. Schiotz stated during the 450th anniversary of the Reformation, that earlier commemorations were viewed almost as a triumph. Reformation
Reformation
should be celebrated as a thanksgiving to God, his truth and his renewed life. He welcomed the announcement of Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
to celebrate the 1900th anniversary of the death of the Apostle Peter
Apostle Peter
and Apostle Paul, and promised the participation and cooperation in the festivities.[123] Paul VI
Paul VI
supported the new-found harmony and cooperation with Protestants on so many levels. When Cardinal Augustin Bea
Augustin Bea
went to see him for permission for a joint Catholic-Protestant translation of the Bible with Protestant Bible societies, the pope walked towards him and exclaimed, "as far as the cooperation with Bible societies is concerned, I am totally in favour."[124] He issued a formal approval on Pentecost
Pentecost
1967, the feast on which the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descended on the Christians, overcoming all linguistic difficulties, according to Christian tradition.[125] Beatifications and canonizations[edit] Main articles: List of people declared venerable by Pope
Pope
Paul VI, List of people beatified by Pope
Pope
Paul VI, and List of saints canonized by Pope
Pope
Paul VI Paul VI
Paul VI
beatified a total of 38 individuals in his pontificate and he canonized 84 saints in 21 causes. Among the beatifications included Maximilian Kolbe
Maximilian Kolbe
(1971) and the Korean Martyrs
Korean Martyrs
(1968). He canonized saints such as Nikola Tavelić
Nikola Tavelić
(1970) and the Ugandan Martyrs
Ugandan Martyrs
(1964). Consistories[edit]

Paul VI
Paul VI
makes Joseph Ratzinger
Joseph Ratzinger
(future Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI) a cardinal in 1977.

Main article: Cardinals created by Paul VI Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
held six consistories between 1965 and 1977 that raised 143 men to the cardinalate in his fifteen years as pope:

22 February 1965, 27 cardinals 26 June 1967, 27 cardinals 28 April 1969, 34 cardinals 5 March 1973, 30 cardinals 24 May 1976, 20 cardinals 27 June 1977, 4 cardinals

The next three popes were created cardinals by him. His immediate successor, Albino Luciani, who took the name John Paul I, was created a cardinal in the consistory of 5 March 1973. Karol Wojtyła
Karol Wojtyła
(John Paul II) was created a cardinal in the consistory of 26 June 1967. Joseph Ratzinger
Joseph Ratzinger
(Benedict XVI) was created a cardinal in the small four-appointment consistory of 27 June 1977.[126] With the six consistories, Paul VI
Paul VI
continued the internationalization policies started by Pius XII
Pius XII
in 1946 and continued by John XXIII. In his 1976 consistory, five of twenty cardinals originated from Africa, one of them a son of a tribal chief with fifty wives.[126] Several prominent Latin Americans like Eduardo Francisco Pironio
Eduardo Francisco Pironio
of Argentina; Luis Aponte Martinez of Puerto Rico, Eugênio de Araújo Sales
Eugênio de Araújo Sales
and Aloisio Lorscheider
Aloisio Lorscheider
from Brazil
Brazil
were also elevated by him. There were voices within the Church at the time saying that the European period of the Church was coming to a close, a view shared by Britain's Cardinal Basil Hume.[126] At the same time, the members of the College of Cardinals lost some of their previous influences, after Paul VI decreed, that membership by bishops in committees and other bodies of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
would not be limited to cardinals. The age limit of eighty years imposed by the Pope, a numerical increase of Cardinals by almost 100%, and a reform of the formal dress of the "Princes of the Church" further contributed to a service-oriented perception of Cardinals under his pontificate. The increased number of Cardinals from the Third World and the papal emphasis on related issues was nevertheless welcomed by many in Western Europe.[126] Final years and death[edit] Denial of homosexuality[edit] In 1976 Paul VI
Paul VI
became the first pontiff in the modern era to deny the accusation of homosexuality. On 29 December 1975, the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a document entitled Persona Humana: Declaration on Certain Questions concerning Sexual Ethics, that reaffirmed Church teaching that pre or extra-marital sex, homosexual activity, and masturbation are sinful acts.[127][128] In response, Roger Peyrefitte, who had already written in two of his books that Paul VI
Paul VI
had a longtime homosexual relationship, repeated his charges in a magazine interview with a French gay magazine that, when reprinted in Italian, brought the rumors to a wider public and caused an uproar. He said that the pope was a hypocrite who had a longtime sexual relationship with a movie actor.[129][130][131] Widespread rumors identified the actor as Paolo Carlini,[132] who had a small part in the Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
film Roman Holiday
Roman Holiday
(1953). In a brief address to a crowd of approximately 20,000 in St. Peters Square on 18 April, Paul VI
Paul VI
called the charges "horrible and slanderous insinuations" and appealed for prayers on his behalf. Special
Special
prayers for the pope were said in all Italian Catholic churches in "a day of consolation".[130][132][f] The charges have resurfaced periodically. In 1994, Franco Bellegrandi, a former Vatican honour chamberlain and correspondent for the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano, alleged that Paul VI
Paul VI
had been blackmailed and had promoted other gay men to positions of power within the Vatican.[134] In 2006, the newspaper L'Espresso confirmed the blackmail story based on the private papers of police commander General Giorgio Manes. It reported that Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
had been asked to help.[132][135] Death of Aldo Moro[edit]

