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Pope
Pope
Gregory XV (Latin: Gregorius XV; 9 January 1554 – 8 July 1623), born Alessandro Ludovisi, was Pope
Pope
from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623.[1]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life

2 Papacy

2.1 Papal conclave 2.2 Actions 2.3 Canonizations and beatifications 2.4 Death and burial

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading

Biography[edit]

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Gregory XV

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style None

Early life[edit] Alessandro Ludovisi was born in Bologna
Bologna
in 1554 to Pompeo Ludovisi, the Count
Count
of Samoggia
Samoggia
(now Savigno in the Province of Bologna) and of Camilla Bianchini. He was one of seven children and was born as the third child.

Gianlorenzo Bernini: a bust of Pope
Pope
Gregory XV

He was educated at the Roman College run by the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
in Rome
Rome
and he then went to the University of Bologna
Bologna
to get degrees in canon and Roman law
Roman law
which he received on June 4, 1575. His early career was as a papal jurist in Rome, and there is no evidence that he had been ordained to the priesthood. He returned to Rome
Rome
in 1575 and he served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura
Apostolic Signatura
from 1593 to 1596 and was appointed as the Vicegerent of Rome
Rome
in 1597, a position he maintained until 1598. He also served as the Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota
Sacred Roman Rota
from 1599 to 1612. On 12 March 1612, Pope
Pope
Paul V
Paul V
appointed him as the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Bologna, for which he was presumably ordained to the priesthood and then he was consecrated a bishop on 1 May of that year in the church of San Andrea al Quirinale in Rome. In August 1616, the pope sent him as Apostolic Nuncio to the Duchy of Savoy, to mediate between Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
and Philip III of Spain in their dispute concerning the Gonzaga Marquisate of Montferrat.[2][a] On 19 September 1616, Pope
Pope
Paul V
Paul V
elevated him to the rank of cardinal and appointed him as a Cardinal Priest
Cardinal Priest
with the titular church of Santa Maria in Traspontina. Papacy[edit] Papal conclave[edit] Main article: Papal conclave, 1621 Ludovisi remained in his episcopal see in Bologna
Bologna
until he went to Rome
Rome
after the death of Pope
Pope
Paul V
Paul V
to take part in the conclave at which he was chosen as pope and he selected the pontifical name of "Gregory XV". He was crowned on 14 February 1621 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto and assumed possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran
Basilica of Saint John Lateran
on 14 May 1621. At the moment of his election, chiefly through the influence of Cardinal Borghese, at his advanced age (he was 67) and with his weak state of health he saw at once that he would need an energetic man, in whom he could place implicit confidence, to assist him in the government of the Church. His nephew Ludovico Ludovisi, a young man of 25 years, seemed to him to be the right person and, at the risk of being charged with nepotism, he created him cardinal on the third day of his pontificate. On the same day, his youngest brother Orazio was appointed Captain General of the Church at the head of the papal army.[2]

Pope
Pope
Gregory XV with his cardinal-nephew of unprecedented income and authority, Ludovico Ludovisi, known as il cardinale padrone

The future revealed that Gregory XV was not disappointed in his nephew. The Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
allows that "Ludovico, it is true, advanced the interests of his family in every possible way, but he also used his brilliant talents and his great influence for the welfare of the Church, and was sincerely devoted to the pope".[2] Gregory secured for the Ludovisi two dukedoms, one for his brother Orazio, made a Nobile Romano and Duke
Duke
of Fiano Romano, 1621, and the other, the Duchy of Zagarolo, purchased from the Colonna
Colonna
family by his nephew Ludovico Ludovisi
Ludovico Ludovisi
in 1622. A second nephew, Niccolò, was made reigning Prince of Piombino and Lord of the Isola d' Elba
Elba
in 1634, having married the heiress, 30 March 1632. Actions[edit] Gregory XV interfered little in European politics, beyond assisting Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Catholic League against the Protestants[1]—to the tune of a million gold ducats[citation needed]—as well as Sigismund III Vasa, King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, against the Ottoman Empire.[1] His Declaration against Magicians and Witches (Omnipotentis Dei, 20 March 1623) was the last papal ordinance against witchcraft. Former punishments were lessened, and the death penalty was limited to those who were "proved to have entered into a compact with the devil, and to have committed homicide with his assistance".[2] He was a learned theologian and manifested a reforming spirit.[1] As an example, his papal bull of 15 November 1621, Aeterni Patris Filius, regulated papal elections, which henceforth were to be by secret ballot; three methods of election were allowed: by scrutiny, compromise and quasi-inspiration. On 6 January 1622, he established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the missionary arm of the Holy See.[2] His pontificate was marked by the canonizations of Teresa of Avila, Francis Xavier, Ignatius Loyola,[1] Philip Neri
Philip Neri
and Isidore the Farmer. He also beatified Peter of Alcantara. He was influential in bringing the Bolognese artist Guercino
Guercino
to Rome, a landmark in the development of the High Baroque
Baroque
style. He sat for his portrait busts, one of which was by Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
and by Alessandro Algardi, whose restrained bust in a tondo is in the Church of Santa Maria in Vallicella. Canonizations and beatifications[edit] On 12 March 1622, the pope canonized several saints: Francis Xavier, Ignatius of Loyola, Isidore the Laborer, Philip Neri
Philip Neri
and Teresa of Ávila. Gregory XV also beatified three individuals throughout his pontificate: Ambrose
Ambrose
Sansedoni of Siena, Albert the Great, and Peter of Alcantara. Death and burial[edit]

Tomb of Pope
Pope
Gregory XV

Gregory XV died in the Quirinal Palace
Quirinal Palace
on 8 July 1623 and was buried in the Church of Sant'Ignazio. He was succeeded by Pope
Pope
Urban VIII.[1] See also[edit]

Cardinals created by Gregory XV Ludovisi

Notes[edit]

^ The dispute eventually led to the War of the Mantuan Succession, which lasted 1628–31.

^ a b c d e f Baynes & Smith 1880, pp. 178–179. ^ a b c d e Ott 1910.

References[edit]

"Alessandro Ludovisi". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.  "Alessandro Ludovisi, no. F3". Genealogy of the Ludovisi. [permanent dead link]

Attribution:

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1880). "Gregory XV.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 178–179.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ott, Michael (1910). " Pope
Pope
Gregory XV". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 7. New York: Robert Appleton. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gregorius XV.

Wassilowsky, Günther; Wolf, Hubert (2007). Päpstliches Zeremoniell in der Frühen Neuzeit – Das Diarium des Zeremonienmeisters Paolo Alaleone de Branca während des Pontifikats Gregors XV. (1621–1623) (in German). Münster: Rhema-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-930454-80-8.   Collier, Theodore Freylinghuysen (1911). "Gregory XV". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 575. 

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Preceded by Scipione Borghese Archbishop
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of Bologna 12 March 1612 – 9 February 1621 Succeeded by Ludovico Ludovisi

Preceded by Paul V Pope 9 February 1621 – 8 July 1623 Succeeded by Urban VIII

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49321911 LCCN: n85144070 ISNI: 0000 0001 2025 4014 GND: 118697404 SELIBR: 210690 SUDOC: 033767556 BNF: cb12459878g (data) ULAN: 500354827 BNE: XX1142

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