Aldo Moro, photographed during his kidnapping by the Red Brigades
Red Brigades
in 1978

Paul VI's body in the Vatican, after his death

On 16 March 1978, his friend from FUCI student days, former Italian prime minister Aldo Moro, a Christian Democratic politician, was kidnapped by the Red Brigades, which kept the world and the pope in suspense for 55 days.[136] On 20 April, Moro directly appealed to the pope to intervene as Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
had intervened in the case of Professor Giuliano Vassalli in the same situation.[137] The eighty-year-old Paul VI
Paul VI
wrote a letter to the Red Brigades:

I have no mandate to speak to you, and I am not bound by any private interests in his regard. But I love him as a member of the great human family as a friend of student days and by a very special title as a brother in faith and as a son of the Church of Christ. I make an appeal that you will certainly not ignore. On my knees I beg you, free Aldo Moro, simply without conditions, not so much because of my humble and well-meaning intercession, but because he shares with you the common dignity of a brother in humanity. Men of the Red Brigades, leave me, the interpreter of the voices of so many of our fellow citizens, the hope that in your heart feelings of humanity will triumph. In prayer and always loving you I await proof of that."[137]

Some in the Italian government accused the pope of treating the Red Brigades too kindly. However, he continued looking for ways to pay ransom for Moro – but to no avail. On 9 May, the bullet-riddled body of Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
was found in a car in Rome.[138] Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
later celebrated his State Funeral Mass. Final days[edit]

The Papal Tiara of Paul VI, now in the Crypt of the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception

Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
left the Vatican to go to the papal summer residence, Castel Gandolfo, on 14 July 1978, visiting on the way the tomb of Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo,[139] who had introduced him to the Vatican half a century earlier. Although he was sick, he agreed to see the new Italian President Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
for over two hours. In the evening he watched a Western on TV, happy only when he saw "horses, the most beautiful animals that God had created."[139] He had breathing problems and needed oxygen. On Sunday, at the Feast of the Transfiguration, he was tired, but wanted to say the Angelus. He was neither able nor permitted to do so and instead stayed in bed, his temperature rising.

Tomb of Paul VI

Death[edit] From his bed he participated in Sunday Mass at 18:00. After communion, the pope suffered a massive heart attack, after which he continued to live for three hours. On 6 August 1978 at 21:41 Paul VI
Paul VI
died in Castel Gandolfo.[139] According to the terms of his will, he was buried in the "true earth" and therefore, he does not have an ornate sarcophagus but in practice beneath the floor of Saint
Saint
Peter's Basilica, though in an area of the baslica's crypt near the tombs of other popes.[140] His position mirrors the statements attributed to Pius XI
Pius XI
"a Pope
Pope
may suffer but he must be able to function" and by Pius XII.[141] Pope Paul, reflecting on Hamlet, wrote the following in a private note in 1978:

What is my state of mind? Am I Hamlet? Or Don Quixote? On the left? On the right? I do not think I have been properly understood. I am filled with 'great joy (Superabundo gaudio)' With all our affliction, I am overjoyed (2 Cor 2:4).[142]

His confessor, the Jesuit
Jesuit
Paolo Dezza, said that "this pope is a man of great joy" [52] and

If Paul VI
Paul VI
was not a saint, when he was elected Pope, he became one during his pontificate. I was able to witness not only with what energy and dedication he toiled for Christ and the Church but also and above all, how much he suffered for Christ and the Church. I always admired not only his deep inner resignation but also his constant abandonment to divine providence."[143]

Canonization[edit]

Tapestry of Paul VI
Paul VI
on the occasion of his beatification on 19 October 2014

Main article: Beatification
Beatification
of Pope
Pope
Paul VI The diocesan process for beatification for Paul VI
Paul VI
- titled then as a Servant of God - opened in Rome on 11 May 1993 under Pope
Pope
John Paul II after the "nihil obstat" ("nothing against") was declared the previous 18 March. Cardinal Camillo Ruini
Camillo Ruini
opened the diocesan process in Rome. The title of Servant of God is the first of four steps toward possible canonization. The diocesan process concluded its business on 18 March 1998.[144] On 20 December 2012, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI, in an audience with the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints Angelo Amato, declared that the late pontiff had lived a life of heroic virtue, which means that he could be called "Venerable".[145] A miracle attributed to the intercession of Paul VI
Paul VI
was approved on 9 May 2014 by Pope
Pope
Francis. The beatification ceremony for Paul VI
Paul VI
was held on 19 October 2014, which means that he can now be called "Blessed".[146] His liturgical feast day is celebrated on the date of his birth, 26 September, rather than the day of his death as is usual since the latter falls on a major Church feast.[147] On 12 December 2013, Vatican officials comprising a medical panel approved a supposed miracle that was attributed to the intercession of the late pontiff, which was the curing of an unborn child in California, U.S.A in the 1990s. This miracle was investigated in California
California
from 7 July 2003 until 12 July 2004. It was expected that Pope Francis
Pope Francis
would approve the miracle in the near future, thus, warranting the beatification of the late pontiff.[148] In February 2014, it was reported that the consulting Vatican theologians to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints recognized the miracle attributed to the late pontiff on 18 February.[149] On 24 April 2014, it was reported in the Italian magazine Credere that the late pope could possibly be beatified on 19 October 2014. This report from the magazine further stated that several cardinals and bishops would meet on 5 May to confirm the miracle that had previously been approved, and then present it to Pope Francis
Pope Francis
who may sign the decree for beatification shortly after that.[150] The Congregation for the Causes of Saints' cardinal and bishop members held that meeting and positively concluded that the healing was indeed a miracle that could be attributed to the late pope. The matter would then be presented by the Cardinal Prefect to the pope for approval.[151] The miracle was formally approved on 9 May 2014 by Pope Francis
Pope Francis
in an audience with Cardinal Angelo Amato, Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. The beatification ceremony for Paul VI
Paul VI
was held on 19 October 2014 in Saint
Saint
Peter's Square, which meant that he was titled as "Blessed".[152] The second miracle required for his canonization was reported to have occurred in 2014 not long after his beatification occurred. The vice-postulator Antonio Lanzoni suggested that the canonization could have been approved in the near future which would allow for the canonization sometime in spring 2016; this did not materialize because the investigations were still ongoing at that stage.[153][154][155] It was further reported in January 2017 that Pope Francis
Pope Francis
was considering canonizing Paul VI
Paul VI
either in that year, or in 2018 (marking 40 years since the late pope's death), without the second miracle required for sainthood.[156] This too was proven false since the miracle from 2014 was being presented to the competent Vatican officials for assessment. The final miracle needed for the late pope's canonization was investigated in Verona
Verona
and was closed on 11 March 2017. The miracle in question involves the healing of an unborn girl, Amanda Maria Paola (born 25 December 2014), after her parents (Vanna and Alberto) went to the Santuario delle Grazie in Brescia
Brescia
to pray for the late pope's intercession the previous 29 October, just ten days after Paul VI
Paul VI
was beatified.[157] The miracle regarding Amanda was the fact that she had survived for months despite the fact that the placenta was broken. On 23 September, a month before the beatification, Amanda's mother Vanna Pironato (aged 35) was hospitalized due to the premature rupture of the placenta, with doctors declaring her pregnancy to be at great risk.[157] The documents regarding the alleged miracle are now in Rome awaiting approval; he shall be canonized should this healing be approved.[158] Theologians advising the Congregation for the Causes of Saints voiced their approval to this miracle on 13 December 2017 (following the confirmation of doctors on 26 October) and have this direction on to the cardinal and bishop members of the C.C.S. who must vote on the cause also before taking it to Pope Francis
Pope Francis
for his approval. Brescian media reports the canonization could take place in October 2018 to coincide with the synod on the youth.[159][157] The cardinal and bishop members of the C.C.S. issued their unanimous approval to this miracle in their meeting held on 6 February 2018; La Stampa reported that the canonization could be celebrated during the synod on the youth with a probable date of 21 October.[160] Pope Francis confirmed that the canonization would be approved and celebrated in 2018 in remarks made during a meeting with Roman priests on 14 February 2018.[161] On 6 March 2018, the Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Parolin, speaking at a plenary meeting of the International Catholic Migration Commission in Rome, confirmed that Paul VI
Paul VI
would be canonized in at the close of the synod on 28 October 2018.[162] On 6 March, the pope confirmed the healing as a miracle, thereby approving Paul VI's canonization; a consistory of cardinals in May will determine the official date for Paul VI's canonization. Legacy and controversies[edit]

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The pontificate of Paul VI
Paul VI
continued the opening and internationalization of the Church started under Pius XII. He implemented the reforms of John XXIII
John XXIII
and Vatican II. Yet, unlike these popes, Paul VI
Paul VI
faced criticism throughout his papacy from both traditionalists and liberals for steering a middle course during Vatican II
Vatican II
and during the implementation of its reforms thereafter.[163] He expressed a desire for peace during the Vietnam War.[164] On basic Church teachings, the pope was unwavering. On the tenth anniversary of Humanae vitae, he reconfirmed this teaching.[165] In his style and methodology, he was a disciple of Pius XII, whom he deeply revered.[165] He suffered for the attacks on Pius XII
Pius XII
for his alleged silences during the Holocaust.[165] Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
was said to have been less intellectually gifted than his predecessors: he was not credited with an encyclopedic memory, nor a gift for languages, nor the brilliant writing style of Pius XII,[166] nor did he have the charisma and outpouring love, sense of humor and human warmth of John XXIII. He took on himself the unfinished reform work of these two popes, bringing them diligently with great humility and common sense and without much fanfare to conclusion.[167] In doing so, Paul VI
Paul VI
saw himself following in the footsteps of the Apostle Paul, torn to several directions as Saint
Saint
Paul, who said, "I am attracted to two sides at once, because the Cross always divides."[168]

A statue of Paul VI
Paul VI
in Milan, Italy

Paul VI
Paul VI
received the Grand Cross First Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Unlike his predecessors and successors, Paul VI
Paul VI
refused to excommunicate opponents. He admonished but did not punish those with other views. The new theological freedoms which he fostered resulted in a pluralism of opinions and uncertainties among the faithful.[169] New demands were voiced, which were taboo at the Council, the reintegration of divorced Catholics, the sacramental character of the confession, and the role of women in the Church and its ministries. Conservatives complained, that "women wanted to be priests, priests wanted to get married, bishops became regional popes and theologians claimed absolute teaching authority. Protestants claimed equality, homosexuals and divorce called for full acceptance."[170] Changes such as the reorientation of the liturgy, alterations to the ordinary of the Mass, alterations to the liturgical calendar in the motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis, and the relocation of the tabernacle were controversial among some Catholics. Paul VI
Paul VI
did renounce many traditional symbols of the papacy and the Catholic Church; some of his changes to the papal dress were reversed by Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
in the early 21st century. Refusing a Vatican army of colourful military uniforms from centuries, he got rid of them. He became the first pope to visit five continents.[171] Paul VI systematically continued and completed the efforts of his predecessors, to turn the Euro-centric Church into a Church of the world, by integrating the bishops from all continents in its government and in the Synods which he convened. His 6 August 1967 motu proprio Pro Comperto Sane opened the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
to the bishops of the world. Until then, only Cardinals could be leading members of the Curia.[171] Some critiqued Paul VI's decision; the newly created Synod of Bishops had an advisory role only and could not make decisions on their own, although the Council decided exactly that. During the pontificate of Paul VI, five such synods took place, and he is on record of implementing all their decisions.[172] Related questions were raised about the new National Bishop Conferences, which became mandatory after Vatican II. Others questioned his Ostpolitik and contacts with Communism and the deals he engaged in for the faithful.[173] The pope clearly suffered from the responses within the Church to Humanae vitae. While most regions and bishops supported the pontiff, a small but important part of them especially in the Netherlands, Canada, and Germany openly disagreed with the pope, which deeply wounded him for the rest of his life.[174] When Patrick O'Boyle, the Cardinal Archbishop
Archbishop
of Washington, DC, disciplined several priests for publicly dissenting from this teaching, the pope encouraged him. See also[edit] Directly related:

Paul VI
Paul VI
Audience Hall Paul VI: The Pope
Pope
in the Tempest

Associated topics:

Credo of the People of God Liberation theology List of meetings between the Pope
Pope
and the President of the United States List of popes

Notes[edit]

^ English: John Baptist Henry Anthony Mary Montini ^ In theory any male Catholic is eligible for election to the papacy. In fact, his photograph was published in Life magazine with the other potential candidates for the papacy in 1958. However, the cardinals in modern times almost always elect a fellow cardinal to the office. ^ 28 October 1965. ^ As a gesture of goodwill, the pope gave to the UN two pieces of papal jewelry, a diamond cross[80] and ring,[81][82] with the hopes that the proceeds from their sale at auction would contribute to the UN's efforts to end human suffering. ^ And John XXIII. ^ In 1984, Paul Hofmann, a former correspondent for the New York Times, repeated the allegations.[133]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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Paul VI
Blessed! (in Italian)". Diocese of Brescia. 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2015.  ^ "Letter to the diocese for calling a "Montinian Year" (in Italian)" (PDF). Diocese of Brescia. 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2015.  ^ "CAPOVILLA, Loris Francesco (1915-)". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 22 February 2014.  ^ Catholic Church
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and ecumenism#Since the Second Vatican Council ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, pp. 322–23. ^ Sharkey, Michael; Weinandy, Thomas, eds. (21 August 2009). International Theological Commission, Vol II: 1986-2007. p. 208. ISBN 1586172263.  ^ 'It's not Easy Being a Christian', says Pope, Rome, IT: Vatican Radio, 11 August 2009, retrieved 19 May 2014  ^ Lazzarini 1964, pp. 20–21. ^ Lazzarini 1964, p. 19. ^ Lazzarini 1964, p. 26. ^ a b Franzen 1988, p. 419. ^ Lazzarini 1964, p. 31. ^ Our History, IT: Morcelliana, archived from the original on 3 April 2015  ^ Fappani, Molinari & Montini 1979, p. 404. ^ Fappani, Molinari & Montini 1979, p. 265. ^ Lazzarini 1964, p. 58. ^ Actes et Documents [Acts & documents] (in French). I–XI.  ^ a b Lazzarini 1964, p. 57. ^ Pallenberg 1960, p. 71. ^ [[#CITEREFHebblethwaite1993Hebblethwaite 1993]], p. 155. ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 195. ^ Tagliaferri, Lionello. The Pope
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Paul VI: 1963–1978. Rome, IT: Vatican. Retrieved 2 March 2006.  ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 284. ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 296. ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 301. ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 275. ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 276. ^ Lazzarini 1964, p. 63. ^ Zizola, Giancalro (1977). Borla. Rome. p. 157.  ^ L'Osservatore Romano. 17 November 1958. p. 1.  ^ Lazzarini 1964, p. 92. ^ Lazzarini 1964, pp. 90–92. ^ a b c d Duffy 1997, p. 275. ^ Duffy 1997, p. 272. ^ Weigel, George (21 April 2005). "Conclaves: Surprises abound in the Sistine Chapel". Madison Catholic Herald. Retrieved 13 February 2014.  ^ Bunson, Matthew (8 October 2014). "POPE AND PROPHET: The beatification of Paul VI
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Ceremony brings new appreciation of a pontiff who was much maligned after Vatican II, Humanae Vitae". Our Sunday Visitor. Retrieved 26 December 2016.  ^ a b Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 339. ^ Hebblethwaite 1993. ^ Franzen 1988, pp. 421–22. ^ Franzen 1988, p. 423. ^ a b ^ Franzen 1988, p. 424. ^ Motu Proprio Sanctitas Clarior Archived 2 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d Franzen 1988, p. 425 ^ "Note Storiche". Annuario Pontificio [Pontifical annuary] (in Italian). 2005. pp. 1820 ff.  ^ Montini, Giovanni Battista (15 June 1966). "Apostolic Letter: Ecclesiae Sanctae". Holy See. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ Montini, Giovanni Battista (21 November 1970). "Apostolic Letter: Ingravescentem aetatem" (in Italian). Holy See. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ Franzen 1988, p. 425. ^ Friendly Jr., Alfred (27 November 1970). "Ottaviani Deplores Papal Action Barring Vote of Aged Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ "Crítica de dos Cardenales contra el Papa Paulo VI" (in Spanish). UP. 26 November 1970. Retrieved 9 January 2017.  ^ Hofmann, Paul (24 November 1970). "Voting for Popes Is Barred to Cardinals Over 80". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ Pham, John-Peter (2004). Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession. Oxford University Press. p. 66.  ^ Gagliarducci, Andrea (13 October 2016). "What's the thought behind Pope
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Paul VI's Apostolic Pilgrimage to Uganda, 31st July - 2nd August 1969". Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Uganda 1969: Paul VI
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to visit Africa". Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "On this day: November 27". KCCI-TV News. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ " Pope
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Paul VI
Beatified as 'Great Helmsman' of Vatican II". Catholic New York. 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ "Apostle Endangered". Time, 7 December 1970. Retrieved 13 April 2007. ^ " Pope
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Paul VI's Diamond Cross". Rau Antiques. Retrieved 2015-10-05.  ^ " Pope
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Paul VI's Diamond Ring". Rau Antiques. Retrieved 2015-10-05.  ^ "Diamond Jewelry Owned By Pope
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Paul VI
Paul VI
On Sale For $1.9 Million". Forbes. Retrieved 2015-11-23.  ^ Montini, Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria. "Speeches". The Vatican: The Holy See. Retrieved 23 June 2013.  ^ "The conflict in Vietnam widens". UPI. 1965. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013.  ^ http://www.upi.com/News_Photos/view/upi/c3c63bdf79379c9f4ea490fd44bef1a5/Msgr-Pasquale-Macci-foils-assassination-attempt-on-Pope-Paul-VI-in-Manila/ ^ a b Franzen 1988, p. 430 ^ Franzen 1991, p. 391. ^ Colgrove, Rosemary (2010). Eye on the Sparrow: The Remarkable Journey of Father Joseph Nisari, Pakistani Priest. Hillcrest Publishing Group. pp. 112–113. ISBN 9781936400874.  ^ Ecclesiam suam, 58 ^ Mense maio, 1 ^ Franzen 426 ^ "1968 Year in Review". United Press International. Retrieved 12 September 2010.  ^ Germain Grisez on "Humanae Vitae," Then and Now Archived 11 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2 March 2006. ^ Humanae vitae, 2–8 ^ Pius XI, encyc.letter Divini illius Magistri: AAS 22 (1930), 58–61; encyc. letter Casti connubii: AAS 22 (1930), 545–546 ^ Discorsi e radiomessaggi di Pio XII, VI, 191–192; to Italian Association of Catholic Midwives: AAS 43 (1951), 835–854 ^ John XXIII, encyc. letter Mater et magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 457. ^ Herder Korrespondenz, Orbis Catholicus Freiburg, Herder Verlag, 1964–1968 ^ a b Humanae vitae, 1  ^ Humanae vitae, 7  ^ Humanae vitae, 8–9 . ^ Herder Korrespondenz Orbis Catholicus, 1968 . ^ a b Herder Korrespondenz, Freiburg: Orbis Catholicus, 1968, HK 1968 549  ^ Sic, 31 (308), October 1968, pp. 359–79  ^ National Catholic Reporter, 26 August 1988, p. 10  ^ "Biography", Pope
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Paul VI: 1963–1978, Rome, IT: Vatican, retrieved 2 March 2006  ^ Schmidt, pp. 811–12. ^ Guitton 1967, p. 177. ^ Guitton 1967, p. 181. ^ Guitton 1967, p. 185. ^ a b Franzen 1988, p. 429 ^ Collins, Michael (2014). The Vatican. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 75. ISBN 9780756689001.  ^ Paul VI; Shenouda III
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(10 May 1973). "Common Declaration of Pope Paul VI
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and of the Pope
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of Alexandria Shenouda III". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 18 April 2005. Retrieved 19 September 2016.  ^ Guitton 1967, p. 198. ^ a b c Schmidt 813 ^ Schmidt 814 ^ Schmidt 815 ^ Schmidt 822–824 ^ Schmidt 826 ^ Schmidt 827. ^ Schmidt 830, ^ Schmidt 831 ^ Schmidt 833 ^ Schmidt 835 ^ Schmidt 837 ^ a b c d Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 669. ^ http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19751229_persona-humana_en.html ^ Hitchens, Christopher (28 February 2013). "Christopher Hitchens on the death of Pope
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Paul VI". New Statesman.  ^ Peyrefitte, Roger Mea culpa? Ma fatemi il santo piacere, Tempo, 4 April 1976. ^ a b Torress, Jose (5 April 1976). " Paul VI
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Is Dead of a Heart Attack at 80; Guided the Church Through Era of Change". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2007.  ^ Leiber, Robert (December 1958). "Pius XII". Stimmen der Zeit.  ^ Daly, Cathal B (1998), Steps on my Pilgrim Journey, Veritas  ^ Hebblethwaite 1993, p. 600. ^ "Catholic Press" (translator). Microsoft. Retrieved 23 June 2013.  ^ "translator". Microsoft. Retrieved 23 June 2013.  ^ " Pope
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to be beatified October 19, 2014". Vatican Radio. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.  ^ "Booklet of the Beatification
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Benedict Forgoes Waiting Period, begins John Paul II Beatification
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'to be beatified this year'". 24 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.  ^ " Paul VI
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to be beatified October 19, 2014". Vatican Radio. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.  ^ " Paul VI
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made a miracle". Italia Oggi. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.  ^ " Saint Paul
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VI soon". RMF Online. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.  ^ "Violist healed by Paul VI? The Church is listening and evaluating". Brescia
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Oggi. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.  ^ "Pablo VI en los altares de Bergoglio". Vida Nueva. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.  ^ a b c "Paolo VI Santo: una bella notizia". La Voce del Popolo. 22 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ "Alcuni incontri del Vescovo". Diocesi di Verona. March 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ Iacopo Scaramuzzi (21 December 2017). "Primi ok al miracolo, passo Avanti per Paolo VI santo". La Stampa. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ "Paolo VI santo, i cardinali approvano il miracolo". La Stampa. 6 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.  ^ http://www.ncregister.com/blog/edward-pentin/pope-francis-paul-vi-to-be-canonized-this-year ^ John L. Allen, Jr. (6 March 2018). "Vatican confirms that canonization of Paul VI
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Paul VI, Address to the United Nations General Assembly". Handbook of Catholic Social Teaching: War and Peace. SHC. 1965. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013. No more war, war never again! Peace, it is peace which must guide the destinies of people and of all mankind.  ^ a b c ^ Pallenberg 1960, p. 107. ^ Graham 1983, p. 76. ^ Guitton 1967, p. 159. ^ Franzen 1991, p. 389. ^ Martin 1981, p. 277. ^ a b Josef Schmitz van Vorst, 68 ^ Simmel, 80 ^ Simmel, 82 ^ Simmel, 81

Sources[edit]

Adam, A (1985), Liturgie, Freiburg: Herder . Alnor, William M. Soothsayers of the Second Advent.  Duffy, Eamon (1997). Saints and Sinners, A History of the Popes. Yale University Press. . Fappani, Antonio; Molinari, Franco; Montini, Giovanni Battista (1979), Giovane, documenti inediti e testimonianze [Youth, unedited documents and testimonies], Turino: Maretti . Franzen, August (1988), Papstgeschichte (in German), Freiburg: Herder , quoted as Franzen. ——— (1991), Kleine Kichengeschichte (in German), Herder: Freiburg , quoted as Franzen, Kirchengeschichte Gonzalez, JL; Perez, T (1964), Paul VI, Paulist Press  Graham (7 November 1983), Paul VI, A Great Pontificate, Brescia . Guitton, Jean (1967). Dialog mit Paul VI
Paul VI
[Dialogues with Paul VI] (in German). Wien: Molden. . Hebblethwaite, Peter (1993). Paul VI: The First Modern Pope. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-0461-X. . Lazzarini, Andrea (1964). Paolo VI, Profilo di Montini [Paul IV: profile of Montini] (in Italian). Roma, IT: Casa Editrice Herder.  quoted from Papst Paul VI
Paul VI
(in German), Freiburg: Herder, 1964 . Malachi Martin
Malachi Martin
(1972). Three Popes and the Cardinal. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 0-374-27675-7. . ——— (1981), The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church, New York: Putnam . Pallenberg, Corrado (1960), "Inside the Vatican", Michigan University, Hawthorn Books, p. 273 . Rahman, Tahir (2007). We Came in Peace for all Mankind – the Untold Story of the Apollo 11 Silicon Disc. Leathers. ISBN 978-1-58597-441-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Paul VI

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paulus VI.

Montini, Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria, Apostolic Constitutions, Encyclicals and documents issued, as well as his Last Will and Testament (list), Catholic pages . ———, The writings, Saint
Saint
Mike . ———, "Quotes", Brainy Quote . Montini, Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria, Opera Omnia [Complete works] (in Latin), EU: Documenta catholica omnia . Janet E. Smith, Pro-Humanæ Vitæ analysis, Good morals , former Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Dallas. Wojtyla, Cardinal Karol, The truth of the encyclical "Humanæ vitæ", EWTN . American attitudes towards Humanæ Vitæ, PBS . "Tomb of Paul VI", Vatican Grottoes, St. Peter's Basilica . Impostor, TLDM , comparing pictures of Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
to 'prove' he had been replaced by an actor while the real Pope
Pope
Paul was 'kept drugged' in the Vatican. Pope
Pope
Paul VI, IntraText : text, concordances and frequency list " Pope
Pope
Paul VI". Pathé News
Pathé News
(video archive). .

Documentaries with English subtitles

"Paulus VI, a forgotten pope", YouTube
YouTube
(video) (in Italian), Google . "The assassination attempt of Paulus VI", YouTube
YouTube
(video) (in Italian), Google . "The last years of Paulus VI (G.B. Montini 1974–78)", YouTube (video) (in Italian), Google .

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Preceded by Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster Cardinal-Priest
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Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present) World War II (1939–1945) Cold War (1945–1991)

Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II

21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

Under Constantine (312–337)

Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857) Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present)

WWII (1939–1945)

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Second Vatican Council

Documents

Constitutions

Sacrosanctum concilium Lumen gentium Dei verbum Gaudium et spes

Declarations

Gravissimum educationis Nostra aetate Dignitatis humanae

Decrees

Inter mirifica Orientalium Ecclesiarum Unitatis redintegratio Christus Dominus Perfectae caritatis Optatam totius Apostolicam actuositatem Ad gentes Presbyterorum ordinis

Presidents

Pope
Pope
John XXIII
John XXIII
(11 October 1962 – 3 June 1963) interregnum (3 June 1963 – 21 June 1963) Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
(21 June 1963 – 8 December 1965)

Historiography

Hermenutic of rupture (Bologna) vs. hermenutic of continuity (Roman)

General

Catholic ecumenical councils Central Preparatory Commission Aggiornamento Sign of the times Gaudet Mater Ecclesia Peritus Nouvelle Théologie Coetus Internationalis Patrum Subsistit in History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
since 1962 Catholic–Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965 Modern Ecumenism Spirit of Vatican II Mass of Paul VI Wreckovation

Criticism

Traditionalist Catholicism Sedevacantism

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Catholic Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology
Mariology
of the popes Mariology
Mariology
of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican
Anglican
Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint
Saint
Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint
Saint
Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

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Bishops and Archbishops of Milan

Ancient age

St Barnabas
Barnabas
(1st-century, his coming to Milan
Milan
is probably legendary) St Anathalon St Caius St Castricianus St Calimerius
Calimerius
(about 270 – 280) St Monas (283–313?) St Mirocles (313–316?) St Maternus (316–328?) St Protasius (328–343?) St Eustorgius I
Eustorgius I
(343–349?) St Dionysius (349–355) Auxentius (355–374, considered an intruder by the Catholic Church) St Ambrose
Ambrose
(374–397) St Simplician
Simplician
(397–400) St Venerius (400–408) St Marolus
Marolus
(408–423) St Martinianus (423–435) St Glycerius (436–438) St Lazarus (438–449) St Eusebius (449–462) St Gerontius (462–465) St Benignus (465–472) St Senator (472–475) St Theodorus I (475–490) St Lawrence I (490–512) St Eustorgius II
Eustorgius II
(512–518) St Magnus (518–530?) St Dacius (530–552) Vitale (552–556) St Ausanus (556–559?)

Genoa
Genoa
period

St Honoratus (560–571?) Frontone (571–573?) Lawrence II (573–592) Constantius (593–600) Deodatus (601–628) Asterius (629–639) Forte (639–641)

Middle Ages

St John the Good (641–669) St Antonino (669–671) St Maurilio (671) St Ampelius (671–676) St Mansuetus (676–685) St Benedict (685–732) Theodorus II (732–746) St Natalis (746–747) Arifred (747–748) Stabile (748–750) Leto (751–755) Thomas (755–783) Peter (784–803) Odelpert (803–813) St Anselm I (813–818) St Buono (818–822) Angilbert I (822–823) Angilbert II Pusterla (824–859) Tadone (860–868) Anspert (868–881) Anselmo II Capra (882–896) Landulf I (896–899) Andrea of Canciano (899–906) Aicone (906–918) Gariberto of Besana (918–921) Lambert (921–931) Elduin (931–936) Arderico (936–948) Adelman (948–953) Walpert (953–970) Arnulf I (970–974) Gotofredo I (974–979) Landulf II of Carcano (980–998) Arnolfo II da Arsago (998–1018) Ariberto da Intimiano (1018–1045) St Guido da Velate (1045–1069) Attone (1070–1075) Gotofredo II da Castiglione (1070–1075, antibishop) Tebald da Castiglione (1075–1080) Anselmo III da Rho (1086–1093) Arnolfo III (1093–1097) Anselmo IV da Bovisio (1097–1101) Grosolanus (1102–1112) Giordano da Clivio (1112–1120) Ulrich da Corte (1120–1126) Anselmo della Pusterla (1126–1135) Robaldo (1135–1145) Umberto I da Pirovano (1146–1166) St Galdino della Sala
Galdino della Sala
(1166–1176) Algisio da Pirovano (1176–1185) Umberto II Crivelli (1185–1187, elected Pope
Pope
Urban III) Milone da Cardano (1187–1195) Umberto III da Terzago (1195–1196) Filippo I da Lampugnano (1196–1206) Umberto IV da Pirovano (1206–1211) Gerardo da Sessa (1211–1212) Enrico I da Settala (1213–1230) Guglielmo I da Rizolio (1230–1241) Leon da Perego (1241–1257) Ottone Visconti
Ottone Visconti
(1262–1295) Ruffino da Frisseto (1295–1296) Francesco I da Parma (1296–1308) Cassone della Torre
Cassone della Torre
(1308–1317) Aicardo da Intimiano (1317–1339) Giovanni II Visconti (1342–1354) Roberto Visconti
Roberto Visconti
(1354–1361) Guglielmo II della Pusterla (1361–1370) Simon da Borsano (1370–1380) Antonio de' Saluzzi (1380–1401) Pietro II di Candia (1402–1410) Francesco II Crippa (1409–1414) Bartolommeo Capra (1414–1433) Francesco III Piccolpasso (1433–1443) Enrico II Rampini (1443–1450) Giovanni III Visconti (1450–1453) Nicolò Amidano (1453–1454) Timoteo Maffei (1454) Gabriele Sforza
Gabriele Sforza
(1454–1457) Carlo I da Forlì (1457–1461) Stefano Nardini (1461–1484) Giovanni Arcimboldi
Giovanni Arcimboldi
(1484–1488) Guido Antonio Arcimboldi (1488–1497) Ottaviano Arcimboldi (1497) Ippolito d'Este
Ippolito d'Este
(1497–1520) Ippolito II d'Este
Ippolito II d'Este
(1520–1550) Giovan Angelo Arcimboldi (1550–1555) Filippo II Archinto (1556–1558) vacant

Modern age

St. Carlo Borromeo (1564–1584) Gaspare Visconti
Gaspare Visconti
(1584–1595) Federico I Borromeo (1595–1631) Cesare Monti
Cesare Monti
(1632–1650) Alfonso Litta
Alfonso Litta
(1652–1679) Federico II Visconti (1681–1693) Federico III Caccia (1693–1699) Giuseppe Archinto (1699–1712) Benedetto II Erba Odescalchi (1712–1737) Carlo Gaetano Stampa (1737–1742) Giuseppe II Pozzobonelli (1743–1783) Filippo Maria Visconti (1784–1801) Giovanni Battista Caprara
Giovanni Battista Caprara
(1802–1810) vacant Carlo Gaetano Gaisruck (1818–1846) Bartolomeo Carlo Romilli
Bartolomeo Carlo Romilli
(1847–1859) Paolo Angelo Ballerini
Paolo Angelo Ballerini
(1859–1867) Luigi Nazari di Calabiana
Luigi Nazari di Calabiana
(1867–1893) Bl. Andrea Ferrari (1894–1921) Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (1921–1922, elected Pope
Pope
Pius XI) Eugenio Tosi
Eugenio Tosi
(1922–1929) Bl. Ildefonso Schuster
Ildefonso Schuster
(1929–1954) Giovanni Battista Montini (1954–1963, elected Pope
Pope
Paul VI) Giovanni Colombo
Giovanni Colombo
(1963–1979) Carlo Maria Martini, SJ (1979–2002) Dionigi Tettamanzi
Dionigi Tettamanzi
(2002–2011) Angelo Scola
Angelo Scola
(2011–2017) Mario Delpini
Mario Delpini
(2017-present)

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Stages of canonization in the Catholic Church

Servant of God   →   Venerable
Venerable
  →   Blessed   →   Saint

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61533321 LCCN: n79054084 ISNI: 0000 0001 2135 5247 GND: 118592076 SELIBR: 82865 SUDOC: 027060969 BNF: cb11918828k (data) BIBSYS: 90717845 ULAN: 500323773 NLA: 36176057 NDL: 00452317 NKC: jn20000701384 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV03027 BNE: XX1645

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